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Natural disasters and its managment

A natural disaster is the effect of earths natural hazards, for example flood, tornado, hurricane, volcanic eruption, earthquake, heatwave, or landslide. They can lead to financial, environmental or human losses. The resulting loss depends on the vulnerability of the affected population to resist the hazard, also called their resilience. If these disasters continue it would be a great danger for the earth

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Natural disasters and its managment

  2. 2. A natural disaster is the effect of earths natural hazards, for example flood, tornado, hurricane, volcanic eruption, earthquake, heatwave, or landslide. They can lead to financial, environmental or human losses. The resulting loss depends on the vulnerability of the affected population to resist the hazard, also called their resilience. If these disasters continue it would be a great danger for the earth.
  4. 4. An earthquake is a shaking of the ground caused by the sudden dislocation of material within the earth's outer layer, or crust. When forces pushing on a mass of rock overcome friction holding the rock in place and blocks of rock slip against each other a earthquake may occur.
  5. 5. A flood is an overflow of an expanse of water that submerges land Most common is when rivers or streams overflow their banks. Excessive rain, a ruptured dam or levee, rapid ice melting in the mountains
  6. 6. A Volcano is a vent in the earth through which hot gases and molten rock rise to the surface. A cone shaped mountain of erupted material around such a vent is also called a volcano.Volcanic eruption deadly,damaging property and infrastructure.
  7. 7. "Tsunami" is the Japanese word meaning tidal wave. A tidal wave is a large sea wave caused by a submarine earthquake or volcanic explosion. When the ocean floor is tilted or offset during an earthquake, a set of waves is created. These waves are similar to the concentric waves generated by an object
  8. 8. Drought is a period or condition of unusually dry weather within a geographic area where rainfall is normally present. During a drought there is a lack of precipitation. Droughts occur in all climatic zones. However, its characteristics vary significantly from one region to another.Drought usually results in a water shortage that seriously interferes with human activity
  9. 9. Hurricanes are seasonal storms and are most prevalent in August and September. They develop fromeasterly waves, which can laterdevelop into a tropical depression with winds up to 31 miles per hour. Later, it might develop into a tropical storm with winds up to 73 miles per hour Hurricanes are huge tropical cyclones that originate over oceans near the equator, such as the Caribbean Sea
  10. 10. PAKISTAN FLOODS  It caused death of 412 people making 1172 injuries and additionally affected 8.2  million people.
  11. 11. FLOODS IN RIO DE JANERIO,BRAZIL Ninth place is for the floods that occurred in Brazil. Heavy rains in Brazil caused  flooding and on 11th January massive mudslides and floods in the Mountainous  Region of the state of Rio de Janeiro rendered 23000 homeless.
  12. 12. TURKEY EARTHQUAKE An earthquake with the magnitude 7.1 hit eastern Turkey on 23rd October and it was  followed by more than 200 shocks. Over 2000 buildings were destroyed in Van and Ercis  cities’. It claimed almost 600 peoples’ lives. On 9th November another earthquake was  experienced which took away 38 lives and collapsed 25 buildings.
  13. 13. NORTH AUSTRALIAN FLOODS  started in December 2010 and continued till January 2011, mainly targeting the state  of Queensland. 11900 houses, infrastructure and crops had worse damages. Death  causality was of 35 people. 
  14. 14. Earthquake with 6.3 magnitude striking 10 km outside Christchurch on 22nd  February was experienced in New Zealand and it took away 182 lives. On 13th June an earth quake of 6.4 magnitudes was followed which injured 40  people and on 23rd December an earthquake with a magnitude of 5.8 was  experienced, no serious injuries were reported for that quake. NEW ZEALAND EARTHQUAKES
  15. 15.  the floods which Thailand experienced that started from 31st of July and  persisted till December. More than 5th of the nation’s population got affected by  extensive flooding. The death toll exceeded 600. Still 15 provinces are flooded.  THAILAND FLOODS
  16. 16. US TORNADO BREAKOUT In 2011 United States witnessed various weather disasters which resulted in damages  of about $1 billion and causality of 600 deaths. Mainly affected area included Alabama,  Mississippi, Missouri, North California and Tennessee. 362 tornados were experienced  just from 25th – 27th April, which killed almost 350 people in Alabama and 6 other 
  17. 17. TYPHOON IN PHILIPPINES On December 19th a storm with the wind speed of 45-55miles per hour hit  Mindanao in southern Philippines and affected 167,000 people. It was followed by  a down pour causing landslides and flashy floods
  18. 18. EAST AFRICA DROUGHT The drought in East Africa since mid of July 2011 including Kenya, Ethiopia, Uganda,  Somalia and Djibouti. Livestock killed and crops got destroyed due to the scarcity of  rains.  It support,Killing more than 100 children in a day, in some areas the current drought is  reported to be the worst drought in over 60 years.
