Successfully reported this slideshow.
DESKTOP STUDY OF
• An auditorium is a room built to enable
an audience to hear and watch
performances at venues such as
theatres. For movie theatres, the
number of auditoriums is expressed as
the number of screens.
• The term is taken from Latin (from
audītōrium, from audītōrius
(“‘pertaining to hearing’”)); the
concept is taken from the Greek
auditorium, which had a series of semi-
circular seating shelves in the theatre,
divided by broad 'belts', called
diazomata, with eleven rows of seats
• The talker-to-audience distance can be
Minimized by carefully considering the
• A rectangular shoebox-type hall , with
The stage across one narrow end ,may
Be excellent for music where an
Audience can be seated farther away
And a greater ratio of reverberant sound
• However ,a rectangular geometry is
Only suitable for a relatively small
• For greater seating capacity, the side walls should be splayed from the stage.
• Splayed side walls allow greater seating area that is relatively close to the
• The splayed walls can usefully reflect sound energy to the rear of the hall.
• A side-wall splay may range from 30° to 60°, the latter is considered a
maximum angle, given the directionality of speech. Generally, fan-shaped halls
are not used for music performance.
TYPES OF SEATING ARRANGEMENTS
MULTIPLE – ASILE ARRANGEMENT
SEATS AND THEIR
FREE SPACE BETWEEN THE ROWS ON FLOOR WITH NO RISER
FREE SPACE BETWEEN THE ROWS ON FLOOR WITH RISER
• Min. Distance of projection screen
from wall is 120 cm.
• It is perforated (sound
• Large projection screens are
• The auditorium should have no
outside light other than
• Walls and ceilings are made from
WORK SHOP CHANGING ROOMS
• NCPA marg, South Mumbai.
• The NCPA complex occupies an area of
about 3200 sqm. at Nariman point on
land reclaimed from the sea.
• The site can be accessed through six gates,
the site is divided into six major blocks.
• The site is located in commercial area.
• It is surrounded by hotels, offices,
• Oberoi hotel and Mantralaya are the
A – Tata theatre
B – Jamshed Bhabha theatre C – Main
D – Teaching and research block(libraries) E – Experimental
F – Godrej dance academy theatre
G – Open air plaza
R – Residence (includes staff residences, guest rooms and
Total number of entrances : 6
Main entrance : Gate no.1 and Gate No.2 Service entry :
Common basement parking. Reserved parking
• Tata theatre was designed by Ar. Philip Johnson
and the legendary acoustician Cyril Harris.
• It was opened in 1982.
• It was the first theatre designed in India.
• It is a fan shaped amphitheater with excellent
• Suitable for chamber music concert, dance,
and film screening.
• The theatre has a rotating stage.
• It can accommodate 1010 people .
• It has excellent acoustics.
• The theatre is centrally air-conditioned.
• The height of the auditorium is 15m.
POSITION OF THE CEILING LIGHTS AND ACBLOWERS
• There are two separate entrances, one
for the performers and the other for the
• The entry for the performers were also
the service entry.
• There is a truck loading unloading dock
• There is a small courtyard garden next to
TO THE AUDITORIUM
• There is a foyer at two level.
• Size: 77m x 7.5m width
• Height of the lower lobby is 9.6m
• Height of the upper lobby is 6m.
• There are six entry/exit doors from the main foyer.
• Two emergency exit are provided near the stage.
• There were a total of 6
• Each green room consisted of one toilet.
The backstage area consisted of
• All technical rooms
• The main entry for the performers
• A store area
• Green rooms
• Entry to the sea view room
• Waiting area for the performers
• The total seating capacity of the theatre is 1010.
• The theatre is fan shaped, hence the seating arrangements are
divided into five equal segments.
• Each bay consists of 202 seats.
• The seating is radial in nature.
• The 1st row of each segment has 7 seats and the last row has 16 seats.
• The six aisles divided the segments into five parts.
• Control is divided into
• The first section was sound
room with another
partitioned channel mixer in
the third room.
• The second section was
projection room and had
different opening sizes for
different types of projectors.
