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Importance of evolution of human settlements

IMPORTANCE OF EVOLUTION OF HUMAN SETTLEMENTS
1.Origin of civilization,
2.Effects of civilization on Human settlements,
3.Determinants of Human settlements,
4.Ancients towns in India.

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Importance of evolution of human settlements

  1. 1. EVOLUTION OF HUMAN SETTLEMENTS UNIT I – IMPORTANCE OF EVOLUTION OF HUMAN SETTLEMENTS By PROF. VIJESH KUMAR V ASSISTANT PROFESSOR, SAN ACADEMY OF ARCHITECTURE architectvijeshkumarv@gmail.com, +919487005023 PROF.VIJESH KUMAR V, ASSISTANT PROFESSOR, SAN ACADEMY OF ARCHITECTURE,+919487005023 1
  2. 2. IMPORTANCE OF EVOLUTION OF HUMAN SETTLEMENTS 1. Origin of civilization, 2. Effects of civilization on Human settlements, 3. Determinants of Human settlements, 4. Ancients towns in India. PROF.VIJESH KUMAR V, ASSISTANT PROFESSOR, SAN ACADEMY OF ARCHITECTURE,+919487005023 2
  3. 3. ORIGIN OF CIVILIZATION PROF.VIJESH KUMAR V, ASSISTANT PROFESSOR, SAN ACADEMY OF ARCHITECTURE,+919487005023 3
  4. 4. A WORLD MAP OF MAJOR CIVILIZATIONSACCORDING TO THE POLITICAL HYPOTHESIS CLASH OF CIVILIZATIONS BY SAMUEL P. HUNTINGTON PROF.VIJESH KUMAR V, ASSISTANT PROFESSOR, SAN ACADEMY OF ARCHITECTURE,+919487005023 4
  5. 5. PROF.VIJESH KUMAR V, ASSISTANT PROFESSOR, SAN ACADEMY OF ARCHITECTURE,+919487005023 5
  6. 6. PROF.VIJESH KUMAR V, ASSISTANT PROFESSOR, SAN ACADEMY OF ARCHITECTURE,+919487005023 6
  7. 7. PROF.VIJESH KUMAR V, ASSISTANT PROFESSOR, SAN ACADEMY OF ARCHITECTURE,+919487005023 7
  8. 8. PROF.VIJESH KUMAR V, ASSISTANT PROFESSOR, SAN ACADEMY OF ARCHITECTURE,+919487005023 Map of the world showing approximate centers of origin of agriculture and its spread in prehistory: the Fertile Crescent (11,000 BP), the Yangtze and Yellow River basins (9,000 BP) and the New Guinea Highlands (9,000–6,000 BP), Central Mexico (5,000–4,000 BP), Northern South America (5,000–4,000 BP), sub-Saharan Africa (5,000–4,000 BP, exact location unknown), eastern North America (4,000–3,000 BP) 8
  9. 9. DEVELOPMENT OF CIVILIZATION PROF.VIJESH KUMAR V, ASSISTANT PROFESSOR, SAN ACADEMY OF ARCHITECTURE,+919487005023 9
  10. 10. PROF.VIJESH KUMAR V, ASSISTANT PROFESSOR, SAN ACADEMY OF ARCHITECTURE,+919487005023 10
  11. 11. RUDENESS TO CIVILISATION The English word "civilization" comes from the 16th-century French civilisé ("civilized"), from Latin civilis ("civil"), related to civis ("citizen") and civitas ("city"). Adjectives like "civility" developed in the mid-16th century. The abstract noun "civilization", meaning "civilized condition", came in the 1760s, again from French. The first known use in French is in 1757, by Victor Riqueti, marquis de Mirabeau, and the first use in English is attributed to Adam Ferguson, who in his 1767 Essay on the History of Civil Society wrote, "Not only the individual advances from infancy to manhood, but the species itself from rudeness to civilisation". PROF.VIJESH KUMAR V, ASSISTANT PROFESSOR, SAN ACADEMY OF ARCHITECTURE,+919487005023 11
  12. 12. WHAT IS CIVILIZATION? is any complex society characterized by Urban development, Social stratification imposed by a cultural elite, Symbolic systems of communication (for example, writing systems), and A perceived separation from and domination over the natural environment. PROF.VIJESH KUMAR V, ASSISTANT PROFESSOR, SAN ACADEMY OF ARCHITECTURE,+919487005023 12
  13. 13. PROF.VIJESH KUMAR V, ASSISTANT PROFESSOR, SAN ACADEMY OF ARCHITECTURE,+919487005023 13
