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Methods of teaching biological science

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Methods of Teaching, Meaning, Teacher Centered, Pupil centered, Lecture Method, Lecture cum Demonstration, Biographical, Heuristic, Team Teaching, Scientific, Inductive, Deductive, Project, Assignment Method

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Methods of teaching biological science

  1. 1. METHODS OF TEACHING BY M.VIJAYALAKSHMI Assistant Professor
  2. 2. UNIT V : Methods of Teaching Biological Science Criteria for Selecting a Method of Teaching Biological Science: Levels of the Class-Size of the Class-Time Availability and Subject Matter- General Methods of Teaching Biological Science - Lecture Method - Demonstration Method - Scientific Method - Project Method - Heuristic Method - Biographical and Assignment Method - Programmed Instruction - Computer Assisted Instruction - Team Teaching - Teaching Machines - Panel Discussion - Seminar – Symposium - Work
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION • ‘Method’ – Latin – ‘Mode’ or ‘Way’ • In education it means the mode by which the material is communicated from the teacher to the pupil.
  4. 4. GOGE defined, “Teaching methods are patterns of teacher behaviour that are recurrent, applicable to various subject matters, characteristic of more than one teacher and relevant to learning”
  5. 5. DEFINITIONS Science Education programmes will be designed to enable the learner to acquire problem solving and decision making skills -National Policy on Education (1986) If science is poorly taught and badly learnt, it is little more than burdening the mind with dead information, and it could degenerate even into a new superstition - Kothari Commission Report (1964-66)
  6. 6. TEACHING METHODS TEACHING METHODS TEACHER- CENTERED 1.LECTURE 2.DEMONSTRATION 3.BIOGRAPHICAL 4.HISTORICAL 5.TEAM-TEACHING PUPIL-CENTERED (INSIDE THE CLASS) 1.1. LABORATOTY 2.HEURISTIC 3.PROJECT 4.ASSIGNMENT 5.DISCUSSION PUPIL-CENTERED (SOCIALISED CLASSROOM TECHNIQUES) 1.SEMINAR 2.SYMPOSIUM 3.WORKSHOP 4.PENAL DISCUSSION USE OF INSTRUCTIONAL TECHNOLOGY 1.PROGRAMMED INSTRUCTION 2.CIA 3.USE OF TEACHING MACHINES 4.PERSONALISED INSTRUCTION
  7. 7. CRITERIA FOR SELECTING A METHOD OF TEACHING BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE LEVEL OF THE CLASS SIZE OF THE CLASS AVAILABILITY OF TIME AVAILABILITY OF MATERIALS AND FACILITIES NATURE OF THE TOPICS TO BE TAUGHT
  8. 8. TEACHER-CENTERED PUPIL-CENTERED
  9. 9. TEACHER-CENTERED TEACHING Focus on Telling Memorization Recalling information Passive recipients of knowledge Restricted to only asking and answering questions Teaching environment is formalized Teacher occupies a central position
  10. 10. PUPIL-CENTERED TEACHING • According to the needs, requirements, capabilities and interests of the pupils • Develop in learners skills and abilities in independent learning and problem solving • Classroom climate is flexible and psychologically open • Teachers and students jointly explore • Teachers’ role is to assist pupil • Pupil occupies a central position
  11. 11. TEACHER-CENTERED METHODS LECTURE LECTURE CUM DEMONSTRATION BIOGRAPHICAL
  12. 12. PUPIL-CENTERED METHODS HEURISTIC ASSIGNMENT PROJECT DISCUSSION INDUCTIVE AND DEDUCTIVE ROLE PLAYING
  13. 13. LECTURE METHOD • Commonly used method • In colleges and big classes • Teacher talks – Students listen passively • Teacher controlled and information centred • Own speed • May make use of black board at times • Dictate notes • Does not expect any question or response from the students
  14. 14. Merits • Economical • Knowledge imparted – quickly • Syllabus covered – short time • Quite attractive and easy to follow • Impart factual information and historical anecdoctes • Teacher – own style • Teacher dominates 70-85% • Logical sequence of the subject • Minimises – gaps or overlappings
  15. 15. Demerits • Students participation is negligible • Passive recipients • Never sure – concentrating or understanding • Knowledge imparted rapidly; weak students develop a for learning • No place for learning by doing • Does not provide for corrective feedback and remedial help to slow learners • Undemocratic and authoritarian method
  16. 16. LECTURE CUM DEMONSTRATION METHOD • Includes lecture and demonstrate method • From concrete to abstract • Superior method of learning • Combines instructional strategy of information imparting and showing how • Teacher performs experiment and explains what he is doing • Asks relevant questions
  17. 17. Essential steps • Planning and Preparation • Introduction of the lesson • Presentation • Performance of Experiments • Blackboard Summary • Supervision