• The third part was light
room which had the
additional fire setup
• The whole control room
was air conditioned and
OPEN SPACE AND LANDSCAPE
• The gardens were designed in a
simple way using only lawn,
trees and minimal number of
• There were gardens near
• The main open space was at
the center of the NCPA.
• The open spaces near the
theatres were also used as
• The ncpa Centre was overall provided
with a basement parking area.
• Separate parking area near the
theatres were also provided for VIP's.
• These parking consisted on
maximum 6 car parking lots.
• Parking were mainly near
Gate 4 (VIP parking)
• The whole NCPA complex had a well
designed storm water drainage
• Storm water gutters ran through
the edges of the complex.
• The depth of the gutters are
approximately 1.2 m.
• Internal Circuits were placed at
1.2m from the structure at a
distance of around 4.5m to 7m.
Storm water gutters
• R.C.C floor is covered with woollen carpet.
• Woollen carpets are absorptive in nature.
The carpet is 80% wool and 20% nylon.
• Naturally Solid & Stain Resistant -
Protection that won't deteriorate like the
temporary additives that are used on
• Unique comfort - Wool and polyester carpet
are the go to carpets when comfort is the
highest priority. Wool is unique because it
combines softness with springiness.
• Hypoallergenic/Organic Wool - carpet comes
off the sheep’s back and can be
manufactured without any dyes or synthetic
chemicals. This makes it hypoallergenic (for
those not allergic to wool) .
• Insulation - One way wool carpet might
justify its cost is by reducing your heating
and air conditioning bills. Wool is a great
insulator, so it will limit the transfer of heat
(or cool air) from the outside world into your
• Doesn’t crush - Wool carpet doesn’t crush
down easily. This is one of the reasons for its
great durability and long-standing comfort.
• Fire resistant –
1. Wool is the fiber of choice for casinos and airlines for
this reason alone.
2. Naturally flame retardant Difficult to ignite, due to a
higher ignition temperature
3. Low flame-spread
4. Low heat release properties and low heat of
5. Does not melt (or drip if used vertically)
6. Contributes less to smoke or toxic gas formation
(compared to synthetic carpet pile fibers)
• It fades in the sun and it absorbs water. You’ll want to
avoid putting wool carpet in any room that gets
• Exposing the carpet to a little sunlight here or there
isn’t going to be a problem, just make sure to limit it.
Another disadvantage is wool carpets hold water. This
makes them prone to mildew, so avoid wool in any
rooms with a moisture problem.
• Semi-circular stage
• No curtains and fins.
• The inner portion( up to 4.7m radius) is
• The outer portion of the stage is fixed.
• It rotates 180 degree in 80 seconds and is
• The radius of the semicircular stage is 7m.
• Hardwood timber flooring over concrete.
WALLS AND CEILING
• The walls and ceiling had a basic
• These framework (panels) had
alternate concave and convex
triangular forms which ensured
even distribution of sound over the
• These projections come out from
the sides of the walls. They are
hollow and may act as resonators.
• These are surfaces
which help in the
dispersion of sound.
• The special acoustic forms
are made up of high
• Due to these special
acoustic methods, the
voice is naturally audible
at any place in the
auditorium without any
mikes or sound systems.
placed at a distance
of 4m on the ceiling.
• A good number of lighting
fixtures are oriented on the stage
covering all angles possible .
• There are halogen lights on the
ceiling over the seating area for
• These lights are of different types,
qualities, intensities, colour etc.
eg- halogen lights, spot lights,
1. Halogen Lamps are small, lightweight
2. Low cost to produce
3. Does not use mercury like CFLs(fluorescent)
4. Better color temperature than standard tungsten (2800-3400
5. Longer life than a conventional incandescent -Instant on to full
brightness, no warm up time, and it is dimmable
1. Extremely hot (easily capable of causing severe burns if the
lamp is touched).
2. The lamp is sensitive to oils left by the human skin, if you
touch the bulb with your bare hands the oil left behind will
heat up once the bulb is activated, this oil may cause an
imbalance and result in a rupture of the bulb.
3. Explosion, the bulb is capable of blowing and sending hot glass
shards outward. A screen or layer of glass on the outside of the
lamp can protect users.
