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Auditorium Desktop Study

Desktop Study

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Auditorium Desktop Study

  1. 1. DESKTOP STUDY OF AUDITORIUM AAQIB IQBAL
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION • An auditorium is a room built to enable an audience to hear and watch performances at venues such as theatres. For movie theatres, the number of auditoriums is expressed as the number of screens. • The term is taken from Latin (from audītōrium, from audītōrius (“‘pertaining to hearing’”)); the concept is taken from the Greek auditorium, which had a series of semi- circular seating shelves in the theatre, divided by broad 'belts', called diazomata, with eleven rows of seats between each.
  3. 3. SHAPE • The talker-to-audience distance can be Minimized by carefully considering the Room geometry. • A rectangular shoebox-type hall , with The stage across one narrow end ,may Be excellent for music where an Audience can be seated farther away And a greater ratio of reverberant sound Is desirable. • However ,a rectangular geometry is Only suitable for a relatively small Speech hall. NORMAL SURROUND
  4. 4. • For greater seating capacity, the side walls should be splayed from the stage. • Splayed side walls allow greater seating area that is relatively close to the stage. • The splayed walls can usefully reflect sound energy to the rear of the hall. • A side-wall splay may range from 30° to 60°, the latter is considered a maximum angle, given the directionality of speech. Generally, fan-shaped halls are not used for music performance.
  5. 5. TYPES OF SEATING ARRANGEMENTS CONTINENTIAL ARRANGEMENT MULTIPLE – ASILE ARRANGEMENT
  6. 6. DIFFERENT TYPES OF SEATS AND THEIR SIZES
  7. 7. FREE SPACE BETWEEN THE ROWS ON FLOOR WITH NO RISER FREE SPACE BETWEEN THE ROWS ON FLOOR WITH RISER
  8. 8. PROJECTION SCREEN • Min. Distance of projection screen from wall is 120 cm. • It is perforated (sound permeable). • Large projection screens are curved. • The auditorium should have no outside light other than emergency lighting. • Walls and ceilings are made from non-reflective material.
  9. 9. SECONDARY SPACES DRESSING ROOM Source: Neufert
  10. 10. WORK SHOP CHANGING ROOMS Source: Neufert
  11. 11. REHEARSAL STAGES PROJECTOR ROOM Source: Neufert
  12. 12. SPACE RELATIONSHIPS
  13. 13. TATATHEATRE
  14. 14. SITE LOCATION: • NCPA marg, South Mumbai. • The NCPA complex occupies an area of about 3200 sqm. at Nariman point on land reclaimed from the sea. • The site can be accessed through six gates, the site is divided into six major blocks. CONTEXT: • The site is located in commercial area. • It is surrounded by hotels, offices, residential buildings. • Oberoi hotel and Mantralaya are the main landmarks.
  15. 15. SITE LAYOUT A – Tata theatre B – Jamshed Bhabha theatre C – Main administrative office D – Teaching and research block(libraries) E – Experimental theatres F – Godrej dance academy theatre G – Open air plaza R – Residence (includes staff residences, guest rooms and NCPAapartments. ACCESS : Total number of entrances : 6 Main entrance : Gate no.1 and Gate No.2 Service entry : Gate no.4 PARKING: Common basement parking. Reserved parking spaces.
  16. 16. TATATHEATRE • Tata theatre was designed by Ar. Philip Johnson and the legendary acoustician Cyril Harris. • It was opened in 1982. • It was the first theatre designed in India. • It is a fan shaped amphitheater with excellent acoustics. • Suitable for chamber music concert, dance, drama and film screening. • The theatre has a rotating stage. • It can accommodate 1010 people . • It has excellent acoustics. • The theatre is centrally air-conditioned. • The height of the auditorium is 15m.
  17. 17. PLAN
  18. 18. CEILING PLAN POSITION OF THE CEILING LIGHTS AND ACBLOWERS
  19. 19. SECTION
  20. 20. ENTRY • There are two separate entrances, one for the performers and the other for the audiences. • The entry for the performers were also used as the service entry. • There is a truck loading unloading dock ramp. • There is a small courtyard garden next to the entrance.
  21. 21. TO THE AUDITORIUM • There is a foyer at two level. • Size: 77m x 7.5m width • Height of the lower lobby is 9.6m • Height of the upper lobby is 6m. • There are six entry/exit doors from the main foyer. • Two emergency exit are provided near the stage.
  22. 22. GREEN ROOM • There were a total of 6 green rooms. • Each green room consisted of one toilet. BACKSTAGE AREA The backstage area consisted of • All technical rooms • The main entry for the performers • A store area • Green rooms • Entry to the sea view room • Waiting area for the performers
  23. 23. SEATING • The total seating capacity of the theatre is 1010. • The theatre is fan shaped, hence the seating arrangements are divided into five equal segments. • Each bay consists of 202 seats. • The seating is radial in nature. • The 1st row of each segment has 7 seats and the last row has 16 seats. • The six aisles divided the segments into five parts.