  19. 19. TOHOKO EARTHQUAKE,JAPAN The massive damaged caused by the Tohoko earthquake which hit Japan on March  11th and killed almost 16000 people. It is the largest earth quake in Japan’s history  with a magnitude 9.0 and is regarded as one of the 5 most powerful and devastating  earthquake in the world.
  20. 20. CYCLONEDamage Potential Society Poorer than before Disruption of Normal life & Development Suffers Huge Losses/ Damages Elements at Risk
  21. 21. HAZARDDamage Potential Awareness- Effect on Elements Society Quicker Recovery Action Plans Communities More ResilientHuge Losses/ Damages Reduced Losses Elements at Risk More Stable Society
  22. 22. HAZARDDamage Potential Elements at Risk Slopes of hills Sea & Sea-coast Low-lying Areas River/Stream Banks Natural Features Unsecured personal assets Livelihood tools / Equipment Public Infrastructure Agri. & Horticultural crops Weak Buildings Huts & Semi-permanent Houses People & Live-stock Societal Elements
  23. 23. Scale of Disaster Is Dependent on : • Lead Time Available. • Intensity of Hazard. • Duration. • Spatial Extent. • Density of Population & Assets. • Time of Occurrence. • Vulnerabilities existing in the Elements at Risk. •Hazard X Vulnerability = Disaster
  24. 24. ELEMENTS AT RISK • People • Livestock • Rural Housing Stock • Houses Vulnerable • Crops, Trees,Telephone, Electric poles • Boats, Looms, Working Implements • Personal Property • Electricity, Water and Food Supplies • Infrastructure Support
  25. 25. AIMS OF DISASTER MANAGEMENT •Reduce (Avoid, if possible) the potential losses from hazards. •Assure prompt and appropriate assistance to victims when necessary. •Achieve rapid and durable recovery.
  26. 26.     DURING DISASTER DISASTER MANAGEMENT CYCLE PRE-DISASTER                                    POST- DISASTER  
  27. 27. Stages of Disaster Cyclone Well Before Weeks-Months Just Before - Hours Actual Time Period Rescue RehabilitationRelief Reconstruction BEFORE AFTERDURING Jan - Apr MAY June- Oct
  28. 28. Role Players in Disasters •       People : Individuals, House -Holds, Volunteers • Gram Panchayat : Sarpanch, Panchayati Secretary, Panchayati Members • Village Elders : Caste/Community/Religious Leaders, Teachers, Doctors, Engineers, Retired Army & Police Personnel • Govt. Deptl. Officers : Agriculture, Medical, Engineers (Housing, Roads & Buildings, Irrigation) Revenue Department, Public Health, Police etc. NGOs
  29. 29. DEFINITIONS OF “VULNERABILITY” • “The extent to which a community,  structure, service or geographic  area is likely to be damaged or  disrupted by the impact of particular  disaster hazard…” • “Vulnerability is the propensity of  things to be damaged by a hazard”.
  30. 30. DISASTER PREPAREDNESS • Disaster preparedness aims at minimizing the adverse effects of a hazard - • Through effective precautionary actions • Ensure timely, appropriate and efficient organisation and delivery of emergency response following the impact of a disaster.
  31. 31. PREPAREDNESS • Vulnerability Analysis and Mapping to include Resources. • Assess strengthening requirements and execute. • Funding for preparedness must be arranged. • Peoples’ cooperation through Political leaders, elders, Volunteers and NGOs • Create lead time by interpreting Warnings • Plan to include movement of resources with time frame. • Aim to reduce the destructive potential of cyclones, timely & appropriate relief to victims and quick & durable recovery
  32. 32. Disaster Preparedness Framework RehearsalsPublic Education and Training Response Mechanisms Warning Systems Resource Base Information System Institutional Framework PlanningVulnerability Assessment COMPONENTS OF PREPAREDNESS
  33. 33. Disaster Response Activities • Warning • Evacuation/Mitigation • Search and Rescue • Assessment • Emergency Relief • Logistics and Supply • Communication and information Management • Survivor Response and coping • Security • EOC & coordination • Expedite rehabilitation and reconstruction.
  34. 34. Role of individuals in prevention of pollution 1) Use low-phosphate, phosphate-free or biodegradable dishwashing liquid, laundry detergent, and shampoo. 2) Don't use water fresheners in toilets. 3) Use manure or compost instead of commercial inorganic fertilizers to fertilize gardens and yard plant. 4) Use biological methods or integrated pest management to control garden, yard, and household pests. 5) Don't pour pesticides, paints, solvents, oils, or other products containing harmful chemicals down drain or on the ground. Contact the authorities responsible for their disposal.
  35. 35. 6) Recycle old motor oil and antifreeze at an auto service center that has an oil recycling program. 7) If you get water from a private well or suspect that municipal water is contaminated, have tested by an EPA certified laboratory for lead, nitrates, trihalomethanes, radon, volatile, organic compounds and pesticides. 8)Run water from taps for several minutes every morning before using the water for drinking or cooking. Save it and use it to water plants. If you have a septic tank, monitor it yearly and have it cleaned out every three to five years by a reputable contractor so that it won’t contribute to groundwater pollution. Do not use a septic tank cleaner, which contain toxic chemicals that can kill bacteria important to sewage decomposition and that can contaminate groundwater if systems malfunction. 9) Support ecological land-use planning in your community. 10) Get to know your local water bodies and form watchdog groups to help monitor, protect, and restore them.