◦ Plastics are used on a daily basis throughout the world.
◦ The word plastic is a common term that is used for many
materials of a synthetic or semi-synthetic nature.
◦ The term was derived from the Greek plastikos, which
means “fit for molding.”
◦ One way plastics changed the world was in cost.
It was so much cheaper to manufacture than other
materials and the various ways it could be used was
◦ plastics are used in an enormous and expanding range of
products, from paper clips to spaceships.
◦ They have already displaced many traditional materials
◦ Light in weight.
◦ Can be easily molded and have excellent finishing.
◦ Possess very good strength and toughness.
◦ Corrosion resistant.
◦ Good thermal and electrical insulating property.
◦ Good water resistant and possess good adhesiveness.
◦ Strong and cheap to produce.
◦ Wide choice of appearance, colors and transparencies
◦ Plastic is a nonrenewable resources
◦ Low heat resistant and poor ductility.
◦ Combustibility - Many plastics are
flammable unless treated.
◦ Low modulus of elasticity: makes them
unsuitable for load-bearing applications.
◦ Produces toxic fumes when it is burnt
◦ It is a recycle process, but it is very costly.
◦ Aging effect, hardens and become brittle
PLASTIC - AS A BUILDING MATERIAL
TYPES OF PLASTIC
◦ Chemical structure remains unchanged during heating
◦ More important commercially, comprising more than
70% of total plastic tonnage
High Density Polythene
Low Density Polythene
Poly Vinyl Chloride (PVC)
ABS Melamine Formaldehyde
ABS Poly Vinyl Acetate (PVA)
Acrylic (Perspex) Elastromers
◦ Undergo a curing process during heating and shaping,
causing a permanent change (cross-linking) in
◦ Once cured they cant not be remelted.
Glass Reinforced Plastic
Carbon Fibre Plastic
◦ High Density Polythene:
HDPE is used for Buckets, Basins, Bottles, Containers and is extensively used in both Blow
molding & Injection molding process.
◦ Low Density Polythene:
Most LDPE application is film based. Industry uses also include wire & cables coating, injection
& Blow molding is used for plastic bags and bottles.
Properties: Soft, Flexible, Good Electrical insulator
◦ Polyvinyl Chloride:
PVC is used for Gutters, Drain Pipes, Window/Door Frames & Shutters, Plumbing Fixtures,
Furniture equipment, etc…It is often used in the Extrusion Process (larger length possible).
Properties: Rigid, Water & Weather Resistant, Light Weight , Ease of fabrication & Installation.
It is used extensively in the Packaging Industry. It is also widely used in Insulate Buildings, in
Properties: Soft, Lightweight, Good Insulator, Water resistance.
Acrylic is used for Bath’s Fixtures & Sanitary wares, Lighting, Display Stands.
Properties: Stiff, Hard, Brittle , Scratches easily. It is generally used as a waterproof.
◦ Epoxy Resin:
Adhesive of as a liquid for casting.
Properties: Strong (When Reinforced), Clear
◦ Melamine Formaldehyde:
It is commonly known as Formica is a composite material made from resin
and layers of paper, commonly used for worktops.
Properties: Clarity, Stability to Heat, Light, Chemicals, Abrasion and Fire.
◦ Glass Reinforced Plastic:
It is a composite material made from Resin and Glass Fiber Sheet. This
combination produces a lightweight yet extremely strong material and used
everywhere from Speed boat hulls to Aircrafts, Roofing sheets, etc.
Properties: Very Strong, Lightweight, Easily workable.
THE BUILDING INDUSTRY
◦ PIPES : Electrical Conduits, Rain Water & Sewage pipes,
Plumbing, Gas Distributions.
◦ CABLES : PVC Insulation on cables, Insulation Tapes .
◦ FLOORINGS : Flooring tiles & Rolls .
◦ DOMES / SKY LIGHTS : Opaque as well as transparent.
◦ ROOFING : Colored or Double skinned for insulation.
◦ WINDOWS & DOORS : Extruded sections for Door and
windows and panels.
◦ STORAGE TANKS : Storage tanks.
◦ HARDWARE ACCESSORIES : Washers, Nut bolts,
Sleeves, Anchoring wires.
◦ TEMPORARY STRUCTURES: Guard cabins, tents
◦ INSULATION MATERIALS: PVC sheets, insulating
◦ Available in two types:
◦ Hard polypropylene
◦ Soft PVC.
◦ Each type of plastic flooring is incredibly durable.
◦ Generally used for Garages, and Warehouses
◦ Both types are capable of supporting extreme weight loads and resistant to
◦ PVC is a softer, more pliable option which typically provides a softer
flooring for standing or working.
◦ PVC flooring is less prone to wear and tear. It also decreases the sound
pollution level and can be cleaned easily.
PLASTIC FLOORING LIKE WOOD
Easy to clean
Hygienic Wall & Ceilings
Easy to Install
Choice of colors & styles
A structural insulated panel (SIP) is a sandwich of expanded polystyrene
amidst two slim layers of oriented strand board.
This type of pre-fab, composite wall board can be transferred to the work
place easily for a particular task and provide good support to columns and
other associated essentials during renovation.
APPLICATIONS FOR PLASTIC WALLS
Canteen Walls and Ceilings
Food Processing Areas
Fast Food Outlets
◦ UPVC products are now frequently used in place of the more traditional products for
external cladding panels, soft boards, particularly on new buildings.
◦ Polycarbonate panels have a high impact strength and have been known to withstand
hurricane force winds when applied to outdoor displays or building structures such as
skylights or archways.
◦ The lightweight panels minimize the structural support needed by the building and its
transparency allows for more natural light and when using thicker guages can provide
greater insulation value.
• Corrugated plastic sheeting has been used for roofing in
conservatories and buildings where transparent panels have been
• To protect the outer surface of the roof from damage, two layers of
different plastic materials are required. The upper part is made of
colored thermoplastic olefin or vinyl while the lower part consists
of polyurethane foam which consumes less energy and keeps the
interior of a house cooler.
