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Deccan School of Planning & Architecture
CLIMATOLOGY PROJECT ON
• Climate is a measure of the average pattern of variation
in temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind, precipitation,
atmospheric particle count and other meteorological variables in a given
region over long periods of time. Climate is different from weather, in that
weather only describes the short-term conditions of these variables in a
• A region's climate is generated by the climate system, which has five
components: atmosphere, hydrosphere,cryosphere, lithosphere,
• The climate of a location is affected by its latitude, terrain, and altitude, as
well as nearby water bodies and their currents. Climates can
be classified according to the average and the typical ranges of different
variables, most commonly temperature and precipitation.
• A tropical climate is a climate in
the tropical region. In the Köppen
climate classification it is a non-
arid climate in which all twelve
months have mean temperatures of
at least 18 °C (64 °F).
• Tropical temperature remains
relatively constant throughout the
year and seasonal variations are
dominated by precipitation.
• Tropical Climates are those climates
where heat is dominant problem
where the greater part of year
buildings serve to keep cool for
occupants room rather than warm.
• The Basis of classification is given by 3 atmospheric factors which
dominantly influence human comfort – air , temperate &
• The Tropical regions of earth are divided into 3 major climatic
zones & three sub groups
Warm Humid equatorial climate
Hot Dry Desert (or) semi desert climate
Composite or monsoon climate
• These climates are found in belt near equator extending to about
15ºN & s. Logos,Dar-es-Salam,Colombo,Singapore etc are
examples of this climate. There is very less seasonal variation
throughout the year .Periods of more or less rain & occurrence of
gusty winds & electric storms
Air Temperature – Shades reaches a max during the day of
between 27 & 32ºc but occasionally it may exceed. The mean
minimum varies from 21º & 27ºc
Humidity – Rh(Relative humidity remains high at about 75 % for
most of the time but it may vary from 55 to almost 100 % . Vapor
pressure is steady from 2500 to 3000 N/m2
WARM HUMID CLIMATE
Precipitation – High through out the year. Annual rainfall can vary
from2000 to 5000 mm & may exceed 500 mm .
Sky Condition – Fairly cloudy throughout the year . Cloud cover
varies between 60 & 90 % .Skies are usually bright .
Solar Radiation – is partly reflected & partly scattered by cloud
blanket but strong radiation can cause painful sky glare
Wind Velocities – are typically low, calm periods are forewent but
strong winds can occur during rainfall
Vegetation : Grown quickly due to frequent rains & high temperature
& it is difficult to control the red or brown laterite soils are generally
poor for agriculture .
Special Characteristics – High humidity accelerates mould & algal
growth rusting & rotting .Organic buildings materials tend to decay
rapidly Mosquitoes and other insects abound .The thunder storms are
accompanied by frequent air – to air electrical discharges
These climates occur in two belts at latitudes between
approximately 15 & 30ºnorth & south of the equator . Example's :
Assuan Baghdad,Alice springs & phoenix
Two marked seasons occur :a hot & a somewhat cooler period
Air Temperature : DBT in shade rises quickly after sunrise to day
time mean maximum temperature ranged from 27 to 32ºc . Night
time mean minima between 24 & 30ºc in hot season & between
10 & 18º in cool season .The diurnal range is very great 17 to 22º
Humidity : RH varies from 10 to 55 % as wet depression is large
(rapid evaporation) .Vapor pressure is normally between 750 &
1500 N /m2
HOT DRY DESERT CLIMATE
Precipitation : Slight & variable throughout the year, from 50 to 155
mm per annum ,Flash storms may occur over limited areas but
some regions may not have rains for several years .
Sky Conditions : Normally Clear .Clouds are few due to low
humidity of the air . The sky is usually dark blue , with a luminance of
700 to 2500 cd/m2 & further darkened dust or sand storms may
Solar Radiation : Direct & strong during the day , but the absence
of cloud permits easy release of hear stored during day time
Winds : are usually local .Heating of air over hot ground cause a
Vegetation : is sparse & difficult to maintain humidity . The soil is
usually dusty & very dry. Soils dries quickly after rain & would
generally be fertile if irrigated
• These climates usually occur in large land masses near tropics of
cancer & Capricorn which are sufficiently far from equator to
experience seasonal changes in solar radiation & wind direction
• Examples : Lahore ,Mandalay, New Delhi
• Two seasons occur normally .Approximately 2/3rds of the year is hot
dry & other third is warm humid. Localities further north & south often
have a third season but described as cool dry
Air temperature : in shade as follows
COMPOSITE OR MONSOON CLIMATE
Seasons Hot Dry Warm Humid Cool Dry
Day time 32 -43ºc 27-32ºc Upton 27ºc
Night time 21-27ºc 24-27ºc 4-10ºc
Diurnal mean range 11-22ºc 3-6 11-22ºc
Humidity i.e. RH : Is low throughout the dry periods at 20 to 55 % with a
vapor pressure of 1300 to 1600 N/m2.Durin wet period it rises to 55 to
Precipitation : Monsoon rains are intense & continued for a long time
occasionally 25 to 38 mm can fall in an hour. Annual rainfall varies
from 500 to 1300 mm with 200 to 250 mm wettest month. There Is little
rain during dry seasons
Sky conditions :Markedly vary with the seasons .The sky is heavily
overcast & dull during monsoons & clear with dark blue color in dry
Solar Radiation : Alternated between conditions found in warm humid
& hot dry desert climates
Winds : are hot & dusty during dry period .Monsoon winds are fairly
strong & steady
• Vegetation : Hot dry region has brown & red barren
ground which changes rapidly with the rain .Plants
grow quickly. There is a risk of soil erosion during
• Special Characteristics : Seasonal changes in relative
humidity cause rapid weakening of building materials
.Dust & Sand storms may occur