4. Not as efficient as HID lamps (Metal Halide and HPS lamps)
• There are total 64 lights on
• Position of the lights depends
on the area to be covered and
• These lights can be dimmed or
brightened as per
• The lighting over the stage
also had fixtures to hang the
•The ceiling have a 10ft duct over for the pipelines.
•The auditorium is centrally air-conditioned.
•The blowers are on the wooden frame of the ceiling.
•The ac plant is in the basement of the auditorium.
•These are connected through pipelines to the main ac plants in the
AHU(air handling unit) room.
Architects: Eero Saarinen and Associates
Location:48 Massachusetts Avenue,
Massachusetts Institute of Technology,
Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
Project Area: 874.10 sq.m
Project Year: 1955
Associate Architect: Anderson and Beckwith
Acoustical Consultant: Bolt, Beranek and
Consulting Engineers: Amman and Whitney
General Contractor: George A. Fuller
• Massachusetts Institute of
• 48Massachusetts Avenue,
• The Building is was named
for its principal funder,
of S.S Kresge Stores.
• First sketches: The idea of the dean of the
school of architecture at MIT was to create
an area on the field that would serve to
bring students to organize parties,
weddings, offices of various religions and
• To this end commissioned Saarinen the
design of a non-denominational church, an
auditorium, a social space for students and
a place to serve as a link between this
space and Massachusetts Avenue in
The Kresge Auditorium, whose alternative name is building W16, is defined by
an elegant structure of thin shell, one-eighth of a sphere which reaches a height
of 15.24m offering an unobstructed view to each viewer, as there are no internal
supports for the arches of the dome.
Roof detail and glass curtain wall.
The auditorium is defined by an elegant thin-
shell structure of reinforced concrete, one-eighth of
a sphere rising to a height of 50 feet, and sliced
away by sheer glass curtain walls so that it comes
to earth on only three points.
Thin-shelled concrete technology was
innovative for the times. The dome weighs only
1200 tons and is currently clad with copper.
It was originally covered with smooth, bright,
orastone which was then replaced with lead
sheeting attached with stainless steel wires.
In 1980, cracks were found in the supporting
structure and the auditorium was closed
immediately for repairs. Copper replaced the lead
at that time.
• Historic restoration of highly active community landmark, preserving Kresge’s architectural features as one of the
country’s first large-scale buildings to use thin-shell concrete technology
• Removal and replacement of surrounding brick plaza
• Minor roof repairs
• New waterproofing measures
• Structural upgrades and repairs; Kresge’s distinctive 50-ft spherical dome rests on just three footings
In the dome construction has been used reinforced concrete and copper plates.
On the facades glass curtain walls were placed.
The auditorium stands on a round concrete coated with red brick.
Finding the right material for the lining of the dome of double curvature represents challenge.
At first it was thought marble tiles and plates coated copper lead, but were rejected for reasons of budget and performance
He was finally chosen a cover created with sheets of limestone mixed with liquid acrylic
polymer, getting a shell of a "pure white"
• Access, on the ground floor, opens onto an elongated hall, an intermediate
zone between the lowest small theater level and the highest auditorium
• Also on the ground floor are a rehearsal room, a living room, locker rooms,
a wardrobe and a small shop.
• The largest room has a maximum capacity of 1,226 people, but when the
stage extends over the section of seats, there are only 1,144 available.
• It is used for concerts, lectures, conferences, plays and other important
• The acoustics of the main room Saarinen worked with the Bolt, Beranek and
Newman architects who resorted to enhance the sound hanging "clouds" to
absorb the direct sound on stage, rather than the traditional plaster ceiling.
• These clouds also contained lights, speakers and ventilation. The walls are
lined with natural wood.
• The truncated dome enclosing a triangular space of about 2023.4m²
which reaches a height of 15.24m.
• With the primary structural ceiling that varies between 7 and 18 inches
thick, the resulting span is 34.50m.
• Rigid reinforced edge along the perimeter beams defining the roof and
large, solid transparent facades.
• A second non-structural layer, with the average thickness 6.35cm,
lightweight concrete was used as a substrate for the cover.