SOUND & THERMAL INSULATION
◦ Sound insulation can be provided by either a simple and heavy or a light and
complex construction , which is now replaced by the rubber and plastics
◦ Apart from sound insulation, buildings need thermal insulation also. This
can be met by using light weight aerated concrete building blocks during the
construction of the building or by incorporating foamed plastic sheeting
within the structure.
◦ Typical foamed plastics include rigid polyurethane foam and expanded
polystyrene, although various other foamed plastics may also be used.
◦ Plasterboard can be readily obtained with a 25 mm foamed polystyrene
backing. Other composite sheet building products can be obtained with
polyurethane foam cores. They can be kept clean with very little effort
◦ Polyurethane spray is frequently used for insulation when constructing green
or low energy buildings. Rigid polyurethane foam is known for its high
thermal resistance which promotes temperature consistency. Polyurethane
foam is also popular because it is lightweight, chemical resistant, and flame
retardant. Due to its closed cell nature, polyurethane insulation performs as
an air barrier, resulting in significant energy savings
PLASTIC DECORATIVE ELEMENTS
◦ The normal structure of a plastic decorative laminate includes a sheet
of decorative paper impregnated (saturated) with one or more resins.
◦ Plastic decorative laminates have a wide range of uses, they can be
used in the furniture industry for kitchen cabinet counters, bookshelves
and door linings, among many other things. In the building industry
they can be used for partitions screens in order to divide space in
offices, houses, etc...
PLASTIC ADHESIVE AND SEALANTS
• There are also water-based versions that can provide better heat resistance.
• Generally solvent-based, these cost effective, gap-filling adhesives are suitable
for bonding sheet flooring, adhering skirting's and architraves, signs and wall
• They have good adhesion to most substrates (especially porous materials such
as wood, concrete, brick and plasterboard).
• Sealants- create a flexible, durable bond which is vibration- and shock resistant.
The Monsanto House of the Future was constructed
at Disneyland in 1957. The frame and structure of the
house were 100% plastic. The house had four
cantilevered wings floating above beautifully
landscaped grounds and waterfalls.
Water Cube; The National Aquatic Centre in Beijing China
WHY USE PVC IN BUILDING?
• Cheap material
• Easily available
• Ease of installation, easy to clean
• Can be casted to any shape.
• Easily recyclable
• Wide range of colours and patterns
• Water proof
• Good electric shock proof
• Fire resistant(wide temperature)
• Its production causes pollution.
• They cannot be used at high
• They do not have the same strength as
cast-iron or galvanized irons pipes.
• Higher density than many plastics.
POLY VINYL CHORIDE
Strong and lightweight
PVC's abrasion resistance, light weight, good
mechanical strength and toughness are key
technical advantages for its use in building and
Easy to install
PVC can be cut, shaped, welded and joined easily
in a variety of styles. Its light weight reduces
manual handling difficulties.
PVC is resistant to weathering, chemical rotting,
corrosion, shock and abrasion. It is therefore the
preferred choice for many different long-life and
BENEFITS OF PVC OVER OTHER MATERIALS
PVC has been a popular material for construction applications for decades due to its
physical and technical properties which provide excellent cost-performance advantages.
PVC is non-toxic. It is a safe material and a socially valuable resource that has been used
for more than half a century. It is also the world’s most researched and thoroughly tested
PVC products will burn when exposed to a fire. PVC products however are self-
extinguishing, i.e. if the ignition source is withdrawn they will stop burning. Because of its
high chlorine content PVC products have fire safety characteristics, which are quite
favorable as they are difficult to ignite, heat production is comparatively low and they tend
to char rather than generate flaming droplets.
PVC does not conduct electricity and is
therefore an excellent material to use for
electrical applications such as insulation
sheathing for cables.
The physical properties of PVC allow
designers a high degree of freedom when
designing new products and developing
solutions where PVC acts as a replacement
or refurbishment material.
PVC wall and ceiling claddings and
weatherboards are designed as long life
products requiring no painting and little
Interior and exterior cladding is available with coloured, textured and moulded surfaces.
PVC's durability, high thermal insulation and excellent weathering performance
APPLICATIONS OF PVC
Vinyl roofing membranes
Pitched or flat, clear or coloured, PVC roofing membranes suit homes, commercial
buildings, sports facilities, factories and lightweight structures
The 80% solar reflectivity of PVC will reduce a building’s air conditioning demand and
may reduce 'heat island effects' in the urban environment. A light weight addition to a
A good quality PVC membrane can be highly effective in preventing water and root
penetration, so they are now often specified in 'green' or living roof systems.
Vinyl floor coverings
PVC is the main polymer used for sheet and tile flooring.PVC resilient flooring is widely
used in hospitals, schools, sporting clubs and commercial kitchens where slip resistance
and high levels of safety and hygiene are required.
Vinyl floors are low maintenance, hygienic and fire resistant. Sheets are joined together by
heat welding which prevents water or moisture from seeping through gaps and therefore
are ideal for wet floor areas such as in healthcare facilities.
Window and Door Profiles
PVC windows are proven performers in reducing energy
consumption for heating and cooling and consequently,
over their whole life cycle, can reduce greenhouse gas
emissions by as much as 48-61% compared with aluminium
The tight seals of PVC window and door profiles and the
ease with which they can be fabricated for double and triple
glazing make PVC an excellent choice in energy efficient
Fencing, Decking and Railing
PVC is used for many outdoor applications as
a timber replacement including decorative and
functional fencing, railings and decking.
TYPES OF PVC
UPVC (UNPLASTICIZED POLYVINYL CHLORIDE)
• Unplasticized Polyvinyl Chloride Pipes (UPVC) can be used in a wide range of
applications including electrical and telephone cables, sewer pipes and potable water
• It has an advantage over PVC in that it offers less resistance to flow than conventional pipes
resulting in minimal flow loss.
• Commonly use for doors and windows frames .
CPVC (CHLORINATED POLYVINYL CHLORIDE)
• CPVC stands for Chlorinated Polyvinyl Chloride (that extra chlorination makes all the
difference), and is distinctive for its yellowish colour.
• This plastic pipe is somewhat flexible and has thinner walls than standard PVC, though is
more resistant to heat, and works well for hot water supply applications.
