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Geographic Information Systems - AGA - CEI40


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Contents of the presentation:

• Overview
• GIS Basics
• Water Resources Engineering
• GIS and Water Resources
• Flood Hazard Mapping
• Research Paper
• Flood mapping in ArcGIS

Published in: Engineering
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Geographic Information Systems - AGA - CEI40

  1. 1. 9-Month Program, Intake40, CEI Track GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS I - FUNDAMENTALS Application of GIS in Flood Hazard Mapping Ahmed Gamal Abdel Gawad
  3. 3. CONTENTS Overview GIS Basics Water Resources Engineering GIS and Water Resources Flood Hazard Mapping Research Paper Flood mapping in ArcGIS
  4. 4. Overview
  5. 5. Overview  A geographic information system (GIS) is a framework for gathering, managing, and analyzing data.  Rooted in the science of geography, GIS integrates many types of data. It analyzes spatial location and organizes layers of information into visualizations using maps and 3D scenes.  With this unique capability, GIS reveals deeper insights into data, such as patterns, relationships, and situations— helping users make smarter decisions. 6
  6. 6. Overview  Geographic information systems (GIS) have become an increasingly important means for understanding and dealing with the pressing problems of water and related resources management in our world.  GIS concepts and technologies help us collect and organize the data about such problems and understand their spatial relationships.  GIS analysis capabilities provide ways for modeling and synthesizing information that contribute to supporting decisions for resource management across a wide range of scales, from local to global. 7
  7. 7. Overview  A GIS also provides a means for visualizing resource characteristics, thereby enhancing understanding in support of decision making.  Several definitions of GIS are offered to introduce the concepts and technologies that comprise GIS. A general overview of GIS involves the technologies for data capture and conversion, data management, and analysis.  Also, there is a need to be aware of the management dimensions of GIS, as implementation of GIS can require basic changes in the way engineering planning and design are accomplished. 8
  8. 8. Applications for GIS  Business  Military & Defense  Scientific Research  Real Estate & Marketing  Transportation  Urban Planning & Management  Civil Engineering/Utility  Environmental Sciences  Health Care  Political Science 9
  9. 9. GIS Basics
  10. 10. Geographical Information System  A Geographic Information System (GIS) can be defined as a system of hardware, software, data and organizational structure for collecting, storing, manipulating and analyzing spatially related or 'geo-referenced' data and presenting information resulting from the analysis. 12
  11. 11. Geographical Information System A more detailed definition introduces GIS as: "any Information system which can:  Collect, store and retrieve information based on its spatial locations;  Identify locations within a targeted environment which meet specific criteria;  Explore relationships among data sets within that Environment; 13
  12. 12. Geographical Information System A more detailed definition introduces GIS as: "any Information system which can:  Analyze the related data spatially as an aid to making decisions;  Facilitate selecting and passing data to applications- specific analytical models capable of assessing the impact of alternatives, and  Display the selected environment both graphically and numerically either before or after analysis“. 14
  13. 13. Information Systems Information systems are:  Dominant tool.  Set of computer programs that are used to input (encode) information and store it in a structured manner.  Information can be retrieved, analyzed and, finally, reported as a table, graph, map or picture. 15
  14. 14. Importance of Information Knowledge is power:  Information enables controlling a problem parameters.  With perfect information, optimal decisions can be made.  If it is Impossible to be perfectly informed, so decisions are expected to be imperfect. 16
  15. 15. Spatial Information  Spatially related information refers to location on the earth that can be represented by latitude, longitude and altitude.  Between 70 and 80% of the digital information is spatially related.  Spatial information allow representation on placed on a map.  There are different tools that allow dealing with spatial information. 17
  16. 16. GIS as Information System  GIS is an information system specializing in the input, storage, manipulation, analysis and reporting of spatially related information. 18
  17. 17. GIS Process 19
  18. 18. GIS System Structure 20
  19. 19. Knowledge Base for GIS 21
  20. 20. Main Functions of a GIS GIS as database applications where:  All information in a GIS is linked to a spatial reference.  Other databases may contain location information (street addresses, zip codes, etc.).  GIS database uses geo-references as the primary means of storing and accessing information. 22
  21. 21. Main Functions of a GIS GIS as an important tool that:  Must serve a purpose.  Not an end in itself but a mean (process) to achieve this end.  Should be viewed as a process rather than as software or hardware.  For decision-thinking (scenarios) and decision-making (strategies).  75% of the time used to be spent at building the spatial database: Acquiring data for a new GIS has become much simpler. 23
