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Crime prevention through environmental design

Preventing Crimes from cities are very important in any region. These are some methods from CPTED.

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Crime prevention through environmental design

  1. 1. Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design VIJESH KUMAR V 10ID60R17Date: 28-08-2010
  2. 2. What is CRIME? “is the breach of rules or laws for which some governing authority (via mechanisms such as legal systems) can ultimately prescribe a conviction.”  Individual human societies may each define crime and crimes differently.  While every crime violates the law, not every violation of the law counts as a crime; for example: breaches of contract and of other civil law may rank as "offences" or as "infractions". Modern societies generally regard crimes as offences against the public or the state, distinguished from torts (offences against private parties that can give rise to a civil cause of action).
  3. 3. Product of CRIME? • Fear • Disorderness • Avoidance behaviour • Dependency level high • Quality of Life
  4. 4. • Create, implement and monitor a national action plan for violence prevention. • Enhance capacity for collecting data on violence. • Define priorities for, and support research on, the causes, consequences, costs and prevention of violence. • Promote primary prevention responses. • Strengthen responses for victims of violence. • Integrate violence prevention into social and educational policies, and thereby promote gender and social equality. • Increase collaboration and exchange of information on violence prevention. • Promote and monitor adherence to international treaties, laws and other mechanisms to protect human rights. • Seek practical, internationally agreed responses to the global drugs and global arms trade. CRIME PREVENTION?
  5. 5. “the proper design and effective use of the built environment which can lead to a reduction in the fear of crime and the incidence of crime, and to an improvement in the quality of life”. CRIME PREVENTION THROUGH ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN?
  6. 6. Parts/broad headings on CPTED…….
  7. 7. • Design Concept • “sense of ownership” in legitimate users of space • Thereby reducing opportunities for offending by discouraging illegitimate users It contains what? • Marking • A specified region of belongingness 1. Territoriality?
  8. 8. How we mark? • Barriers..... 1. Territoriality? Symbolic barriers……… Real barriers……………… Eg: Signage Pavement designs Landscaping Eg: Boundary walls
  9. 9. To separate public, public-private and private space, to define ownership and define acceptable patterns of usage, in addition to promoting opportunities for surveillance. Territoriality varies between cultures, neighbourhoods and individual groups. Enhanced levels of territoriality have been linked to reduced levels of recorded crime and fear of crime 1. Territoriality?
  10. 10. • Watching continuously • Observing the activities • Recording 2. Surveillance?
  11. 11. • Informal / Natural 2. Surveillance? • Formal / Organised Eg: Residents’ self-surveillance opportunities as facilitated by windows • Mechanical Eg: Police patrols Eg: Street lighting CCTV
  12. 12. Physical design has the capacity to promote informal or natural surveillance opportunities for residents and their agents. Surveillance is part of capable guardianship If offenders perceive that they can be observed (even if they are not), they may be less likely to offend, given the increased potential for intervention, apprehension and prosecution. 2. Surveillance?
  13. 13. • User identified entry • Control over the movement 3. Access Control?
  14. 14. • Informal / Natural • Formal / Organised Eg: Spatial definition • Mechanical Eg: Security Personnel Eg: Locks and Bolts 3. Access Control?
  15. 15. Reducing opportunities for crime by denying access to potential targets and creating a heightened perception of risk in offenders. Regulated access reducing the crime level of the area. Poyner (1992) evaluated the impact of widening aisles at an open-air market in Birmingham, England, finding significant reductions in recorded robberies over a two- year period. 3. Access Control?
  16. 16. • Watching continuously • Observing the activities • Recording • Safety and Security 4. Activity Support?
  17. 17. Activity support involves the use of design and signage to encourage intended patterns of usage of public space. Those with high levels of activity and with surveillance opportunities. Eg: Bank Although increased numbers of pedestrians may provide additional “eyes on the street” and potentially discourage some offences, this may also actually encourage and provide other targets for crime (e.g. pick-pocketing). 4. Activity Support?