• CPVC also has an advantage over PVC in colder climates in that it acts as an insulator, thus
preventing cold water pipes from forming condensation when water temps get very low.
◦ Reinforced pvc roofing is easy to install,
◦ Pvc has low maintenance requirements and lasts for over
• Freedom of aesthetic effects – available in a wide
range of colours and patterns
• Ease of installation, easy to clean
• Easily recyclable
• Variable thickness
ADVANTAGES OF VINYL WINDOW
◦ Lower energy costs. Vinyl windows keep heat in during winter and out during summer. This reduces
heating and air conditioning usage for lower energy bills.
◦ Maintenance free. Vinyl windows are nearly 100 percent scratch free. They never have to be painted,
scraped, or stained and they’re easily cleaned with soap and water. Because they’re resistant to the
elements, they don’t age as fast as other windows.
◦ Inexpensive. Vinyl is the least expensive of all window materials, but this doesn’t mean vinyl windows
are low quality. Vinyl is durable, and it won’t rust or corrode.
◦ Variety. Vinyl windows have many colour, size, and style options. They can also be custom made. Colours
range from champagne to forest green, and sizes range widely. Vinyl windows are available in styles from
awning to picture.
• Vulnerability. In extreme weather conditions vinyl can discolour. This is especially true in
intense heat. They can’t be repainted, so when this happens, the window has to be replaced.
• Customization costs. Vinyl windows are difficult to shape, so manufacturers use a process called
extrusion to get the job done. For standard windows the costs are minimal, but custom windows
can cost more depending on the scale of the project.
• Low resale value. Vinyl windows don’t add as much value to the home as do other types of
DISADVANTAGES OF VINYL WINDOW
PVC Wall Construction Systems
Concrete-filled PVC stay-in-place (SIP) formwork wall construction systems is being used to offer significant benefits in
terms of construction timeframes, life cycle costs and embodied energy performance.
These new systems can be used to replace load-bearing conventional precast concrete, tilt-up or masonry block walls
and are today used for basements, stair and lift shafts, blade columns, irrigation tanks, retaining walls and other areas,
and in buildings 30 storeys high.
Traditional, temporary formwork using timber, plywood or steel is labour intensive. Glass-reinforced plastic, fibre-
reinforced plastic, thermoplastics (PVC, polystyrene), fibre cement and metals are examples of materials used to pre-
fabricate formwork for permanent systems where the materials remain in place for the life of the building. The
components can be interconnected to create formwork that can be erected with a high level of efficiency.
Concrete is generally used in construction for its high compression strength, its drawbacks include the need for
reinforcement to compensate for its poor tensile strength. Using SIP formwork helps overcome these problems as the
concrete is sealed or protected from the environment by the formwork for the life of the building. The connectors in
the latest SIP formwork systems facilitate concrete flow and consolidation and there’s usually no need to vibrate the
◦ Use – tee joint in three sides for joint with
pipe and all side shave the same size.
REDUCER TEE (SOC)
◦ Use – reducer tee in one side 15mm so
another two side 20mm that’s called reducer
• Use – one side
• joint with tap.
ELBOW 45 (SOC)
• Use – 90 degree turn used for small turn.
• Use – one side of brass.
ELBOW 90 (THREAD)
• Use – one side of thread and 90 degree turn.
ELBOW 45 (SOC)
• Use – 45 degree turn.
• Use – cross joint four side joint available.
• Use – joint two pipes two side available.
• Use – one side 25mm so another 15. Use for high
to law water supply thus called reducer .
◦ Use – up side joint with valve for close
END CAP (SOC)
◦ Use – to end the line.
• Use – joint two lines.
• Use - joint two lines in tight fitting
both sides have a thread.
FAPT (PVC THREAD)
• Use – joint two lines in tight fitting
both sides have a thread.
• Use – pipe joint with the wall.
• Use- one side joint with tank and another
side available reducer.
LONG RADIUS BEND
• Use - long turn pipe joint.
FABT (BRASS THREAD - FEMALE)
• Use – joint two lines in tight fitting
both sides have a thread.
MAPT (BRASS THREAD - FEMALE)
• Use- one side joint with fabt brass thread and
another with pipe.
FIRE RESISTANT MATERIALS :
◦ Gypsum board is an excellent fire-resistive building material.
◦ Its non combustible core contains nearly 21% chemically combined water, as
described earlier, which, under high heat, is slowly released as steam.
◦ Because steam will not exceed 100 degrees Celsius under normal atmospheric
pressure, it very effectively retards the transfer of heat and the spread of fire.
◦ Even after complete calcination, when all the water has been released from its
core, gypsum board continues to serve as a heat-insulating barrier.
◦ Moreover, tests conducted show that gypsum board has a low flame-spread
index and a low smoke-density index.
◦ When installed in combination with other materials in laboratory-tested wall
and ceiling assemblies, gypsum board serves to effectively protect building
elements from fire for
◦ Gypsum board is used to construct strong, high quality walls and ceilings that offer excellent dimensional
stability and durability.
◦ Surfaces created using gypsum board are easily decorated and refinished
•Gypsum board is readily available and easy to apply.
•It is an inexpensive wall surfacing material that provides a fire resistant interior finish.
•Gypsum board building systems can generally be installed at significantly lower labor costs than most alternate
•Gypsum board satisfies a wide range of architectural requirements for design.
Gypsum board satisfies a wide range Of Architectural design requirements. Ease of application and repair, high
performance, widespread availability, and decorative adaptability combine to make gypsum board an unmatched
◦ TYPES AND APPLICATION
1/4-in. A low cost gypsum board used as a base in a multi-layer application for improving
sound control, or to cover existing walls and ceilings in remodeling.
5/16-in. A gypsum board used in manufactured housing.
3/8-in. A gypsum board principally applied in a double-layer system over wood framing
and as a face layer in repair or remodeling.
•1/2-in. Generally used as a single-layer wall
and ceiling material in residential work and in
double-layer systems for greater sound and fire
•5/8-in. Used in quality single-layer and double-
layer wall systems. The greater thickness
provides additional fire resistance, higher
rigidity, and better impact resistance.
•3/4-in. Used in a similar manner to 5/8-in.