  14. 14. SOCIO-POLITICO-ECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS Centralization, The domestication of both humans and other organisms, Specialization of labour, Culturally ingrained ideologies of progress and Supremacism, Monumental architecture, Taxation, Societal dependence upon farming and expansionism. PROF.VIJESH KUMAR V, ASSISTANT PROFESSOR, SAN ACADEMY OF ARCHITECTURE,+919487005023 14
  15. 15. …in contrast to more supposedly primitive cultures like non-centralized tribal societies, including the cultures of nomadic pastoralists, Neolithic societies or hunter-gatherers. PROF.VIJESH KUMAR V, ASSISTANT PROFESSOR, SAN ACADEMY OF ARCHITECTURE,+919487005023 It is an ‘Advanced’ Culture… 15
  16. 16. PROF.VIJESH KUMAR V, ASSISTANT PROFESSOR, SAN ACADEMY OF ARCHITECTURE,+919487005023 16
  17. 17. REF: WHEN? At the final stages of the Neolithic Revolution, culminating in the relatively rapid process of urban revolution and state formation, a political development associated with the appearance of a governing elite. The earlier neolithic technology and lifestyle was established first in the Middle East (for example at Göbekli Tepe, from about 9,130 BCE), and later in the Yellow River and Yangtze basins in China (for example the Pengtoushan culture from 7,500 BCE), and later spread. Similar pre-civilized "neolithic revolutions" also began independently from 7,000 BCE in such places as northwestern South America (the Norte Chico civilization) and Mesoamerica. These were among the six civilizations worldwide that arose independently. PROF.VIJESH KUMAR V, ASSISTANT PROFESSOR, SAN ACADEMY OF ARCHITECTURE,+919487005023 17
  18. 18. REF: WHEN? Mesopotamia is the site of the earliest developments of the Neolithic Revolution from around 10,000 BCE, with civilizations developing from 6,500 years ago. This area has been identified as having "inspired some of the most important developments in human history including the invention of the wheel, the development of cursive script, mathematics, astronomy and agriculture." The civilized urban revolution in turn was dependent upon the development of sedentism, the domestication of grains and animals and development of lifestyles that facilitated economies of scale and accumulation of surplus production by certain social sectors. The transition from complex cultures to civilizations, while still disputed, seems to be associated with the development of state structures, in which power was further monopolized by an elite ruling class who practised human sacrifice. PROF.VIJESH KUMAR V, ASSISTANT PROFESSOR, SAN ACADEMY OF ARCHITECTURE,+919487005023 18
  19. 19. REF: WHEN? Towards the end of the Neolithic period, various elitist Chalcolithic civilizations began to rise in various "cradles" from around 3300 BCE. Chalcolithic civilizations, as defined above, also developed in Pre-Columbian Americas and, despite an early start in Egypt, Axum and Kush, much later in Iron Age sub-Saharan Africa. The Bronze Age collapse was followed by the Iron Age around 1200 BCE, during which a number of new civilizations emerged, culminating in a period from the 8th to the 3rd century BCE which German psychiatrist and philosopher Karl Jaspers termed the Axial Age, and which he claimed was a critical transitional phase leading to classical civilization. A major technological and cultural transition to modernity began approximately 1500 CE in Western Europe, and from this beginning new approaches to science and law spread rapidly around the world, incorporating earlier cultures into the industrial and technological civilization of the present. PROF.VIJESH KUMAR V, ASSISTANT PROFESSOR, SAN ACADEMY OF ARCHITECTURE,+919487005023 19