  22. 22. Main Functions of a GIS GIS as an Integrating Technology:  Evolved by linking a number of discrete technologies: A whole that is greater than the sum of its parts.  Integrate geographical data and methods: Support traditional forms of geographical analysis. Map overlay analysis. Thematic mapping.  Integrate geographical data and methods: Support traditional forms of geographical analysis. Map overlay analysis. Thematic mapping.  Integrates people, data, hardware and software. 24
  23. 23. Data Integration in GIS Environment  Roads  Land Parcels  Population  Utilities  Land Mines  Hospitals  Refugee Camps  Wells  Sanitation 25
  24. 24. The Overlay Concept 26
  25. 25. The Overlay Concept  GIS is concerned in answering the questions Where is the location What is the attribute Why is analytical  GIS depends largely on the concept of overlay in representing data of different types. Each data type can be represented in a separate layer and overlaid in a modern GIS. 27
  26. 26. The Overlay Concept  With the overlay concept any type of information can be depicted in a separate layer. Also, two layers or more can be retrieved on one.  This provides high degree of freedom to the analysis processes which enables investigations of different items separately and also, discover the relationships between any two or more factors. 28
  27. 27. The Overlay Concept  Each layer contains features with similar attributes, like streets and land parcels, that are located in the same geographic extent.  This simple, but powerful and versatile, concept has proven invaluable for solving real- world problems. 29
  28. 28. The Overlay Concept Examples 30
  29. 29. The Overlay Concept Examples 31
  30. 30. GIS Data Model Implementation  Data is organized by layers, coverages or themes (synonymous concepts), with each layer representing a common feature.  Layers are integrated using explicit location on the earth’s surface, thus geographic location is the organizing principal. 32
  31. 31. GIS Data Types Graphic (Spatial) data:  Graphic data is data that can be shown symbolically on maps or pictorially of photographs. It represents natural and cultural features whose sizes, shapes and locations are known.  These features are represented in a GIS environment in a digitized form using combinations of fundamental elements. The standard fundamental elements includes points, lines and strings, areas and polygons, pixels and grid cells. 33
  32. 32. GIS Data Types Non-Graphic (Non-spatial) data:  Used to describe the characteristics, qualities or relative special relationships of features or geographic regions.  Non-graphic data are usually derived from non graphic sources such as files, tables and documents. They also stored in separate computer files. There are two types of non-graphic data used, the attributes and the relative spatial relationships. 34
  33. 33. Water Resources Engineering
  34. 34. Water Resources Engineering  Water resources engineering is concerned with the analysis and design of systems to manage the quantity, quality, timing, and distribution of water to meet the needs of human societies and the natural environment.  Water resources are of critical importance to society because these systems sustain our livelihood and the ecosystems on which we depend. However, there may be too little or too much water; and what there is may not be located where we need it, or it may be too polluted or too expensive. 36
  35. 35. Water Resources Engineering  All of these factors emphasize the need for wise development and management of our water resources. Facilities for water supply and wastewater disposal, collection and control of flood runoff, and maintenance of habitat are examples of the relevant applications of water resources engineering.  Water resources infrastructure development occurs as a long process involving information gathering and interpretation, plan development, decision making and financing, construction, and operation. 37
  36. 36. Water Resources Engineering  The below schematic diagram illustrates the process of setting objectives, data collection and synthesis, planning and design, gathering of information for decision making, and taking action. It begins and ends with the real world, a world that is inherently spatial. 38
  37. 37. GIS and Water Resources
  38. 38. Domains of GIS in Water Engineering 40
  39. 39. Domains of GIS in Water Engineering A spectrum of domains for the application of GIS to water resources engineering are includes:  Surface water hydrology  Groundwater hydrology  Water supply for irrigation  Wastewater and storm water  Floodplains  Water quality  Monitoring and warning  River basins 41
  40. 40. Applications of GIS in Water Engineering  GIS provides an integrating data and modeling environment for the conduct of these activities. A GIS provides a means to collect and archive data on the environment.  Measurements of location, distance, and flow by various devices are typically handled in digital formats and quickly integrated into a spatial database.  Data processing, synthesis, and modeling activities can draw on these data using the GIS, and analysis results can be archived as well. 42