•1-in. Used in interior partitions, shaft walls,
stairwells, area separation walls and corridor
Concrete, one of the most common building materials, is also an excellent fire-
resistant material. It is non-combustible and has low thermal conductivity, meaning
that it takes a long time for fire to affect its structural, load-bearing ability, and it
protects from the spread of fire. It's actually significantly more fire-resistant than
steel, and often used to reinforce and protect steel from fire.
However, it's important to note that not all concrete is created equal. It consists of
cement and aggregate, and the particular kinds of aggregate materials used can vary,
as well as the amount used. Aggregate can make up 60 to 80 percent of the
concrete's volume. The exact fire-resistance properties change depending on the type
and amount of aggregate used. Natural aggregates tend not to perform as well.
Moisture in the aggregate can expand when heated, causing concrete to sinter after
Concrete is often listed as among the best fire-resistant roofing materials, too. And
you shouldn't overlook the roof as essential in fire-protection, since it's extremely
vulnerable to sparks blown from wild land fire.
Stucco is a plaster that has been used for centuries for both artistic and structural
purposes. Modern stucco is made of Portland cement, sand and lime, and it serves as
an excellent and durable fire-resistant finish material for buildings.
It can cover any structural material, such as brick or wood. It usually consists of two
or three coats over metal reinforcing mesh. A one-inch (2.54-centimeter) layer of
stucco can easily lend a 1-hour fire rating to a wall.
Roof eaves (overhangs) are a fire hazard, but they can be protected with an
encasement of fire-resistant material. Stucco is often recommended as one of the best
materials for boxing in hazardous eaves.
Stop Fire and Stay Stylish
Because of the versatility in finishing techniques, stucco can come in various colours
and textures. This means that it's easily adaptable to various architectural styles,
including Prairie School, Mediterranean, Tudor and South-western. This way, you
don't have to sacrifice beauty for practical fire-resistant protection.
◦ As bricks are made in a fire kiln, they're already highly resistant to fire. However, it's
true that individual bricks are much more fire-resistant than a brick wall.
◦ A brick wall is held together with mortar, which is less effective. Nevertheless, brick
is commonly cited as among the best building materials for fire protection.
Depending on the construction and thickness of the wall, a brick wall can achieve a
1-hour to 4-hour fire-resistance rating.
◦ So, although some materials are more fire-resistant than others, several factors
might influence a builder's decision, including cost effectiveness, ease of installation
Brick Still Isn't Perfect
◦ Unfortunately, brick can be expensive and heavy compared to other building
materials. It's also not very effective at insulation, hence requiring supportive
insulating materials to make a building energy-efficient.
Guide to Synthetic Boards for Deck Construction :
SYNTHETIC & COMPOSITE DECK BOARDS :
Synthetic deck board choices for deck floors & Porches
SYNTHETIC DECKING FOR DECK & PORCH
◦ Manufacturers have introduced a wide range of synthetic decking products, most of which
promise wood like appearance and low or no maintenance.
◦ Most fall into a few categories discussed below, but each has unique characteristics and
installation requirements. In all cases, review the product specifications and, if possible,
look at an installation before purchasing
SYNTHETIC BOARDS :
◦ In general, composite decking materials are dimensionally stable,
impervious to the elements, and can be worked more or less like
wood. The solid products are installed like wood decking. Special
screws designed for composite decking leave a clean hole without
dimpling around the screw head.
◦ Although these deck surfaces are largely impervious to the
elements and contain no food source for mold or mildew,
manufacturers do point out that a dirty deck can support mold and
mildew growth and recommend periodic cleaning with a deck
cleaner to prevent this.
◦ Also synthetic decking is vulnerable to oil and grease stains, which
can be difficult to remove if not cleaned right away with a
ACOUSTIC MATERIALS are things that have ability to absorb redundant noise and enhance transmission of sound. They play an
important role in determining the quality of your auditory experience in a number of settings like offices, restaurants, concert halls,
schools, auditoriums, healthcare facilities and gymnasiums.
• SOUND ABSORBERS
• SOUND DIFFUSERS
• NOISE BARRIERS
• SOUND REFLECTORS
• These sound absorbing acoustical panels and soundproofing materials are used to eliminate sound reflections
to improve speech intelligibility, reduce standing waves and prevent comb filtering.
• Typical materials are open cell polyurethane foam, cellular melamine, fiberglass, fluffy fabrics and other porous
materials. A wide variety of materials can be applied to walls and ceilings depending on your application and
• These materials vary in thickness and in shape to achieve different absorption ratings
depending on the specific sound requirements.
WHAT ARE THE ACOUSTIC MATERIAL?
TYPES OF ACOUSTIC MATERIALS:
ACOUSTICAL FOAM PANELS
• These acoustical foam sound absorbers are used in a wide variety of applications
ranging from Recording and
Broadcast Studios to Commercial and Industrial Facilities. Available in Polyurethane or
in a Class 1 Fire Rated foam.
These products can be applied directly to walls, hung as baffles or used as freestanding
absorbers. Design enables
you to increase thickness quickly by nesting layers. Standard patterns include wedge,
pyramid, max wedge for low
frequency absorption, ceiling baffles, bermuda triangle traps for corners, sounds
cylinders free standing absorbers
Anechoic wedges are ideal for controlling low frequency sound to create a room that is
perceptually devoid of sound.
Absorbers are lightweight open cell foams used when a Class 1 fire rated foam is
required. Standard patterns include
Wedge, Pyramid, Max Wedge, Ceiling Baffles and more. These can easily mount to walls
FIRE RATED FOAM
◦ WHITE PAINTABLE PANELS:
• It is a white acoustical wall panel with a soft textured appearance. The two foot by one foot dimension
provides installers flexibility to mount acoustical panels around existing objects. In addition to reducing
echo and reverberation, these acoustical panels are used to create unique designs and patterns. The glass
fiber core is faced with a paintable covering. This allows you to match or complement existing wall
colors by applying a light coat of flat or matte spray paint. To customize the look even further, many
local printing companies now have the capability to
produce an image directly to the face of these panels.