  20. 20. EARLY HUMAN SOCIETY Because humans had ways of communication, remembering and making things, they were able to pass on what they learned and their way of doing things from one generation to the next. In a way, the first human cultures developed. Culture – refers to a people’s way of life. Culture includes such things as language, types of clothing, homes, family organization, government, and methods of obtaining food. Culture also includes crafts, arts, music, and religion. PROF.VIJESH KUMAR V, ASSISTANT PROFESSOR, SAN ACADEMY OF ARCHITECTURE,+919487005023 20
  21. 21. HUNTERS & GATHERERS PALEOLITHIC PEOPLES Earliest human societies were hunters and gatherers; they did not now how to grow their own food. They relied on hunting, fishing, and gathering wild plants for food. They learned to make fires, spears with pieces of bone or stone, and to make canoes and boats out of logs (Stone Age) Since they spent most of their time hunting for food, they migrated to areas where food could be found. They did not live in permanent settlings. PROF.VIJESH KUMAR V, ASSISTANT PROFESSOR, SAN ACADEMY OF ARCHITECTURE,+919487005023 21
  22. 22. THE NEOLITHIC REVOLUTION About 10,000 years ago, one of the greatest turning points in world history occurred…  People stop hunting & gathering and started FARMING  People learned how to grow food and domesticate animals Anthropologists believe this change first occurred in the Middle East, where wild wheat and barley were plentiful. They also learned how to herd farm animals such as goats, sheep and cattle. These advances are referred to as the Neolithic Revolution. PROF.VIJESH KUMAR V, ASSISTANT PROFESSOR, SAN ACADEMY OF ARCHITECTURE,+919487005023 22
  23. 23. EFFECTS OF NEOLITHIC REVOLUTION Once agriculture was introduced, people no longer had to wander in search of food. Instead they could build permanent homes and villages and establish a fixed way of life. Populations grew! Although it all started in Southwest Asia, it also took place in Southeast Asia, Africa, and the Americas. PROF.VIJESH KUMAR V, ASSISTANT PROFESSOR, SAN ACADEMY OF ARCHITECTURE,+919487005023 23
  24. 24. THE EMERGENCE OF SOCIAL CLASSES Pros & Cons: People could grow more food than when they hunted and gathered. But they were more vulnerable to attack by other peoples. These changes is economics led to social and political changes: new social classes Warriors – defense of village was a concern Priests – to conduct religious rituals in order to promote good harvest and protect from danger PROF.VIJESH KUMAR V, ASSISTANT PROFESSOR, SAN ACADEMY OF ARCHITECTURE,+919487005023 24
  25. 25. RISE OF RIVER VALLEY CIVILIZATIONS Around 3,500 B.C., the first civilizations arose. Civilization – form of human culture in which people live in cities, have complex social institutions, use some form of writing, and are skilled at using science and technology. The first civilizations developed in four separate river valleys.  Each of these river valleys offered mild climate and a water highway.  Water from rivers was also used for cooking food and drinking.  Along the rivers there was also fertile soil, great for growing crops and led to abundant harvests and food surplus. PROF.VIJESH KUMAR V, ASSISTANT PROFESSOR, SAN ACADEMY OF ARCHITECTURE,+919487005023 25
  26. 26. MESOPOTAMIA (3500 B.C. – 1700 B.C.) First river valley civilization developed in Mesopotamia between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers (present day Iraq) Mesopotamia was a Greek term meaning “land between two rivers” PROF.VIJESH KUMAR V, ASSISTANT PROFESSOR, SAN ACADEMY OF ARCHITECTURE,+919487005023 26
