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Classification of Water

Building services project on classification of water based

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Classification of Water

  2. 2.  Water is a transparent fluid which forms the world's streams, lakes, oceans and rain, and is the major constituent of the fluids of living things. As a chemical compound, a water molecule contains one oxygen and two hydrogen atoms. Water is a liquid at standard ambient temperature and pressure, but it often co-exists on Earth with its solid state, ice; and gaseous state, steam (water vapor).  Water covers 71% of the Earth's surface.[1] It is vital for all known forms of life. On Earth, 96.5% of the planet's water is found in seas and oceans, 1.7% in groundwater, 1.7% in glaciers and the ice caps of Antarctica and Greenland, a small fraction in other large water bodies, and 0.001% in the air as vapor, clouds (formed of solid and liquid water particles suspended in air), and precipitation.[2][3]  Only 2.5% of the Earth's water is freshwater, and 98.8% of that water is in ice and groundwater. Less than 0.3% of all freshwater is in rivers, lakes, and the atmosphere, and an even smaller amount of the Earth's freshwater (0.003%) is contained within biological bodies and manufactured products.[2] INTRODUCTION
  4. 4. SOURCES OF FRESH WATER 1.1 Surface water 1.2 Under river flow 1.3 Ground water 1.4 Desalination 1.5 Frozen water
  5. 5. SURFACE WATER  Surface water is water in a river, lake or fresh water wetland. Surface water is naturally replenished by precipitation and naturally lost through discharge to the oceans, evaporation, evapotranspiration and sub-surface  Human activities can have a large and sometimes devastating impact on these factors. Humans often increase storage capacity by constructing reservoirs and decrease it by draining wetlands. Humans often increase runoff quantities and velocities by paving areas and channelizing stream flow.  Brazil is the country estimated to have the largest supply of fresh water in the world, followed by Russia and Canada.
  7. 7. GROUND WATER  Sub-surface water, or groundwater, is fresh water located in the pore space of soil and rocks. It is also water that is flowing within aquifers below the water table. Sometimes it is useful to make a distinction between sub-surface water that is closely associated with surface water and deep sub-surface water in an aquifer (sometimes called "fossil water").  Humans use sub-surface water unsustainably for a long time without severe consequences.  Humans can also cause sub-surface water to be "lost" (i.e. become unusable) through pollution. Humans can increase the input to a sub-surface water source by building reservoirs or detention ponds.
  8. 8. DESALINATION  Desalination is an artificial process by which saline water (generally sea water) is converted to fresh water. The most common desalination processes are distillation and reverse osmosis.  Desalination is currently expensive compared to most alternative sources of water, and only a very small fraction of total human use is satisfied by desalination. It is only economically practical for high-valued uses (such as household and industrial uses) in arid areas. The most extensive use is in the Persian Gulf.
  9. 9. FROZEN WATER  Several schemes have been proposed to make use of icebergs as a water source, however to date this has only been done for novelty purposes. Glacier runoff is considered to be surface water.  The Himalayas, which are often called "The Roof of the World", contain some of the most extensive and rough high altitude areas on Earth as well as the greatest area of glaciers outside the poles. Ten of Asia's largest rivers flow from there, and more than a billion peoples livelihoods depend on them. To complicate matters, temperatures are rising more rapidly here than the global average
  10. 10. CLASSIFICATION OF WATER BASED ON ITS USAGE Domestic Purposes Civic or Public Purposes Industrial Purposes Business or trade purposes Loss & Waste