∞ Quick & Easy acoustical solution
∞ Soft drywall texture appearance
∞ Create unique patterns
∞ Panel size allows for flexible mounting options
∞ Paintable & Printable finish
CONSTRUCTION: " Fiberglass 6 PCF acoustical core + molded fiberboard + paintable facing. Resin
hardened square edges . Paintable finish covers face and exposed edges.
Class A rating per ASTM E 84 Panel Size: 2' x 1' (24 inches by 12 inches)
Thickness: 1-1/8" Quantity per box: 10 panels.
SUSTAINABILITY: This product bears the Green Cross label for recycled content. The acoustical
substrate is certified on average to contain at least 35% recycled glass, with 9% post-consumer and 26%
MOUNTING: Installs using standard impaling clip method. (adhesive by others) Other mounting
options shown below.
MOUNT IN CORNERS USING CORNER CLIPS.
MOUNT ON TWO INCH STAND OFF CLIPS
◦ FABRIC WRAPPED PANELS
Acoustical sound panels utilize 6-7 PCF glass fiber material for maximum absorption. Available as wall
panels, ceiling tiles, hanging baffles, acoustical clouds and bass traps, with more than 50 standard colors
to choose from, these materials will look as good as they sound. The standard sizes and configurations
best maximize raw materials, however, many of these products can be customized to meet specific
requirements should you need material sized to fit or other finishes or coverings.
Used to reduce echo and reverberation in applications, small and large. These panels are manufactured
from a rigid high density (6-7 PCF) glass fiber acoustical board and covered with an acoustically
Ceiling clouds reduce reflected sound in areas such as theaters, restaurants, arenas, shopping malls,
convention centers, recording and broadcast rooms, or anywhere absorption is required.
CEILING TILES • Ceiling Tiles are an excellent choice for many ceiling grid applications requiring
CEILING BAFFLES •All surface faces and edges of the glass fiber core are wrapped in fabric to
match or accentuate room décor . Ceiling Baffles absorb sound on all sides and edges.
BROADBAND ABSORBER •Sculptured sound absorbing modular units used for walls, as corner
traps, bass traps and ceiling applications. Available in half-rounds or quarter-rounds.
Noise Barriers & Vibration Control:
These materials range from dense materials to block the transmission of airborne sound to
devices and compounds used to isolate structures from one another and reduce impact
noise. These dense materials are used to block the transmission of airborne sound by
providing mass to existing structures or hung as a limp mass partitions. Use these materials
to soundproof walls, floors, and ceilings.
◦ • Acoustical wall fabric is a dimensional fabric that offers excellent acoustical properties,
unmatched fade resistance, and a fire/smoke retardant class A rating. Sound channels is
resistant to moisture,
mildew, rot, bacteria, and is non-allergenic. Produced with no voc’s (volatile organic
ods’s (ozone depleting substances), heavy metals or formaldehyde, it's the perfect acoustic
fabric for offices,
classrooms, conference centers or any area where speech intelligibility is a critical factor.
•Lightweight Acoustic Fabric
•Easy to install
•Passes Corner Burn Test
•Available in Many Colors
•Durable / Abuse Resistant
•Improves Speech Intelligibility
•Hallways and more...
•This material is not factory trimmed. It is necessary for the installer to cut a straight vertical edge
•Following the ribbed pattern. All edges must be butt joined. Do not overcut edges. Cut material to
•Desired lengths, allowing for top and bottom trimming. Wall carpet should be hung
•Straight up. Do not alternately reverse strips. •Apply a premixed heavy duty adhesive directly to the wall, allowing it
to dry to its maximum tack ability
•Without it being overly dry. (Important!!! Adhesives are ready mixed. Do not dilute)
•Adhesive and do not apply adhesive to the back of the wall covering).
•Please be sure to follow instructions as provided by the adhesive manufacturer.
◦ CEILING TILES
• Cloudscape® Ceiling Tiles absorb noise and block sound transmission. These ceiling tiles are designed to
fit into existing 2' x 2' suspended drop tile ceiling grid systems. They may also retrofit in a 2' x 4' ceiling grid
by installing cross tees. Cloudscape® ceiling tiles may also be ordered as a full 24" x 24" size, un-backed for
adhesive mounting directly to walls or ceilings.
• Ordinary ceilings take on new levels of visual excitement with these sculptured tiles. They are available in
five different patterns plus a non-patterned look to enable you to "mix and match" for your own designs.
Available Sizes: 24" x 24" (nominal) Specify grid when ordering: 9/16 or 15/16
BAFFLES AND BANNERS
• Baffles and Banners are designed to solve acoustical problems economically in any large cubic volume
space such as arenas, gymnasiums, theaters, restaurants, and auditoriums. Reverberation times that range
from 4 to 9 seconds can be reduced to 1/2 to 2 seconds. Speech intelligibility is greatly improved and sound
intensity levels are reduced simultaneously by 3 to 12 decibels.
BAFFLES: • Baffles are an economical way to reduce sound pressure levels and lower reverberation times
in large spaces such as gymnasiums, theaters, restaurants, healt h and fitness clubs, etc. Reverberation times
can be lowered from a RT60 of 4 - 9 seconds down to a RT60 of 0.5 - 2 seconds. Speech intelligibility is
greatly improved and sound intensity levels can be simultaneously reduced by 3 to 12 decibels.
•These baffles are easily suspended from existing open truss and pre- engineered suspension systems. They
are designed to hang in a vertical fashion, allowing free flow of air and integrate exceptionally well with
existing sprinklers, lighting and HVAC systems.
BANNERS: •Speech intelligibility is greatly improved and sound intensity levels can be simultaneously
reduced by 3 to 12 decibels. •Banners are suspended from ceilings, bar joists or pre-engineered suspension
systems. They are designed to hang in a horizontal or in a catenary fashion using edge stiffeners or deck
mounted flat with washer plates
◦ SOUND DIFFUSERS
• These devices reduce the intensity of sound by scattering it over an expanded area, rather than
eliminating the sound reflections as an absorber would. Traditional spatial diffusers, such as the
polycylindrical (barrel) shapes also double as low frequency traps. Temporal diffusers, such as binary arrays
and quadratics, scatter sound in a manner similar to diffraction of light, where the timing of reflections
from an uneven surface of varying depths causes interference which spreads the sound.