  24. 24. • Control is divided into three parts • The first section was sound room with another partitioned channel mixer in the third room. • The second section was projection room and had different opening sizes for different types of projectors. • The third part was light room which had the additional fire setup • The whole control room was air conditioned and carpet floored CONTROL ROOM
  25. 25. CONTROL ROOM
  26. 26. OPEN SPACE AND LANDSCAPE
  27. 27. LANDSCAPE: • The gardens were designed in a simple way using only lawn, trees and minimal number of shrubs. • There were gardens near all the theatres(auditoriums). OPEN SPACES: • The main open space was at the center of the NCPA. • The open spaces near the theatres were also used as waiting areas.
  28. 28. PARKING • The ncpa Centre was overall provided with a basement parking area. • Separate parking area near the theatres were also provided for VIP's. • These parking consisted on maximum 6 car parking lots. • Parking were mainly near  Gate 4 (VIP parking)  Gate 3  Gate 1 parking
  29. 29. SERVICES • The whole NCPA complex had a well designed storm water drainage system. • Storm water gutters ran through the edges of the complex. • The depth of the gutters are approximately 1.2 m. • Internal Circuits were placed at 1.2m from the structure at a distance of around 4.5m to 7m. Storm water gutters
  30. 30. 350mm 850mm 150mm 450mm 300mm 600mm 800 mm
  31. 31. FLOORING • R.C.C floor is covered with woollen carpet. • Woollen carpets are absorptive in nature. The carpet is 80% wool and 20% nylon. ADVANTAGES : • Naturally Solid & Stain Resistant - Protection that won't deteriorate like the temporary additives that are used on synthetic fibers. • Unique comfort - Wool and polyester carpet are the go to carpets when comfort is the highest priority. Wool is unique because it combines softness with springiness.
  32. 32. • Hypoallergenic/Organic Wool - carpet comes off the sheep’s back and can be manufactured without any dyes or synthetic chemicals. This makes it hypoallergenic (for those not allergic to wool) . • Insulation - One way wool carpet might justify its cost is by reducing your heating and air conditioning bills. Wool is a great insulator, so it will limit the transfer of heat (or cool air) from the outside world into your home. • Doesn’t crush - Wool carpet doesn’t crush down easily. This is one of the reasons for its great durability and long-standing comfort.
  33. 33. • Fire resistant – 1. Wool is the fiber of choice for casinos and airlines for this reason alone. 2. Naturally flame retardant Difficult to ignite, due to a higher ignition temperature 3. Low flame-spread 4. Low heat release properties and low heat of combustion 5. Does not melt (or drip if used vertically) 6. Contributes less to smoke or toxic gas formation (compared to synthetic carpet pile fibers) DISADVANTAGES • It fades in the sun and it absorbs water. You’ll want to avoid putting wool carpet in any room that gets constant sunlight. • Exposing the carpet to a little sunlight here or there isn’t going to be a problem, just make sure to limit it. Another disadvantage is wool carpets hold water. This makes them prone to mildew, so avoid wool in any rooms with a moisture problem.
  34. 34. STAGE Type: • Semi-circular stage • No curtains and fins. • The inner portion( up to 4.7m radius) is rotatable. • The outer portion of the stage is fixed. • It rotates 180 degree in 80 seconds and is electronically controlled. Size: • The radius of the semicircular stage is 7m. Floor: • Hardwood timber flooring over concrete.
  35. 35. WALLS AND CEILING Walls: • The walls and ceiling had a basic wooden framework. • These framework (panels) had alternate concave and convex triangular forms which ensured even distribution of sound over the entire auditorium. • These projections come out from the sides of the walls. They are hollow and may act as resonators.
  36. 36. • These are surfaces which help in the dispersion of sound. • The special acoustic forms are made up of high density compressed plaster(P.O.P). • Due to these special acoustic methods, the voice is naturally audible at any place in the auditorium without any mikes or sound systems.
  37. 37. 1m Ac blowers. Triangular projections Sprinklers were placed at a distance of 4m on the ceiling. 2.5m
  38. 38. CEILING
  39. 39. LIGHTING • A good number of lighting fixtures are oriented on the stage covering all angles possible . • There are halogen lights on the ceiling over the seating area for the audience. • These lights are of different types, qualities, intensities, colour etc. eg- halogen lights, spot lights, focus lights.
