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Basics of Automation in Solid Dosage Form Production (Formulation & Developement M.Pharm Sem II)

Basics of Automation in Solid Dosage Form Production by Mr. Vishal Shelke(Formulation & Developement M.Pharm Sem II)

Sub :- Formulation & Developement
M.Pharm Sem II
Savitribai Phule Pune University

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Basics of Automation in Solid Dosage Form Production (Formulation & Developement M.Pharm Sem II)

  1. 1. Contents  Introduction to Automation  General Automatic Control System  Automatic Controllers  Computer Process Control  Process Measurement  Temperature Measurement  Pressure Measurement Devices  Automation in Tablet Manufacturing
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION AUTOMATION:- Means the use of machines and equipments for performing physical and mental operations in a production process in place of human being. Is a system of doing work where material handling , production process and product designs are integrated through mechanism of thoughts and efforts to achieve a set regulating & controlling system.
  3. 3. Classification of industrial and laboratory automation:- PROCESS AUTOMATION- It deals mainly with handling of raw materials in forms such as liquids or powders. E.g. in oil refinery, oil& gas and chemical industries. DISCRETE AUTOMATION- essentially deals with assembly of parts requiring high levels of mechanical motion to produce consumer electronics products and products for the automotive industries.
  4. 4. ADVANTAGES:-  It provides better quality of goods and service.  It causes reduction in direct labor costs.  There is effective control on operation.  There is greater accuracy, more output and greater speed.  The production planning and control is to be done in the beginning only.  The working conditions can be improved  Safety of workers is improved.  Minimization of wastage  The quality of product improves as human input is minimized.
  5. 5. DISADVANTAGES:-  Huge capital investment is required.  The maintenance cost is very high because maintenance labor of high caliber is required.  It can create unemployment.  Continuous power supply is required.  Large inventories are required.  Any breakdown , anywhere would lead to complete shut down.  Requires highly skilled manpower.
  6. 6. GENERAL AUTOMATIC CONTROL SYSTEM- Heat Exchange Process - Liquid to be heated Mixer Temperature to be controlled Liquid flow outValve Steam Condensate Simple heat exchange process
  7. 7. Types of Heat Exchange Process- Open loop system :- Closed loop control system :-  Feed back control system  Feed forward control system Open loop system:- are those in which information about the controlled variable (like temperature ) is not used to adjust any of the system inputs to compensate for variation in the processes variables. Closed loop control system- Is one where control variable is measure and the result of this measurement is used to manipulate one of the processes variables, such as steam flow
  8. 8. Closed loop Feed back system – In this system, information about the controlled variables is feed back as the basis for control of a process variable by a human operator (manual control) or by use of instruments (automatic control). Closed loop Feed forward control – •In this process disturbances are measured and compensated without waiting for a change in the controlled variable to indicate that a disturbance has occurred. •This type of control is useful when the final controlled variable can not be used.
  9. 9. AUTOMATIC CONTROLLERS. Three general type of controllers- 1)Self operated controller-  On off controllers  Proportional controller 2) Electronic controller 3) Pneumatic controller
  10. 10. 1) Self operated controllers:- Some control systems obtain the power require to operate the error detector and final control element from the controller medium of the process by way of the sensing element .such controller are self operated controller , used for temperature , liquid and pressure controller . Types a)On off controller – b) Proportional controllers-
  11. 11. 2) Electronic controllers- Are extensively used for process control . The reason for their increase usage are-  solid state circuit  Easier servicing  Smaller particle size  can easily be linked with process control computer  cost completive compare to pneumatic controller  may be more accurately tuned. 3) Pneumatic controllers - Its basic purpose is to supply compressed air to a pneumatic valve actuator in response to an error signal, based on the deviation of measured variable from the set point.
  12. 12. Computer process control In the process of computer control Five levels can be identified -  Unit operation control  Unit process control  Plant control  Departmental and corporate control level of a company. Types :- 1. Analog computer 2. Digital computer
  13. 13. PROCESS MEASUREMENT Instrument for Measuring Vacuum :  Compression gauge- Simple manometer.  Thermal gauge  Ionization gauge  Diaphragm gauge  Radiometer gauge
  14. 14. TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT  Thermocouples  Resistance thermometers  Filled in thermometers  Bimetal thermometer  Liquid in glass thermometers  Pyrometers
  15. 15. PRESSURE MEASUREMENT DEVICES-: 1-) Liquid column pressure measuring device. Manometer-
  16. 16. 2- Elastic element pressure measuring devices - These devices may be broadly classified into 3 types-  Bourdon type e.g. C- spring bourdon  Bellows type  Diaphragm type. 3- Electric sensing devices-: • e.g.- Strain gauge
  17. 17. AUTOMATION IN TABLET MANUFACTURING Benefits of automation in tablet production- Improve material handling. Improve specific unit operation-  Particle size reduction  Sieving  Mixing.  Particle size enlargement.  Drying.  Compression.  Sorting.  Coating.  Packaging. Eliminate or combine processing steps. Incorporate automated process control of unit operation and processes.
  18. 18. Wet granulation -: Standard processing steps -Load processer Weigh ingredients Mix, mass, agglomerate, dry lubricate Transfer (store),Continuous batch powder mixing and massing equipment. E.g. Dionsa mixer & granulator is a high-shear powder mixer and processor
  19. 19. Fluid bed Spray Granulator :- •A Suction fan generates air flow necessary for fluidization of powder •Air heater to heat the air to desired temperature. •Air is drawn through pre filter to remove any impurities. •Material to be processed kept in container just below the spray inlet. •The liquid granulating agent is pumped from its container & is sprayed as a fine mist through a spray head onto a fluidized powder. •Exaust filters are mounted above the product retainer to retain dust and fine particles.
  20. 20. Also available on Youtube! Youtube :- Instagram :-
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