QUADRA PYRAMID DIFFUSER
•This diffuser generates a uniform polar response over a broad frequency range using a pre-rotated
pyramidal pattern to create 16 angles of reflection.
•This traditional industry workhorse disperses sound uniformly over a broad frequency range. A quick
solution to reduce flutter echo.
DOUBLE DUTY DIFFUSER
•These Polycylindrical Diffusers do twice the work. They scatter sound and function as a bass trap.
◦ A true quadratic residue diffuser designed for uniform broadband scattering and reducing High-Q
◦ NOISE BARRIERS
◦ These materials range from dense materials to block the transmission of airborne sound to devices and compounds
used to isolate structures from one another and reduce impact noise.
•Sound barrier materials are used to reduce the transmission of airborne sound. The Block Aid® series of products
include the standard one pound per square foot non reinforced barrier, transparent material when observation or
supervision is required, reinforced vinyl to create a hanging barrier partition.
•Composite materials are manufactured from combinations of various materials from open and closed celled foams
to quilted fiberglass and barrier. These products are used to block and absorb sound for machine enclosures as well
as blocking airborne sound and impact noise. Some of these products include Composite Foams, Strati Quilt
Blankets and Floor Underlayment.
•Vibration control products are used to absorb vibration energy and prevent structural noise transmission. These
include vibration damping compounds and vibration pads, isolation hangers, and resilient clips. They improve sound
◦ • Acoustical fabrics are typically used to either absorb sound or as a cover for acoustical panels.
Some fabrics can also be used as a speaker grill cloth or as a finish on other types of materials.
SOUND CHANNELS WALL FABRICS
•Acoustical wall fabric is a dimensional fabric that offers excellent acoustical properties,
unmatched fade resistance, and a fire/smoke retardant class A rating. Sound channels® is
resistant to moisture, mildew, rot, bacteria, and is non- allergenic. Produced with no voc’s (volatile
organic compounds), ods’s (ozone depleting substances), heavy metals or formaldehyde, it's the
perfect acoustic fabric for offices, classrooms, conference centers or any area where speech
intelligibility is a critical factor.
GUILFORD OF MAINE
•Guilford of Maine® Fabric is and acoustically transparent fabric used to cover many of our
products including acoustical wall panels, diffusers, and corner traps. Fabric is also sold separately
as speaker grill cloth, wall covering and for other field applications.
◦ Glass is an amorphous (non-crystalline) solid which is often transparent and
has widespread practical, technological, and decorative usage in things like
window panes, tableware, and optoelectronics.
The most familiar, and historically the oldest, types of glass are based on the
chemical compound silica (silicon dioxide), the primary constituent of sand.
Main types of glass
◦ Annealed glass:
-Annealed glass is the basic flat glass product that is the first result of the float process.
-It is common glass that tends to break into large, jagged shards.
-It is used in some end products and often in double-glazed windows. -It is also the starting material used to
produce more advanced products through further processing such as laminating, toughening, coating, etc.
-Toughened glass is made from annealed glass treated with a thermal tempering process. (A sheet of
annealed glass is heated to above its "annealing point" of 600°C; its surfaces are then rapidly cooled while the
inner portion of the glass remains hotter.
-The different cooling rates between the surface and the inside of the glass produces different physical
properties, resulting in compressive stresses in the surface balanced by tensile stresses in the body of the
-Toughened glass is treated to be far more resistant to breakage than simple annealed glass due to
counteracting stresses and to break in a more predictable way when it does break, thus providing a major
safety advantage in almost all of its applications.
-Car windshields and windows, glass portions of building facades, glass sliding doors and partitions in houses
and offices, glass furniture such as table tops, and many other products typically use toughened glass.
◦ LAMINATED GLASS:
Laminated glass is made of two or more layers of glass with one or more "interlayers" of
polymeric material bonded between the glass layers.
Rather than shattering on impact, laminated glass is held together by the interlayer giving more
safety as well as, to some degree, reducing the security risks associated with easy penetration.
The interlayer also provides a way to apply several other technologies and benefits, such as
colorings, sound dampening, resistance to fire, ultraviolet filtering and other technologies that
can be embedded in or with the interlayer.
◦ COATED GLASS:
Surface coatings can be applied to glass to modify its appearance and give it many of the
advanced characteristics and functions available in today's flat glass products, such as low
maintenance, special reflection/ transmission/ absorption properties, scratch resistance,
corrosion resistance, etc.
Coatings are usually applied by controlled exposure of the glass surface to vapours , which
bind to the glass forming a permanent coating.
The coating process can be applied while the glass is still in the float line with the glass still
warm, producing what is known as "hard-coated" glass.
◦ MIRRORED GLASS
To produce mirrored glass, a metal coating is applied to one side of the glass.
The coating is generally made of silver, aluminium, gold or chrome.
For simple mirrored glass, a fully reflective metal coating is applied and then sealed with a
To produce "one-way" mirrors, a much thinner metal coating is used, with no additional
sealing or otherwise opaque layer.
Mirrored glass is gaining a more prominent place in architecture, for important functional
reasons as well as for the aesthetic effect.
◦ PATTERNED GLASS
Patterned glass is flat glass whose surfaces display a regular pattern.
The most common method for producing patterned glass is to pass heated glass (usually
just after it exits the furnace where it is made) between rollers whose surfaces contain the
negative relief of the desired pattern(s).
Patterned glass is mostly used in internal decoration and internal architecture.
◦ GLASS FOR GREEN
Reflective glasses come with reflective coating that filters heat
and let optimum light into the building.
Reduce the heat gain inside the building, and thus reduces
electricity and cooling costs.
Allow optimum light (natural daylighting) inside the building,
and thus reduces the cost for artificial lighting
Supply of natural daylight
Protection from rain, wind, and cold
Transparency or translucency
Means of communication
Object and personal protection
Temporary heat and solar protection
Use of solar energy
Means of design
◦ STRONG BACK SYSTEM:
The structural systems are the simplest form of structural support for a glass wall, but are only useful in
relatively short spans of two to six meters usually.