  18. 18. Criteria of a Good Demonstration • Planned and rehearsed • Clear of the purpose • Active participation of the pupils and the teacher • Apparatus arranged in order • Visible to all • Simple and speedy • Fit in the sequence of experiments • Impress the students to write what they observe • Act as showman or actor • Supplemented with other teaching aids
  19. 19. Requisites for a Good Demonstration • Room and table • Apparatus • Spare apparatus • Blackboard • Well-versed in the handling the apparatus • Time for recording • Reflective type question
  20. 20. Merits • Economical in time and money • Psychologically based • Specially for: -apparatus is costly -danger -difficult and complex -special technique -quick revision -several experiments
  21. 21. Demerits • No scope for learning by doing • Not child centred – no individual differences • Fails to develop laboratory skills • Fails to impart training in scientific attitude • Fail to observe many finer details
  22. 22. BIOGRAPHICAL METHOD • Associates the facts and principles of biology with the life of the scientists • Helps the students to learn the facts and principles along with hardships undergone by the scientists, their experiments, apparatus and improvisations • Students will realize the importance for hard work, perseverance, success and happiness • Develop the attitude of science and scientists
  23. 23. HISTORICAL METHOD • INVENTION • DISCOVERY • ADVENTURES • LIFE HISTORIES OF SCIENTISTS • EXAMPLE : • ARCHIMEDES AND HIS BATH • PRINCIPLES OF ARCHIMEDES – “EUREKA, EUREKA” • NEWTON AND THE APPLE • NEWTONS – GRAVITATIONAL FORCE
  24. 24. Merits and Demerits • Arouse interest • Particularly suited for primary classes • Cannot be adopted as a method of teaching • Made wherever it is possible
  25. 25. HEURISTIC METHOD • ‘Heuristic’ - Greek word – ‘to discover’ • Pure discovery method of learning • Professor Armstrong - “Heuristic methods of teaching are methods which involve our placing students as far as possible in the attitude of the discover- methods which involve their finding out instead of being merely told about things”
  26. 26. PSYCHOLOGICAL BASIS OR PRINCIPLES OF HEURISTIC METHOD PRINCIPLE OF FREEDOM PRINCIPLES OF EXPERIENCE PRINCIPLE OF ACTIVITY OR LEARNING BY DOING PRINCIPLE OF PURPOSEFULNESS PRINCIPLE OF Logical Thinking Principle of Play-way Principle of Individual work
  27. 27. Role of the teacher • Knowledge • Possess curiosity, interest and a spirit of scientific investigation • Art of asking questioning • Guide, a working partner and a friend • Provide free atmosphere • Plan according to the age, ability and interest of the pupils
  28. 28. Procedure • Students to solve a number of problems experimentally • Required to discover for himself and is to be told nothing • Discover facts – experiments, apparatus and books • Behaves like a research scholar
  29. 29. • Problem sheet – minimum instructions • Enter in his notebook – work done, results, conclusion • Provide a training in method • Searching is encouraged • Creative thinking is respected • Safe to investigate • Try out ideas • Even make mistakes
  30. 30. Merits • Habit of enquiry and investigation • Habit of self learning and self direction • Develop scientific attitudes • Psychological maximum – Learning by doing • Scope for individual attention • Develops in the students a habit of diligency
  31. 31. Demerits • Long and time consuming method • Expects great efficiency and hard work, experience and training • Not suitable for beginners • Formational rather than informational • Too much stress • Merely for sake of doing • Evaluation is tedious • Presently enough teachers are not available
  32. 32. Team Teaching • Arose in 1957 • Noall – • “A combination of two or more teachers who work with variable size groups of students during an adjustable period which covers two or more regular section” • Best-known and commonly used plan is Trump plan of team teaching • Professor J. Lloyd Trump, Associate Secretary of the National Association of Secondary School Principals
  33. 33. Meaning • J. Lloyd Trump • “An arrangement whereby two or more teachers with assistants plan, instruct and evaluate co-operatively two or more classes in order to take advantage of their respective special competencies as teachers”
  34. 34. Definition • Chaplin defined • “Team teaching is a type of instructional organization involving teaching teams and the students assigned to them, in which two or more teachers are given responsibility, working together, for all or a significant part of instruction of the same group of students”
  35. 35. Purpose of Team Teaching • Improvement of teaching through a better utilization of a group of teachers • Utilizes specialized expertise, interests, instruction skills, time and energy • Ensures preparation of lessons, materials and other aids to create motivation among the students and better learning situations • Increases the possibility of variety of instruction based on pooled talent to the teachers
