Basics of Automation in Solid Dosage Form Production (Formulation & Developement M.Pharm Sem II)
Introduction to Automation
General Automatic Control System
Computer Process Control
Pressure Measurement Devices
Automation in Tablet Manufacturing
Means the use of machines and equipments for performing
physical and mental operations in a production process in
place of human being.
Is a system of doing work where material handling ,
production process and product designs are integrated
through mechanism of thoughts and efforts to achieve a set
regulating & controlling system.
Classification of industrial and
It deals mainly with handling of raw materials in
forms such as liquids or powders. E.g. in oil refinery, oil& gas and
essentially deals with assembly of parts requiring
high levels of mechanical motion to produce consumer electronics
products and products for the automotive industries.
It provides better quality of goods and service.
It causes reduction in direct labor costs.
There is effective control on operation.
There is greater accuracy, more output and greater speed.
The production planning and control is to be done in the beginning only.
The working conditions can be improved
Safety of workers is improved.
Minimization of wastage
The quality of product improves as human input is minimized.
Huge capital investment is required.
The maintenance cost is very high because maintenance labor of high caliber is
It can create unemployment.
Continuous power supply is required.
Large inventories are required.
Any breakdown , anywhere would lead to complete shut down.
Requires highly skilled manpower.
GENERAL AUTOMATIC CONTROL SYSTEM-
Heat Exchange Process -
Mixer Temperature to be
Simple heat exchange process
Types of Heat Exchange Process-
Open loop system :-
Closed loop control system :-
Feed back control system
Feed forward control system
Open loop system:- are those in which information about the
controlled variable (like temperature ) is not used to adjust any of
the system inputs to compensate for variation in the processes
Closed loop control system- Is one where control variable is
measure and the result of this measurement is used to manipulate
one of the processes variables, such as steam flow
Closed loop Feed back system –
In this system, information about the controlled
variables is feed back as the basis for control of a process variable by
a human operator (manual control) or by use of instruments (automatic
Closed loop Feed forward control –
•In this process disturbances are measured and compensated without
waiting for a change in the controlled variable to indicate that a
disturbance has occurred.
•This type of control is useful when the final controlled variable can
not be used.
Three general type of controllers-
1)Self operated controller-
On off controllers
2) Electronic controller
3) Pneumatic controller
1) Self operated controllers:-
Some control systems obtain the power require to
operate the error detector and final control element from the controller
medium of the process by way of the sensing element .such controller
are self operated controller , used for temperature , liquid and pressure
a)On off controller –
b) Proportional controllers-
2) Electronic controllers- Are extensively used for process
The reason for their increase usage are-
solid state circuit
Smaller particle size
can easily be linked with process control computer
cost completive compare to pneumatic controller
may be more accurately tuned.
3) Pneumatic controllers - Its basic purpose is to supply
compressed air to a pneumatic valve actuator in response to an error
signal, based on the deviation of measured variable from the set
Computer process control
In the process of computer control Five levels can be
Unit operation control
Unit process control
Departmental and corporate control level of a company.
1. Analog computer
2. Digital computer
2- Elastic element pressure measuring devices -
These devices may be broadly classified into 3 types-
Bourdon type e.g. C- spring bourdon
3- Electric sensing devices-:
• e.g.- Strain gauge
AUTOMATION IN TABLET MANUFACTURING
Benefits of automation in tablet production-
Improve material handling.
Improve specific unit operation-
Particle size reduction
Particle size enlargement.
Eliminate or combine processing steps.
Incorporate automated process control of unit operation and processes.
Wet granulation -:
Standard processing steps -Load processer Weigh ingredients
Mix, mass, agglomerate, dry lubricate Transfer (store),Continuous
batch powder mixing and massing equipment.
E.g. Dionsa mixer & granulator is a high-shear powder mixer and
Fluid bed Spray Granulator :-
•A Suction fan generates air flow necessary for fluidization of
•Air heater to heat the air to desired temperature.
•Air is drawn through pre filter to remove any impurities.
•Material to be processed kept in container just below the spray inlet.
•The liquid granulating agent is pumped from its container & is
sprayed as a fine mist through a spray head onto a fluidized powder.
•Exaust filters are mounted above the product retainer to retain dust
and fine particles.
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