  27. 27. MESOPOTAMIA (3500 B.C. – 1700 B.C.) PROF.VIJESH KUMAR V, ASSISTANT PROFESSOR, SAN ACADEMY OF ARCHITECTURE,+919487005023 27
  28. 28. MESOPOTAMIA (3500 B.C. – 1700 B.C.) Agriculture Mesopotamia was hot and dry so people learned to irrigate the land by diverting water from the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. This allowed farming settlements to flourish and people were able to create a surplus of food Other people began to specialize in other activities including potters, weavers, metal workers, warriors, or priests. PROF.VIJESH KUMAR V, ASSISTANT PROFESSOR, SAN ACADEMY OF ARCHITECTURE,+919487005023 28
  29. 29. MESOPOTAMIA (3500 B.C. – 1700 B.C.) Government People of Mesopotamia built several cities; at first each city-state, such as Uruk, Ur, and Babylon, had its own ruler. Later several of these city-states were united together under a single ruler. PROF.VIJESH KUMAR V, ASSISTANT PROFESSOR, SAN ACADEMY OF ARCHITECTURE,+919487005023 29
  30. 30. MESOPOTAMIA (3500 B.C. – 1700 B.C.) Religion Mesopotamians were polytheistic, believing in as many as 2,000 different gods. Some historians claim Mesopotamian religion to be the oldest faith. Rulers were often priests. A society governed by religious leaders is known as a theocracy. PROF.VIJESH KUMAR V, ASSISTANT PROFESSOR, SAN ACADEMY OF ARCHITECTURE,+919487005023 Stone Sumerian Priest 30
  31. 31. MESOPOTAMIA (3500 B.C. – 1700 B.C.) Building Mesopotamians were the world’s first city-builders. They made their building from mud, bricks and crushed reeds. They built walled cities, temples with arches, and stepped pyramids known as ziggurats. PROF.VIJESH KUMAR V, ASSISTANT PROFESSOR, SAN ACADEMY OF ARCHITECTURE,+919487005023 Ziggurat in Baghdad Reconstruction of Ziggurat at Ur 31
  32. 32. MESOPOTAMIA (3500 B.C. – 1700 B.C.) Cultural & Scientific Contributions The Sumerians invented the wheel and the sailboat. Figured how to reroute water to irrigate fields located further from the river. Developed tools and weapons of copper and bronze. Sumerians devised a calendar, dividing the year into 12 months. Later Babylonians developed a number system based on 60, providing the basis for our seconds and minutes today. They also invented the world’s earliest writing system, cuneiform, symbol writing on clay.  Only the elite could read and write in cuneiform, generally priests and scribes. PROF.VIJESH KUMAR V, ASSISTANT PROFESSOR, SAN ACADEMY OF ARCHITECTURE,+919487005023 32
  33. 33. MESOPOTAMIA (3500 B.C. – 1700 B.C.) PROF.VIJESH KUMAR V, ASSISTANT PROFESSOR, SAN ACADEMY OF ARCHITECTURE,+919487005023 A cuneiform writing tablet 33
  34. 34. MESOPOTAMIA (3500 B.C. – 1700 B.C.) Women in Mesopotamia Most girls stayed at home with mothers where they learned cooking and housekeeping Women were responsible for raising children and crushing grain. Only wealthy women were able to go to marketplace and buy goods, complete legal matters when husband was absent, and could even own property. They could engage in business and obtain divorces. PROF.VIJESH KUMAR V, ASSISTANT PROFESSOR, SAN ACADEMY OF ARCHITECTURE,+919487005023 Women in Mesopotamia 34
  35. 35. EGYPT (3200 B.C. – 500 B.C.) Located in Northeast Africa. The world’s longest river, the Nile, runs through it. PROF.VIJESH KUMAR V, ASSISTANT PROFESSOR, SAN ACADEMY OF ARCHITECTURE,+919487005023 35