  40. 40. • Advantages 1. Halogen Lamps are small, lightweight 2. Low cost to produce 3. Does not use mercury like CFLs(fluorescent) 4. Better color temperature than standard tungsten (2800-3400 Kelvin). 5. Longer life than a conventional incandescent -Instant on to full brightness, no warm up time, and it is dimmable • Disadvantages: 1. Extremely hot (easily capable of causing severe burns if the lamp is touched). 2. The lamp is sensitive to oils left by the human skin, if you touch the bulb with your bare hands the oil left behind will heat up once the bulb is activated, this oil may cause an imbalance and result in a rupture of the bulb. 3. Explosion, the bulb is capable of blowing and sending hot glass shards outward. A screen or layer of glass on the outside of the lamp can protect users. 4. Not as efficient as HID lamps (Metal Halide and HPS lamps)
  41. 41. • There are total 64 lights on the ceiling. • Position of the lights depends on the area to be covered and their intensities. • These lights can be dimmed or brightened as per requirements. • The lighting over the stage also had fixtures to hang the focus lights.
  42. 42. AIR-CONDITIONING •The ceiling have a 10ft duct over for the pipelines. •The auditorium is centrally air-conditioned. •The blowers are on the wooden frame of the ceiling. •The ac plant is in the basement of the auditorium. •These are connected through pipelines to the main ac plants in the AHU(air handling unit) room.
  43. 43. . K R E S G E A U D I T O R I U M
  44. 44. Architects: Eero Saarinen and Associates Location:48 Massachusetts Avenue, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA Project Area: 874.10 sq.m Project Year: 1955 Associate Architect: Anderson and Beckwith Acoustical Consultant: Bolt, Beranek and Newman Consulting Engineers: Amman and Whitney General Contractor: George A. Fuller Company
  45. 45. SITE LOCATION: • Massachusetts Institute of Technology, • 48Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, Massachusetts. • The Building is was named for its principal funder, Sebastian S.Kresge,founder of S.S Kresge Stores.
  46. 46. SITE LAYOUT
  47. 47. Concept • First sketches: The idea of the dean of the school of architecture at MIT was to create an area on the field that would serve to bring students to organize parties, weddings, offices of various religions and social gatherings. • To this end commissioned Saarinen the design of a non-denominational church, an auditorium, a social space for students and a place to serve as a link between this space and Massachusetts Avenue in Cambridge.
  48. 48. P L A N
  49. 49. The Kresge Auditorium, whose alternative name is building W16, is defined by an elegant structure of thin shell, one-eighth of a sphere which reaches a height of 15.24m offering an unobstructed view to each viewer, as there are no internal supports for the arches of the dome.
  50. 50. Structure Roof detail and glass curtain wall.  The auditorium is defined by an elegant thin- shell structure of reinforced concrete, one-eighth of a sphere rising to a height of 50 feet, and sliced away by sheer glass curtain walls so that it comes to earth on only three points.  Thin-shelled concrete technology was innovative for the times. The dome weighs only 1200 tons and is currently clad with copper.  It was originally covered with smooth, bright, orastone which was then replaced with lead sheeting attached with stainless steel wires.  In 1980, cracks were found in the supporting structure and the auditorium was closed immediately for repairs. Copper replaced the lead at that time.
  51. 51. Design Features • Historic restoration of highly active community landmark, preserving Kresge’s architectural features as one of the country’s first large-scale buildings to use thin-shell concrete technology • Removal and replacement of surrounding brick plaza • Minor roof repairs • New waterproofing measures • Structural upgrades and repairs; Kresge’s distinctive 50-ft spherical dome rests on just three footings
  52. 52. Materials In the dome construction has been used reinforced concrete and copper plates. On the facades glass curtain walls were placed. The auditorium stands on a round concrete coated with red brick. Roof coating Finding the right material for the lining of the dome of double curvature represents challenge. At first it was thought marble tiles and plates coated copper lead, but were rejected for reasons of budget and performance issues. He was finally chosen a cover created with sheets of limestone mixed with liquid acrylic polymer, getting a shell of a "pure white"
  53. 53. SPACES • Access, on the ground floor, opens onto an elongated hall, an intermediate zone between the lowest small theater level and the highest auditorium level. • Also on the ground floor are a rehearsal room, a living room, locker rooms, a wardrobe and a small shop. • The largest room has a maximum capacity of 1,226 people, but when the stage extends over the section of seats, there are only 1,144 available. • It is used for concerts, lectures, conferences, plays and other important events. • The acoustics of the main room Saarinen worked with the Bolt, Beranek and Newman architects who resorted to enhance the sound hanging "clouds" to absorb the direct sound on stage, rather than the traditional plaster ceiling. • These clouds also contained lights, speakers and ventilation. The walls are lined with natural wood.
  54. 54. • The truncated dome enclosing a triangular space of about 2023.4m² which reaches a height of 15.24m. • With the primary structural ceiling that varies between 7 and 18 inches thick, the resulting span is 34.50m. • Rigid reinforced edge along the perimeter beams defining the roof and large, solid transparent facades. • A second non-structural layer, with the average thickness 6.35cm, lightweight concrete was used as a substrate for the cover. • The project had to face numerous tests, both during and after construction. • The roof, originally intended to be supported only by three major carriers, required the addition of vertical structural pillars behind the glass, as the deflection of the edge beams was higher than expected.