  11. 11. DOMESTIC PURPOSES  1 – Drinking : Human body contains about 70 percent of water .Consumption of water is required for physiological process such as blood formation , food digestion etc… The quantity of water an average is about 2 Litres per day for a adult per day .If water for drinking contains undesirable elements it may lead to water born diseases like cholera.  2 – Cooking : Water required for this purpose will depend upon the stage of advancement of family in particular society in general .The quantity of water an average is about 5 liters per her per day  3 –Bathing – Water required for bathing purpose will depend on habits of people & type of climate .For an Indian bath 30 to 40 liters per head & for tub bath – 50 to 80 liters per head  4 – Washing hands , face : Water required for this purpose will depend on habits of people & may roughly be taken as 5 to 10 liters per day
  12. 12.  5 – Household Sanitary purposes : Water is required for washing clothes, floors utensils , etc. may be assumed to be about 50 to 60 liters per head per day  6 – Private Gardening & Irrigation : In case of developed cities there will be particularly do demand of water for this purpose .in underdeveloped cities , the private wells are used to provide water for private gardening & irrigation  7 –Domestic Animals & Private vehicles – The amount of water required for use of domestic animals & private vehicles is not much concern to water supply engineer .With growth & development of town, the cattle disappear & commercial stables come into existence. Water required for washing cars & private vehicles Is very low especially in case of poor countries
  13. 13. CIVIC OR PUBIC PURPOSES  Road Washing – Roads with heavy amount of dust are to be sprinkled with water to avoid inconvenience to users – Even in case of dust proof roads, periodically , washing is necessary .Water required for this purpose maybe 5 liters per day  Sanitation Purposes – Water required in cleaning public sanitary blocks , large markets etc. for carrying liquid wastes from houses. Water required for this purpose will depend on growth of civilization will be about 2 to 3 liters per head per day  Ornamental Purposes – To adorn the town with the decorative features , fountains (or) lakes (or) ponds are sometimes provided. These object requires huge quantity of water for their performance  Fire Demand : Usually a fire occurs in factories & stores. Water required for fire fighting skills should be easily available & always kept stored in the storage reservoir. When a fire occurs pumps installed on trucks are immediate rushed to the site of fire occurrence & these pumps when connected to fire hydrants are capable of throwing water with high pressure.Fire is brought under control
  14. 14. Civic or Pubic Purposes
  15. 15. INDUSTRIAL PURPOSES  Factories : Water required for this process involved in factories will naturally depend on nature of products, size of factory etc. & it has no relation with density of population .Possibility of recycling of water in plant will have appreciable effect on demand of water for project . The quantity of water on average is about 45 Litres per day for a adult per day  Power stations : They are situated far away from cities & they do not represent serious problem to public water supply  Railways & Airports : In most of cases, the railways & airports make their own arrangements regarding water requirements. Railways provide 25 to 70 liters of water per head per day. Airport takes 70 liters of water per head per day
  16. 16. Industrial Purposes
  17. 17. BUSINESS OR TRADE PURPOSES Some Trades such as Dairies , hotels , laundries , motor garages , restaurants ,stables , schools, hospitals , cinema halls ,theatres etc require large quantity of water .Such trades are to be maintained in hygienic conditions & sanitation of such places should be strictly insisted. The no of such business centers will depend upon the population & for a moderate city on an average value of about 15 to 25 liters of water per head per day
  18. 18. Business or trade purposes
  19. 19. LOSS & WASTE Water required under this category is sometimes termed as the unaccounted requirement. It includes careless use of water, leakage in mains , valves , other fittings etc. . Unauthorized water connection s & waste due to other miscellaneous reasons. Quantity of water lost due to all these reasons if uncertain & cannot be effectively predicted
  21. 21. Types Of Buildings Consumption per day per head - Litres 1)Factories where bathrooms are provided 45 2)Factories without bathrooms 30 3) Hospital ( Including laundry ) a)No of beds not exceeding 100 340 b)No of beds exceeding 100 450 4)Hostels 135 5)Hotel (upto 4 star) 180 6)Hotel (5 star and above) 320 7)Offices 45 8)Restaurants 70 9) Cinema, Concert Halls & Theatres 15 per seat 10)Schools 45 11)Terminal Stations 45 12)International & Domestic Airports 70 WATER CONSUMPTION OF BUILDINGS