These systems can include both vertical and horizontal structural components. Sometimes verticals are used
with no horizontals.
They can be comprised of simple steel or aluminum open or closed sections with provisions for the
attachment of the glazing system usually of spider type.
◦ TRUSS SYSTEM:
Truss systems employ a planar truss design, often in a hierarchical system that may combine other element
types including tension components.
Truss designs vary widely, with an emphasis on fine detailing and craftsmanship. Rod or cable elements
may be incorporated into the truss design, and lateral tensile systems are often used to stabilize the facade
◦ CABLE TRUSS:
One type of truss system utilizes a minimalist structural form called a cable truss.
The main spinal compression element is removed, leaving the spreader struts as the sole compression
elements in this truss type.
As with cable nets, these systems rely on the pre-tensioning of truss elements to provide stability, and thus
benefit significantly from the early involvement of the facade design/build team.
STRUCTURAL GLASS SYSTEMS:
Structural glass facades are most easily categorized by the structure types that
◦ GRID SHELLS:
Grid shell structural systems are another means to minimize the visual mass of structure.
Configurations can be vaulted, domed and double-curved.
Systems can be welded, bolt-up, or some combination of each.
Grid shell structures with integrated cable bracing can produce a highly efficient structure with a
Grid shells can be used in vertical and overhead applications, as well as to form complete building
◦ CABLE NET:
If the spreaders were also to be removed from Cable Truss System, a system known as cable net
is subsequently achieved.
The glass is supported by a net geometry of pre-tensioned cables.
A clamping component locks the cables together at their vertices and fixes the glass to the net.
◦ GLASS FINS:
This technology was popularized by the Willis Faber & Dumas Building, Ipswich, England circa
In this glass plates are suspended and laterally stiffened by the use of glass fins set perpendicular
to the plates at the vertical joints between them.
Glass is the dominating material in modern day architecture which places optical
emphases and provides for numerous technical functions.
The glass industry offers glazing with individual technical features that can be used
for heat, solar, or sound protection, as design components, safety glass, or as a part
of building design systems.
Glass is no longer just a filler element, but is rather nowadays also used for
supporting or enveloping purposes.
The main focus in building is usually on saving energy, especially in these
challenging times of increasing prices for energy and raw materials. Glass plays an
important role in it. Hence promoting the concept of Sustainability.
Over a period of time, Glass has acquired a special status as a significant building
material. Apart from being a building material it is used in various forms also in the
building to enhance the overall quality e.g. in furniture, electrical appliances and
decorative items. Various technological innovations have made it a preferred choice
for architects and designers to promote sustainability in built environment.
• Composite panels are a pre fabricated insulated
building material with typically two metal skins
bonded to an inner insulation core.
• Some are available with plastic or fabric lining instead of
metal for one or both skins. Such panels are in
widespread use in modern buildings, either externally as
wall or roofing material, or internally as
compartmentation or linings.
• They are an inexpensive, light and easy to install product
with superior insulation and hygiene qualities to many
similar building materials.
◦ Panels are manufactured on a continuous lamination basis with metal
facings - usually steel or aluminum - encapsulating a foamed
polyurethane core. This composition offers a high degree of stability,
rigidity and excellent load-bearing capacity.
◦ The thickness of the polyurethane foam can range from 30mm to
200mm depending upon application and required insulation
◦ These versatile products are also known as 'sandwich' panels due to the
physical interaction of the two materials.
◦ A sandwich panel is a structure made of three layers: low density core inserted in between two
relatively thin skin layers.
• This sandwich setup allows to achieve excellent mechanical
performance at minimal weight.
• The very high rigidity of a sandwich panel is achieved thanks
to interaction of its components under flexural load applied to
the panel: core takes the shear loads and creates a distance
between the skins which take the in-plane stresses, one skin in
tension, the other in compression.
Panel feature Construction benefit
Single manufactured unit
Fast on-site erection = labor cost savings
Allows fast project completion
Minimizes on-site impact on product quality
High insulation value at low panel
Reduced energy costs for life of building
Dimensional space savings
Greater saleable/leasable building area
Structural value Combined air/
Long span, high load construction performance
Material cost savings
Ease of construction
Removable panels Design/refurbishment flexibility
Low maintenance Low whole life costs for building owner/tenant
Surface treatments: texture and
Features and benefits of composite panels
◦ This is a qualitative, aesthetic, reliable, multipurpose building material.
◦ Recently a number of materials which have instantly won popularity in all spheres and directions of the building
industry, having superseded the traditional designs applied for many years.
• Sandwiches-panels (a cassette profile) have proved as the universal material representing a basic element in building of any of
buildings - from apartment houses to huge trading-entertaining complexes, stadiums, the medical centers, economic and
◦ Reduction of cost of a building (from 30 to 50 %). Easy and easily
transported panels have an original design which gives them special value.
• Low heat conductivity of a material and small degree of
• Stability to ignition, simplicity of installation and assemblage
a panel sandwich.
• Allowing easily to assort small sites and to replace the
damaged panels new, profitability of building process at the
expense of absence of necessity to apply a special equipment
at many stages of works.
WORKING OF PANELS
◦ The growth in use of composite panels has been driven by the construction industry's need for a lightweight panel with
high thermal insulation values and simple on-site installation.
◦ The ease of mounting composite panels to the building sub-structure is another major factor in the popularity of this
product. Building times are significantly reduced compared to traditional methods, with spin-off savings in labor costs.
EFFECT ON ENVIRONMENT
The choice of composite panels as a building solution supports important environmental considerations. From an
environmental perspective composite panels are:
◦ outstanding providers of thermal insulation; reducing heating and cooling costs for the lifetime of a building;
◦ long life applications, maximizing natural resources used in manufacture;
◦ contributing to reduced emission of greenhouse gases - in production, transportation and installation.
HONEYCOMB SANDWICH PANEL
◦ Honeycomb sandwich panel has been proven as the most efficient sandwich design with respect to mechanical performance and
◦ Aerospace and aircraft industry uses the honeycomb structures as they meet the tough requirements of related applications.
The use of honeycomb sandwich design in more common applications has been
more limited due to the batch wise manufacturing processes and hence relatively
high production costs.