  55. 55. The main stage is paneled with warm-colored vertical wood elements that echo the vertical glass panels of the building's facade.
  56. 56. ACOUSTICS • Interior view, with the MIT Summer Philharmonic Orchestra. Every seat in the concert hall has an unobstructed view, since there are no interior supports for the overarching dome. • Working with renowned acoustical architects Bolt, Beranek and Newman, architect Saarinen employed free-hanging acoustic "clouds" that absorb and direct sound, instead of a traditional plaster ceiling. • These clouds also contain lights, loudspeakers, and ventilation. While standing on either side of the entry lobby, one can distinctly hear people on the other side speaking in as low a voice as a whisper. • This so-called whispering gallery effect is produced by the curved geometrical shape and hard surfaces of the ceiling.
  57. 57. H AR B I NS OP ER A H O US E
  58. 58.  Architects: MAD Architects  Location: Harbin, Heilongjiang, China  Directors: Ma Yansong, Dang Qun, Yosuke Hayan  Area: 850000.0 ft2  Project Year: 2015  Associate Engineers - Beijing Institute of Architectural Design  Façade/cladding - Inhabit Group, China Jingye Engineering Co., Ltd.  Landscape Architect - Turenscape, Earthasia Design Group  Interior Design MAD Architects, Shenzhen Z&F Culture Construction Lighting Design - Toryo International Lighting Design Center, Beijing United Artists Lighting Design Co., Ltd.  Acoustic Consultants - Zhang Kuisheng Acoustics Research Institute of Shanghai Modern Design Group  Stage Lighting Design - EKO Lighting Equipment Co. Ltd.
  59. 59. • The Harbin Opera House was designed in response to the force and spirit of the northern city’s untamed wilderness and frigid climate. • Appearing as if sculpted by wind and water, the building seamlessly blends in with nature and the topography—a transfusion of local identity, art, and culture blending with the surrounding nature CONCEPT
  60. 60. O P E N P L A Z A
  61. 61.  The sinuous opera house is the focal point of the Cultural Island, occupying a building area of approximately 850,000 square feet of the site’s 444 acres total area.  It features a grand theater that can host over 1,600 patrons and a smaller theater to accommodate an intimate audience of 400.  FACADE - The resulting curvilinear façade composed of smooth white aluminum panels becomes the poetry of edge and surface, softness and sharpness.  The undulating architectural mass wraps a large public plaza, and during winter months, melts into the snowy winter environment.
  62. 62.  Upon entering the grand lobby, visitors will see large transparent glass walls spanning the grand lobby, visually connecting the curvilinear interior with the swooping façade and exterior plaza.  Soaring above, a crystalline glass curtain wall soars over the grand lobby space with the support of a lightweight structure.  Comprised of glass pyramids, the surface alternates between smooth and faceted, referencing the billowing snow and ice of the frigid climate.  Visitors are greeted with the simple opulence of natural light and material sensation—all before taking their seat.
  63. 63.  The grand theater is clad in rich wood, emulating a wooden block that has been gently eroded away. Sculpted from Manchurian Ash, the wooden walls gently wrap around the main stage and theater seating.  From the proscenium to the mezzanine balcony the grand theater’s use of simple materials and spatial configuration provides world-class acoustics.  The grand theater is illuminated in part by a subtle skylight that connects the audience to the exterior and the passing of time.
  64. 64.  Within the second, smaller theater, the interior is connected seamlessly to the exterior by the large, panoramic window behind the performance stage. This wall of sound-proof glass provides a naturally scenic backdrop for performances and activates the stage as an extension of the outdoor environment, inspiring production opportunities.
  65. 65. L O B B Y
  66. 66. VIEW
  67. 67. 01 LOBBY 02 GRAND THEATER 03 SMALL THEATER 04 RECREATIONAL ROOMS 05 ENTRY TO PARKING 06 STAIRS TO PARKING 07 PLAZA FIRST FLOOR PLAN
  68. 68. SECOND FLOOR PLAN
  69. 69. R O O F P L A N
  70. 70. 01 BACK STAGE 02 ROOF TOP 03 STAGE TRANSVERSAL SECTION
  71. 71. LONGITUDNAL SECTION 01 REHERSAL ROOM / 02 BACKSTAGE 03 ROOFING / 04 MAIN STAGE / 05 ROOF GARDEN 06 SEATING / 07 LOBBY / 08 PARKING
  72. 72. CONDITIONS FOR GOOD ACOUSTICS IN AUDITORIUM
  73. 73. BIBLIOGRAPHY
  74. 74. THANK YOU

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