  36. 36. Agriculture Each year the Nile floods and makes the soil along its bank very rich and fertile. With bright sunshine, long growing seasons, rich soil, and fresh water, Egyptian farmers were able to grow large amounts of food. Farmers were able to support craftsmen, warriors, priests, and nobles. PROF.VIJESH KUMAR V, ASSISTANT PROFESSOR, SAN ACADEMY OF ARCHITECTURE,+919487005023 EGYPT (3200 B.C. – 500 B.C.) 36
  37. 37. EGYPT (3200 B.C. – 500 B.C.) PROF.VIJESH KUMAR V, ASSISTANT PROFESSOR, SAN ACADEMY OF ARCHITECTURE,+919487005023 Society The pharaoh was at the top of the social order. Below the pharaoh came the priests and nobles, Then warriors, scribes, merchants, and craftsmen. At the bottom were peasants and slaves; they spent their time farming, herding cattle, and working on building projects. 37
  38. 38. EGYPT (3200 B.C. – 500 B.C.) Religion Egyptians believed the body should be preserved after death to participate in the afterlife. When pharaohs died, their bodies were embalmed (mummified) and buried in a special room under a pyramid. They were surrounded with gold, jewels, and other precious objects. PROF.VIJESH KUMAR V, ASSISTANT PROFESSOR, SAN ACADEMY OF ARCHITECTURE,+919487005023 38
  39. 39. EGYPT (3200 B.C. – 500 B.C.) Accomplishments Medicine – developed knowledge of human body through embalming (preserving). Performed surgical operations. Hieroglyphics – developed one of the earliest writing systems, based on picture symbols. PROF.VIJESH KUMAR V, ASSISTANT PROFESSOR, SAN ACADEMY OF ARCHITECTURE,+919487005023 39
  40. 40. INDUS VALLEY (3300 B.C. – 1300 B.C.) More than 5,000 years ago the Indus River Valley became another center of human civilization. Much like Mesopotamia and Egypt, the region had rich soil due to its annual flood. PROF.VIJESH KUMAR V, ASSISTANT PROFESSOR, SAN ACADEMY OF ARCHITECTURE,+919487005023 40
  41. 41. INDUS VALLEY (3300 B.C. – 1300 B.C.) Agriculture Farmers grew barley, wheat, dates and melons. Food surplus allowed people to build large cities like Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro; each city had more than 30,000 people. PROF.VIJESH KUMAR V, ASSISTANT PROFESSOR, SAN ACADEMY OF ARCHITECTURE,+919487005023 41
  42. 42. INDUS VALLEY (3300 B.C. – 1300 B.C.) Building More than 1,000 cities and settlements belonging to the Indus River Valley have been excavated. The artifacts that have been discovered show that the settlements were technologically advanced. There were dockyards, granaries, warehouses, brick platforms and protective walls. They were the first “urban planners” with almost all their houses connected to public sewers and a water supply The Harrappans were also the first people known to make cotton cloth. PROF.VIJESH KUMAR V, ASSISTANT PROFESSOR, SAN ACADEMY OF ARCHITECTURE,+919487005023 42
  43. 43. INDUS VALLEY (3300 B.C. – 1300 B.C.) Trade and Collapse Trade was important of Harrappan economy. Harrappans also developed their own form of writing, although scholars are still unable to decipher it. No one knows exactly why the civilization collapsed, but its end occurred suddenly. PROF.VIJESH KUMAR V, ASSISTANT PROFESSOR, SAN ACADEMY OF ARCHITECTURE,+919487005023 43
  44. 44. CHINA (~1850 B.C.) About 5,000 years after the settlement of the Indus River Valley, China’s first civilization emerged in the fertile plains along the Huang He (Yellow River). PROF.VIJESH KUMAR V, ASSISTANT PROFESSOR, SAN ACADEMY OF ARCHITECTURE,+919487005023 44
  45. 45. CHINA (~1850 B.C.) Agriculture As in the Nile and Indus River Valleys, the fertility of the soil along the Huang He was increased by periodic floods. Around 4,500 B.C., people along the Huang He began growing millet (type of grain). Later they learned to farm soybeans and raise chickens, dogs and pigs. PROF.VIJESH KUMAR V, ASSISTANT PROFESSOR, SAN ACADEMY OF ARCHITECTURE,+919487005023 45