  41. 41. Applications of GIS in Water Engineering  The GIS spatial and attribute database can then be used to generate reports and maps, often interactively, to support decision making on which design alternatives are best and the impacts of these.  Further, maps are a powerful communication medium; thus this information can be presented in public forums so that citizens concerned with planning and design choices can better understand and be more involved. 43
  42. 42. Flood Hazard Mapping
  43. 43. Flood Hazard Mapping  Flood hazard mapping is an exercise to define those coastal areas which are at risk of flooding under extreme conditions. As such, its primary objective is to reduce the impact of coastal flooding. 45
  44. 44. Flood Hazard Mapping  However, mapping of erosion risk areas may serve to achieve erosion risk reduction. It acts as an information system to enhance our understanding and awareness of coastal risk. 46
  45. 45. Flood Hazard Mapping  Flood hazard assessment and mapping is used to identify areas at risk of flooding, and consequently to improve flood risk management and disaster preparedness.  Flood hazard assessments and maps typically look at the expected extent and depth of flooding in a given location, based on various scenarios (e.g. 100-year events, 50-year events, etc.). 47
  46. 46. Flood Hazard Mapping  Flood hazard maps can be used by developers to determine if an area is at risk of flooding, and by insurers to determine flood insurance premiums in areas where flood insurance exists. 48
  47. 47. GIS Flood Analysis  Geographic Information Systems (GIS) are successfully used to visualize the extent of flooding and also to analyze the flood maps to produce flood damage estimation maps and flood risk map.  The GIS must be used together with a hydraulic method to estimate flood profile with a given return period. 50
  48. 48. Research Paper
  49. 49. About Paper  © 2019 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of Faculty of Engineering, Alexandria University. 52
  50. 50. Abstract  The geomorphological characteristics of the basin are more commonly used for flood hazard mapping of the watersheds suffering from scarcity of data.  In this study, Geographic Information System (GIS) techniques have been used to carry out the morphometric analysis of Wadi Qena watershed. The morphometric parameters considered for analysis are Drainage intensity (Di), Form factor ratio (FFR) and Circularity ratio (Rc). 53
  51. 51.  Each parameter has been categorized into five grades ranking from 1 for the lowest hazard grade to 5 for the highest hazard grade.  The analysis shows that with respect to the values of Di, FFR, and Rc, the highest three hazard degree areas covered about 24.2%, 56.9%, and 46.82% of the total area respectively. Consecutively, the number of sub-basins which are classified at the highest three hazard degrees equals 6, 32 and 38 sub-basins. Abstract 54
  52. 52.  The overall assessment map indicates that the sub-basins with hazard degree from moderate to high are equal 34 sub-basins with total area equals 9779.04 km2 (about 63.14% of the total area of Wadi Qena watershed).  The final developed flood hazard map can initiate appropriate measures to mitigate the flood hazards in the area and helps for watershed management. Abstract 55
  53. 53.  Floods often happen in arid areas as a result of heavy rains, which sometimes cause significant loss of life and infrastructure.  Flood hazard mapping is needed to appropriate land use and development in flooded areas where the created maps mitigate their effect.  Also, flood hazard mapping is very necessary for managements of water resources and the sustainable development of watershed in addition to the protection from the flood hazard and drought. 1. Introduction 56
  54. 54.  The study area is located at the eastern side of Qena meander in the Upper Egypt. Wadi Qena is located between Red Sea in the east and River Nile in the west (Fig. 1). 2. Study Area Description 57
  55. 55. 2. Study Area Description 58
  56. 56.  The area of Wadi Qena watershed is approximately 15455 km2. Based on Koppen climate classification, the climate of the study area is classified as hot summers and cold winters as it is located in the dry desert.  According to Egyptian meteorological Authority (EMA), the rainfall in the study area is scarce with an average value of 3.2 mm a year and in summers the highest recorded temperature reached to 41o in July. 2. Study Area Description 59
  57. 57.  The climatic data for Wadi Qena drainage basin are traditionally acquired from the closest weather station which is located at 26o30’N and 33o06’E in the south of the watershed. 2. Study Area Description 60
  58. 58.  The mountainous area which located in the eastern boundary is varies in elevation by ranges from 77 m to 1866 m Above the Mean Sea Level (AMSL) (Fig. 2). 2. Study Area Description 61
  59. 59. 2. Study Area Description 62
  60. 60.  The present study deals with the available data that are useful in order to do the work about the area such as Digital elevation model (DEM).  DEM is a digital representation of the topographic surface. It is used for analysis of topography, modelling of surface processes, as well as providing flood risk zone. 3. Materials and Methodology 3.1 Digital elevation model (DEM) 63
  61. 61.  The DEM is essential for evaluation both hydrologic parameters such as, flow direction, flow accumulation, watershed delineation, drainage networks, and flow length as well as topographic parameters for example slopes, slope length and shape and aspects. 3. Materials and Methodology 3.1 Digital elevation model (DEM) 64