• The project had to face numerous tests, both during and after
• The roof, originally intended to be supported only by three major carriers,
required the addition of vertical structural pillars behind the glass, as the
deflection of the edge beams was higher than expected.
The main stage is paneled with warm-colored vertical wood elements that echo
the vertical glass panels of the building's facade.
• Interior view, with the MIT Summer Philharmonic Orchestra. Every
seat in the concert hall has an unobstructed view, since there are
no interior supports for the overarching dome.
• Working with renowned acoustical architects Bolt, Beranek and
Newman, architect Saarinen employed free-hanging acoustic
"clouds" that absorb and direct sound, instead of a traditional
• These clouds also contain lights, loudspeakers, and ventilation.
While standing on either side of the entry lobby, one can distinctly
hear people on the other side speaking in as low a voice as a
• This so-called whispering gallery effect is produced by the curved
geometrical shape and hard surfaces of the ceiling.
Architects: MAD Architects
Location: Harbin, Heilongjiang, China
Directors: Ma Yansong, Dang Qun, Yosuke Hayan
Area: 850000.0 ft2
Project Year: 2015
Associate Engineers - Beijing Institute of Architectural Design
Façade/cladding - Inhabit Group, China Jingye Engineering Co., Ltd.
Landscape Architect - Turenscape, Earthasia Design Group
Interior Design MAD Architects, Shenzhen Z&F Culture Construction
Lighting Design - Toryo International Lighting Design Center, Beijing
United Artists Lighting Design Co., Ltd.
Acoustic Consultants - Zhang Kuisheng Acoustics Research Institute of
Shanghai Modern Design Group
Stage Lighting Design - EKO Lighting Equipment Co. Ltd.
• The Harbin Opera House was designed in
response to the force and spirit of the
northern city’s untamed wilderness and
• Appearing as if sculpted by wind and
water, the building seamlessly blends in
with nature and the topography—a
transfusion of local identity, art, and
culture blending with the surrounding
The sinuous opera house is the focal point of the
Cultural Island, occupying a building area of
approximately 850,000 square feet of the site’s 444
acres total area.
It features a grand theater that can host over 1,600
patrons and a smaller theater to accommodate an
intimate audience of 400.
FACADE - The resulting curvilinear façade composed
of smooth white aluminum panels becomes the
poetry of edge and surface, softness and sharpness.
The undulating architectural mass wraps a large
public plaza, and during winter months, melts into
the snowy winter environment.
Upon entering the grand lobby, visitors will see large
transparent glass walls spanning the grand lobby,
visually connecting the curvilinear interior with the
swooping façade and exterior plaza.
Soaring above, a crystalline glass curtain wall soars
over the grand lobby space with the support of a
Comprised of glass pyramids, the surface alternates
between smooth and faceted, referencing the
billowing snow and ice of the frigid climate.
Visitors are greeted with the simple opulence of
natural light and material sensation—all before taking
The grand theater is clad in rich wood,
emulating a wooden block that has been
gently eroded away. Sculpted from
Manchurian Ash, the wooden walls gently wrap
around the main stage and theater seating.
From the proscenium to the mezzanine
balcony the grand theater’s use of simple
materials and spatial configuration provides
The grand theater is illuminated in part by a
subtle skylight that connects the audience to
the exterior and the passing of time.
Within the second, smaller theater, the interior is connected seamlessly to the exterior by the large,
panoramic window behind the performance stage. This wall of sound-proof glass provides a naturally
scenic backdrop for performances and activates the stage as an extension of the outdoor environment,
inspiring production opportunities.
02 GRAND THEATER
03 SMALL THEATER
04 RECREATIONAL ROOMS
05 ENTRY TO PARKING
06 STAIRS TO PARKING
FIRST FLOOR PLAN
SECOND FLOOR PLAN
01 BACK STAGE
02 ROOF TOP
01 REHERSAL ROOM / 02 BACKSTAGE
03 ROOFING / 04 MAIN STAGE / 05 ROOF GARDEN
06 SEATING / 07 LOBBY / 08 PARKING
CONDITIONS FOR GOOD ACOUSTICS IN AUDITORIUM