  36. 36. Characteristics of Team Teaching • Role differentiation of team members • Regrouping of students • Rescheduling of time • Redesign of teaching space • Common time for planning • Integration of learning in a meaningful way, and • Development of resource centres
  37. 37. Types of Teams Single Subject Team Interdisciplinary Teams Hierarchical Teams Synergetic Teams
  38. 38. ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES
  39. 39. SCIENTIFIC METHOD • It is a problem solving method • Involves reflective thinking, reasoning and results from the achievement of certain abilities, skills and attitudes • Any method of solving a problem systematically and scientifically may be called scientific method • Also known as “the method of science” or “the method of the scientist”
  40. 40. Steps in Scientific Method 1. Problem a. Sensing the problem b. Defining the problem c. Analysing the problem 2. Collection of data 3. Hypothesis formation 4. Experimentation 5. Principle formation Synthesis or Induction or Inductive Method Analysis or Deduction or Deductive method
  41. 41. ADVANTAGES LIMITATIONS
  42. 42. INDUCTIVE METHOD • SYNTHETIC METHOD • Method of establishing general rules and principles • Requires the study and careful examination of particular facts and examples to enable one to deduce a general principle or rule or a definition
  43. 43. • Examples • Epithelial’s tissue cell is in the shape of a pillar • The red cell of human blood is round in shape • The cell of amoeba is irregular • Paramecial cell is in the shape of a shoe • From the above four facts, we infer that cells are of different shape
  44. 44. MERITS DEMERITS
  45. 45. DEDUCTIVE METHOD • ANALYTIC METHOD OR RULEG METHOD • Opposite to the inductive method • Calles for the verification or validation of general principles, rules and definitions already learnt
  46. 46. • Examples • Animals are incapable of producing themselves the food they need (General Rule) • Man gets his food from other sources only (Examples) • Therefore man is an organism belonging to the animal kingdom • Here the general rule is applied to a particular case to validate the truth of the rule or principle through an appropriate illustration
  47. 47. MERITS DEMERITS
  48. 48. PROJECT METHOD • Devised by Kilpatrick • Given a project shape by Stevenson • Based on the philosophy of pragmatism • John Dewey – education should be for life and through life • School – miniature society
  49. 49. • Definitions • “A project is a wholehearted purposeful activity proceeding in a social environment” • Kilpatrick • “A project is a problematic act carried to completion in its natural setting” • Stevenson • “A project is a bit of real life that has imparted into the school” • Ballard
  50. 50. Based on the principles • Students learn better through association, co-operation and activity • Learning by doing • Learning by living
  51. 51. Steps in a project • Providing a situation • Choosing and Proposing • Planning • Executing • Evaluating • Recording
  52. 52. Criteria of a Good Project
  53. 53. Role of the Teacher in Project Method
  54. 54. Different kinds of School Projects • Collection of Live-Specimens • Classification and Identification of projects • Projects involving Organization and Maintenance • Projects involving Field Trips • Survey Projects • Project of Organizing a Science Fair • Action Research Project
  55. 55. Illustration for a School Project – Organizing an Aquarium Aim Planning Execution Evaluation
  56. 56. MERITS • Laws of learning Law of readiness Law of exercise Law of effect • Promotes co-operation and group interaction • Democratic way of learning • Teaches dignity of labour • Correlation of subject
  57. 57. • Opportunity to solve a problem • Stimulates constructive and creative thinking • Helps to widen the mental horizons of students • Students learn the matter very easily – associated with activities
  58. 58. Demerits • Absorbs a lot of time • Gives the students superficial knowledge of so many things but leaves an insufficient basis of sound fundamental principles • Requires much work on the part of the teacher for planning and carrying out projects
  59. 59. • Presumes that the teacher is the master of all subjects and has an all round knowledge of everything to impart correction • Books written on these lines are not available • More expensive • Not well organized , regularized and continuous • Timetable is almost upset
  60. 60. ASSIGNMENT METHOD HOME ASSIGNMENTS SCHOOL ASSIGNMENTS
  61. 61. Thank you

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