ALUMINIUM COMPOSITE PANEL
◦ Aluminium composite panel (ACP), also aluminium composite material (ACM), is a type of flat panel that consists of two
thin Aluminium sheets bonded to a non-aluminium core.
◦ ACPs are frequently used for external cladding or facades of buildings, insulation, and signage. If the core material is flammable,
usage may be problematic as a building material and some jurisdictions have banned their use.
• Aluminium sheets are coated with polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), fluoropolymer resins (FEVE), or polyester paint.
Aluminium can be painted in any kind of color, and ACPs are produced in a wide range of metallic and non-metallic colors
as well as patterns that imitate other materials, such as wood or marble. The core is commonly low-density polyethylene, or
a mix of low-density polyethylene and mineral material to exhibit fire retardant properties.
• ACP as a construction material ACP is mainly used for external and
internal architectural cladding or partitions, false ceilings, Sign
trays, Individual logos, Column cladding, Counter cladding, Grilles
and screens, Machine parts and covers, Display panels, etc. External
◦ Sandwich panels are used in applications where high structural rigidity and low
weight are required. An evident example of use of sandwich panels is aircraft,
where mechanical performance and weight saving is essential.
◦ Other applications include packaging (e.g. fluted polypropylene boards of
polypropylene honeycomb boards), transportation and automotive as well as
building & construction.
◦ ACP is mainly used for external and internal architectural cladding or partitions,
false ceilings, signage, machine coverings, container construction, etc. Applications
of ACP are not limited to external building cladding, but can also be used in any
form of cladding such as partitions, false ceilings, etc. ACP is also widely used
within the signage industry as an alternative to heavier, more expensive substrates.
◦ ACP has been used as a light-weight but very sturdy material in construction, particularly for transient structures like trade
show booths and similar temporary elements.
◦ It has recently also been adopted as a backing material for mounting fine art photography, often with an acrylic finish using
processes like Diasec or other face-mounting techniques.
◦ ACP material has been used in famous structures as Spaceship Earth, VanDusen Botanical Garden, the Leipzig branch of
the German National Library.
◦ These structures made optimal use of ACP through its cost, durability, and efficiency. Its flexibility, low weight, and easy
forming and processing allow for innovative design with increased rigidity and durability.
Epcot's Spaceship Earth is an example of the use of
ACP in architecture. It is a geodesic sphere composed
of 11,324 ACP tiles.
◦ Gypsum block is a massive lightweight building material composed of
solid gypsum, for building and erecting lightweight fire-resistant non-load
bearing interior walls, partition walls, cavity walls, skin walls and pillar
◦ Gypsum blocks are composed of gypsum plaster, water and in some cases
additives like vegetable or wood fibre for greater strength.
◦ Partition walls made from gypsum blocks require no sub-structure for
erection and gypsum adhesive is used as bonding agent, not standard
◦ The dimensions of these blocks are:
length 500 mm, height 500 mm. Four
blocks thus make 1 m².
◦ Gypsum blocks vary in thickness -
2", 3", 4" and 6“.
For construction purposes especially two
densities are important:
◦ The medium gross density of 850
kg/m³ to 1.100 kg/m³ (white coloured
blocks, suitable for standard usage)
◦ The high gross density blocks of
1.100 kg/m³ to 1.500 kg/m³ (reddish
colour, suitable for walls with higher
acoustic performance requirements)
Gypsum blocks combine the advantages of classical masonry with
modern drywall construction. Similar to masonry, walls built with
gypsum blocks are massive, void-free and of high stability.
Because no mortar, sand or plaster are used, the walls are (almost)
built without water, like drywalls.
◦ Massive gypsum blocks have a high level of passive fire
protection: 60 mm thickness offers 30 minutes of fire resistance
(F30-A in accordance with the German DIN 4102 standard, the
European EN 13501 or the British BS 476); 80 mm thickness
offers 2 hours of fire resistance
◦ To improve the sound proof qualities of gypsum block partition
walls, insulation strips are used on all sides to connect the
partition walls to adjacent walls, ceilings and floors. The
acoustic decoupling of the walls in this way reduces the
acoustic transmissions of these lightweight partition walls
◦ Gypsum blocks are for use internally, as partition walling in all kind of
building constructions e.g. flats, dwellings, industrial buildings, offices,
hospitals, schools, nursing homes etc.
DESIGN AND COMPOSITION
◦ Rectangular, smooth solid gypsum blocks, manufactured from high-quality
plaster, water and in some cases additives.
◦ Never use in areas in which moisture exposure could occur
Metals are solid materials that exist in
nature. Their properties include:
• Good electrical and thermal
• High strength,
• High stiﬀness
• Good ductility
• Some metals, such as iron, cobalt and
nickel are Magnetic
Elements which comes
from a particular area of
the periodic table. E.g.
Copper in electrical wires
and Aluminium in
cooking foil and
Contain more than one
E.g. Stainless steel,
alloy of iron, nickel,
Gold jewelry , alloy of
gold and nickel.
Metal is used as structural
framework for larger buildings such
or as an external surface covering.
There are many types
of metals used for building.
Metal figures quite prominently
in prefabricated structures and can
be seen used in most cosmopolitan
Steel is a metal alloy whose
major component is iron, and is
the usual choice for metal
structural building materials. It
is strong, flexible, and if refined
well and/or treated lasts a long
The lower density and
better corrosion resistance
of aluminium alloys
and tin sometimes overcome
their greater cost
Copper is a valued building material because of its
These include corrosion resistance, durability, low
thermal movement, light weight, radio frequency
shielding, lightning protection, sustainability,
recyclability, and a wide range of finishes.
Copper is incorporated into roofing, flashing,
gutters, downspouts, domes, spires, vaults, wall
cladding, building expansion joints, and indoor
Other metals used include chrome, gold, silver,
Titanium can be used for structural purposes,
but it is much more expensive than steel.
Chrome, gold, and silver are used as decoration,
because these materials are expensive and lack
structural qualities such as tensile strength or
• It requires a great deal of
human labor to produce
metal, especially in the
large amounts needed for
the building industries.
• Corrosion is metal's prime
enemy when it comes to