  18. 18. • Maintain and Improving image • Continuous maintenance • Physical Environment as an Indicator 5. Image / Maintenance?
  19. 19. Promoting a positive image and routinely maintaining the built environment ensures that the physical environment continues to function effectively and transmits positive signals to all users. The significance of the physical condition and “image” of the built environment and the effect this may have on crime and the fear of crime has long been acknowledged. 5. Image / Maintenance?
  20. 20.  The most long- established and traditional approach to crime prevention.  It is directed at denying or limiting access  Crucially, excessive use of target hardening tactics can create a “fortress mentality” 6. Target Hardening?
  21. 21. How we harden? Use of physical barriers such as fences, gates, locks, electronic alarms and security patrols. It is the summation of all the Techniques used together to harden the target. 6. Target Hardening?
  22. 22. Residents withdraw behind physical barriers The self-policing capacity of the built environment is damaged Effectively working against CPTED strategies that rely on surveillance, territoriality and image. 6. Target Hardening?
  23. 23. During Schematic Level Neighborhood conditions? Site Conditions? Access, Circulation and Parking? Proposed building? Landscaping? Lighting? During preparation of Construction Drawings Floor Plans? Materials and Products Used? Design Questions
  24. 24. Residential Design Educational Design Commercial Design Industrial Design Design Recommendations
  25. 25.  “Know your neighbour”  Good Surveillance to all your surroundings – Neighbours, Street, Etc.  Access Control - Controlled Access to Main entrance door  Good Lighting  Territorial reinforcement  Maintenance - Make sure the visibility Residential Design Recommendations – Single Family Homes
  26. 26.  Good Surveillance  Balconies provide surveillance  Make sure Elevator and open stair wells are clearly visible from the entrance  Access Control – Limit access  Good Lighting  Territorial reinforcement  Maintenance Residential Design Recommendations – Multi Family Homes
  27. 27. • Good Surveillance to Recreational areas • Street Design – Traffic calming, Avoid hiding spots • Landscape and signage used to guide the people • Access Control – Limit access • Interaction with neighbors • Territorial reinforcement • Maintenance Residential Design Recommendations – Neighborhoods
  28. 28. • Natural Access Control – Locate site so that all areas can be observed during off campus hours – Limiting Access – Allow casual observation with plenty of room between rows and no dead end – Provide two way communication throughout the building Educational Facilities
  29. 29. • Natural Surveillance – Secure all out buildings and locate them in the areas that can be easily observed – Locate visual panels in the class rooms so that teachers can observe the hallway – Avoid landscape that create hide spots and reduce the visual lines • Territorial Reinforcement – Secure parking areas in off campus timings – Use pavement markings to identify the users to use • Maintenance Educational Facilities
  30. 30. Crime Prevention in built environment Design methodology and approach Limitations Practical implications Concepts of “Hot spots” After dark design – avoidance behavior Concept of sightline node Community participation Conclusion
  31. 31. Thank You… VIJESH KUMAR V 10ID60R17Date: 28-08-2010
  32. 32. Bibliography • Crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED): a review and modern bibliography; Paul Michael Cozens, Department of the Premier and Cabinet, Perth, Australia; Greg Saville, University of New Haven, New Haven, Connecticut, USA, and David Hillier, University of Glamorgan, Pontypridd, UK. • Crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED): General guidelines for designing safer communities, January 20, 2000; City of Virginia Beach, Municipal Center, Virginia Beach, VA 23456-9040 • CRIME PREVENTION THROUGH ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN: Community Participation and Afterdark Design. Dr Robert Samuels, Director, Environmental Design Research, P/L. Senior Lecturer, School of Architecture, Faculty of the Built Environment, University of New South Wales, Sydney. United States. • ABANDONED BUILDINGS: MAGNETS FOR CRIME? WILLIAM SPELMAN, Lyndon B. Johnson School of Public, University of Texas at Austin
  33. 33. Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design VIJESH KUMAR V 10ID60R17Date: 28-08-2010