  62. 62.  The United States Geological Survey website ( offers the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) data which is required to extract and generate The DEM of Wadi Qena drainage basin (Fig. 3). 3. Materials and Methodology 3.1 Digital elevation model (DEM) 65
  63. 63. 3. Materials and Methodology 3.1 Digital elevation model (DEM) 66
  64. 64.  To carry out these analyses, the digital elevation model (90 m resolution DEM) has been used to extract the drainage network.  The watershed basin of the study area has been created by utilizing terrain pre-processing. This pre-processing used the digital elevation model (DEM) of Wadi Qena watershed. 3. Materials and Methodology 3.2 Methodology 67
  65. 65.  The flow accumulation could be created to get the watershed basin (Fig. 4). 3. Materials and Methodology 3.2 Methodology 68
  66. 66.  The post-processing involved using the DEM in a GIS environment for estimation the morphometric parameters: (stream order (u), area (A), stream number (Nu), stream length (Lu), drainage density (D), stream frequency (F), Drainage intensity (Di), Form factor ratio (FFR) and Circularity ratio (Rc)).  Stream ordering is the major parameter of qualitative and quantitative analyses of any drainage basin.  Drainage density (D) is the ratio between the total distance where the streams run in the sub-basin to total sub-basin area. 3. Materials and Methodology 3.2 Methodology 69
  67. 67.  The stream frequency (F) of a drainage basin is the total number of streams of all orders per square kilometer.  The drainage intensity (Di) is defined as the proportion of the stream frequency to the drainage density.  The form factor ratio (FFR) is defined as the ratio of basin area to square of the basin length. 3. Materials and Methodology 3.2 Methodology 70
  68. 68.  The circularity ratio represents the proportion between the area of the basin and the area of a circle whose circumference is equal to the basin perimeter.  To evaluate the flash flood hazard of the study area, a hazard scale that ranges from 1 (the lowest) to 5 (the highest) is set for all parameters. 3. Materials and Methodology 3.2 Methodology 71
  69. 69. The hazard degrees for the sub-basins are distributed as follows:  Finding out of the minimum and maximum values of each morphometric parameter for the sub-basins.  Calculations of the actual hazard degree for all parameters that are situated between the minimum and maximum values.  Assuming a straight linear relation exists between samples points and intermediate values of hazard degree can be calculated from the geometric relationship. 3. Materials and Methodology 3.2 Methodology 72
  70. 70.  For the parameters, have directly proportional relationship:  For the parameters, have inverse proportional relationship: 3. Materials and Methodology 3.2 Methodology 73
  71. 71. 4. Results and Discussion 74
  72. 72. 4. Results and Discussion 4.1 Drainage intensity (Di) 75
  73. 73. 4. Results and Discussion 4.1 Drainage intensity (Di) 76
  74. 74. 4. Results and Discussion 4.2 Form factor ratio (FFR) 77
  75. 75. 4. Results and Discussion 4.2 Form factor ratio (FFR) 78
  76. 76. 4. Results and Discussion 4.3 Circularity ratio (Rc) 79
  77. 77. 4. Results and Discussion 4.3 Circularity ratio (Rc) 80
  78. 78. 4. Results and Discussion 4.4 Overall assessment  The final flood hazard map was produced by calculation the summation of the hazard degrees for each sub-basin (Fig. 13). 81
  79. 79. 4. Results and Discussion 4.4 Overall assessment 82
  80. 80. 4. Results and Discussion 4.4 Overall assessment 83
  81. 81. 4. Results and Discussion 4.4 Overall assessment 84
  82. 82. 5. Conclusions  Flood hazard map was prepared to delineate flood-prone areas. The results show that based on the values of Di, FFR, and Rc the numbers of the highest three hazard degree areas are 6, 32 and 38 sub-basins and covered about 24.2%, 56.9%, and 46.82% respectively of the total area of the watershed.  The overall assessment map indicates that the sub-basins with hazard degree from moderate to high are equal 34 sub-basins with total area equals 9779.04 km2 (about 63.14% of the total area of Wadi Qena watershed). 85
  83. 83. 5. Conclusions  Most of the hazard areas are located in the southern part by 25 areas. Such map helps the decision makers to evaluate the potential impacts of natural risks quickly and assist further to initiate appropriate measures for impact reduction.  The results shown in this research can help the developers, planners and engineers for effective planning and developments and to minimize the harmful effects of flash floods. 86
  84. 84. Flood mapping in ArcGIS
  85. 85. Flood mapping in ArcGIS 88
  86. 86. ▸ Geographic Information Systems In Water Resources Engineering, Lynn E. Johnson ▸ Introduction to Geographical Information System, Dr. Eng. Fahmy F. Asal ▸ GIS Data Model, Data Types and Data Sources, Dr. Eng. Fahmy F. Asal ▸ Flood hazard mapping, Climate Technology Centre & Network 📖References 89
  87. 87. ▸ Flood mapping in ArcGIS, GIS Application, Youtube video ▸ GIS Flood Analysis - Esri Canada Higher Education & Research, Youtube video ▸ Flood Hazard Mapping by Using Geographic Information System and Hydraulic Model: Mert River, Samsun, Turkey, Vahdettin Demir and Ozgur Kisi ▸ Runoff hazard analysis of Wadi Qena Watershed, Egypt based on GIS and remote sensing approach, Wael M. Elsadek, Mona G. Ibrahim, Wael Elham Mahmod 📖References 90
  88. 88. Any Questions? 91
  89. 89. THANK YOU 