  46. 46. CHINA (~1850 B.C.) Government Around 1,700 B.C. a ruling family, or dynasty, known as the Shang, took power. • They built the first Chinese cities and established their capital at Anyang near the Huang He. The Shang ruled with the help of powerful nobles. • Shang kings were military leaders, they were also high priests that offered sacrifices to their royal ancestors. PROF.VIJESH KUMAR V, ASSISTANT PROFESSOR, SAN ACADEMY OF ARCHITECTURE,+919487005023 46
  47. 47. CHINA (~1850 B.C.) Cultural Contributions • The people living along the Huang He were very skilled at many crafts. • They created superior weapons and ceremonial vessels with their bronze work. • They were the first to make silk textiles from silkworm cocoons. • They developed a system of writing with pictographs, known as characters. Each character represented one word. PROF.VIJESH KUMAR V, ASSISTANT PROFESSOR, SAN ACADEMY OF ARCHITECTURE,+919487005023 47
  48. 48. ANCIENT HEBREWS Ancient Hebrews, or Israelites, lived south of Phoenicia in the area occupied by present-day Israel, Lebanon, and Jordan. Hebrews were deeply influenced by both Mesopotamia and Egypt. According to tradition, the forefather of the Hebrews, Abraham, grew up in Mesopotamia in the city or Ur. Later Abraham moved to Israel. PROF.VIJESH KUMAR V, ASSISTANT PROFESSOR, SAN ACADEMY OF ARCHITECTURE,+919487005023 48
  49. 49. ANCIENT HEBREWS Religion Unlike other ancient peoples, the Hebrews did not believe in many gods; instead they believed in one universal God, who was both just and all- powerful. This new religion was called Judaism. Jews did not believe that God had human characteristics or the head or body of an animal, like the gods and goddesses of Mesopotamia and Egypt. Jews saw their God as an invisible but powerful force or spirit that created the world and that demanded proper moral conduct. Monotheism, the belief in one God, became the basis for several religions, including both Christianity and Islam. PROF.VIJESH KUMAR V, ASSISTANT PROFESSOR, SAN ACADEMY OF ARCHITECTURE,+919487005023 49
  50. 50. ANCIENT HEBREWS The Ten Commandments The early history of the Hebrews and their God is told in the first books of the Bible, known as the Old Testament. According to the Bible, the ancient Hebrews migrated to Egypt to escape food shortages. They lived there for hundreds of years and were enslaved. Moses, their leader, later took them out of Egypt and freed them from slavery. According to the Bible, Moses also presented them the Ten Commandments, which came directly from God. The Ten Commandments forbade stealing, murder, adultery, and other forms of immoral behavior. PROF.VIJESH KUMAR V, ASSISTANT PROFESSOR, SAN ACADEMY OF ARCHITECTURE,+919487005023 50
  51. 51. ANCIENT HEBREWS PROF.VIJESH KUMAR V, ASSISTANT PROFESSOR, SAN ACADEMY OF ARCHITECTURE,+919487005023 51
  52. 52. EFFECTS OF CIVILIZATION ON HUMAN SETTLEMENTS PROF.VIJESH KUMAR V, ASSISTANT PROFESSOR, SAN ACADEMY OF ARCHITECTURE,+919487005023 52
  53. 53. SETTLEMENT… EVOLUTION SETTLEMENTHUMAN PROF.VIJESH KUMAR V, ASSISTANT PROFESSOR, SAN ACADEMY OF ARCHITECTURE,+919487005023 53
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  71. 71. DETERMINANTS OF HUMAN SETTLEMENTS PROF.VIJESH KUMAR V, ASSISTANT PROFESSOR, SAN ACADEMY OF ARCHITECTURE,+919487005023 71
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  83. 83. ANCIENTS TOWNS IN INDIA PROF.VIJESH KUMAR V, ASSISTANT PROFESSOR, SAN ACADEMY OF ARCHITECTURE,+919487005023 83
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