A microclimate is a local set of atmospheric conditions that differ from those in
the surrounding areas, often with a slight difference but sometimes with a
substantial one. The term may refer to areas as small as a few square meters or
square feet (for example a garden bed or a cave) or as large as many square
kilometers or square miles. Because climate is statistical, which implies spatial
and temporal variation of the mean values of the describing parameters, within a
region there can occur and persist over time sets of statistically distinct
conditions, that is, microclimates. Microclimates can be found in most places.
What is climate?
Ans -Climate is the average weather in a place over many years. While the
weather can change in just a few hours, climate takes hundreds, thousands, even
millions of years to change
What is weather?
Ans - the state of the atmosphere at a particular place and time as regards heat,
cloudiness, dryness, sunshine, wind, rain, etc. Weather is the day-to-day
conditions of a particular place. The temperature, cloudiness, humidity, and
whether a storm is likely in the next few days. That’s weather! It is the mix of
events that happens each day in our atmosphere. Weather is not the same
everywhere. It may be hot and sunny in one part of the world, but freezing and
snowy in another.
The macro climate around a building cannot be affected by any
design changes, however the building design can be developed with a
knowledge of the macro climate in which the building is located.
Seasonal accumulated temperature difference (degree day) are a measure
of the outside air temperature, though do not account for available solar.
Typical wind speeds and direction
Annual totals of Global Horizontal Solar Radiation
The driving rain index (DRI) relates to the amount of moisture contained in
exposed surfaces and will affect thermal conductivity of external surfaces.
This Meteorological data gives a general impression of the climate at the
site of a building and the building design can be planned accordingly.
However the building itself and surrounding geography will affect the local
Elements of climate
Temperature is how hot or cold the atmosphere is, how many degrees it is
above or below freezing. Temperature is a very important factor in
determining the weather because it influences or controls other elements
of the weather, such as precipitation, humidity, clouds and atmospheric
Humidity is the amount of water vapor in the atmosphere.
Precipitation is the product of a rapid condensation process it may include
snow, hail, drizzle and rain.
Atmospheric pressure (or air pressure) is the weight of air resting on the
earth's surface. Pressure is shown on a weather map, often with lines called
Wind is the movement of air masses, especially on the Earth's surface.
What is water cycle?
The water cycle or hydrologic is a continuous cycle where water
evaporates, travels into the air and becomes part of a cloud, falls down to
earth as precipitation, and then evaporates again. This repeats again and
again in a never-ending cycle.
Water keeps moving and changing from a solid to a liquid to a gas, over and
Precipitation creates runoff that travels over the ground surface and helps
to fill lakes and rivers. It also percolates or moves downward through
openings in the soil to replenish aquifers under the ground.
Some places receive more precipitation than others do. These areas are
usually close to oceans or large bodies of water that allow more water to
evaporate and form clouds.
Other areas receive less precipitation. Often these areas are far from water
or near mountains. As clouds move up and over mountains, the water
vapor condenses to form precipitation and freezes. Snow falls on the peaks.
Carbon is present throughout the natural environment in a fixed amount.
It takes many forms and moves through the environment via the carbon
The carbon cycle is the circulation and transformation of carbon back and
forth between living things and the environment.
Carbon is an element, something that cannot be broken down into a
simpler substance. Other examples of elements are oxygen, nitrogen,
calcium, iron, and hydrogen.
Carbon compounds are present in living things like plants and animals and
in nonliving things like rocks and soil. Carbon compounds can exist as solids
(such as diamonds or coal), liquids (such as crude oil), or gases (such
as carbon dioxide). Carbon is often referred to as the "building block of life"
because living things are based on carbon and carbon compounds.
The amount of carbon on the earth and in Earth's atmosphere is fixed, but
that fixed amount of carbon is dynamic, always changing into different
carbon compounds and moving between living and nonliving things.
Carbon is released to the atmosphere from what are called "carbon
sources" and stored in plants, animals, rocks, and water in what are called
This process occurs in a number of steps. In the first step, through
photosynthesis (the process by which plants capture the sun's energy and
use it to grow), plants take carbon dioxide out of the atmosphere and
The carbon dioxide is converted into carbon compounds that make up the
body of the plant, which are stored in both the aboveground parts of the
plants (shoots and leaves), and the belowground parts (roots).
In the next step, animals eat the plants, breath in the oxygen, and exhale
carbon dioxide. The carbon dioxide created by animals is then available for
plants to use in photosynthesis. Carbon stored in plants that are not eaten
by animals eventually decomposes after the plants die, and is either
released into the atmosphere or stored in the soil.
Large quantities of carbon can be released to the atmosphere through
geologic processes like volcanic eruptions and other natural changes that
destabilize carbon sinks. For example, increasing temperatures can cause
carbon dioxide to be released from the ocean.
Environmental quality is a set of properties and characteristics of the
environment, either generalized or local, as they impinge on human beings
and other organisms.
It is a measure of the condition of an environment relative to the
requirements of one or more species and or to any human need or
Environmental quality is a general term which can refer to varied
characteristics that relate to the natural environment as well as the built
environment, such as air and water purity or pollution, noise and the
potential effects which such characteristics may have on physical and
The Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) is a division of the Executive
Office of the President that coordinates federal environmental efforts in
the United States and works closely with agencies and other White House
offices on the development of environmental and energy policies and
Deforestation: Facts, Causes & Effects
Deforestation is the permanent destruction of forests in order to make the
land available for other uses
An estimated 18 million acres (7.3 million hectares) of forest, which is
roughly the size of the country of Panama, are lost each year, according to
the United Nations' Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO).
Some other common reasons are:
To make more land available for housing and urbanization
To harvest timber to create commercial items such as paper, furniture and
To create ingredients that are highly prized consumer items, such as the oil
from palm trees
To create room for cattle ranching
Common methods of deforestation are burning trees and clear cutting.
These tactics leave the land completely barren and are controversial
Deforestation and climate change
Deforestation is considered to be one of the contributing factors to global
The No. 1 problem caused by deforestation is the impact on the global
Gas molecules that absorb thermal infrared radiation are called greenhouse
If greenhouse gases are in large enough quantity, they can force climate
change, according to Daley. While oxygen (O2) is the second most abundant
gas in our atmosphere, it does not absorb thermal infrared radiation,
As greenhouse gases do. Carbon dioxide (CO2) is the most prevalent
greenhouse gas. In 2012, CO2 accounted for about 82 percent of all U.S.
greenhouse gas, according to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).
Trees can help, though. 300 billion tons of carbon, 40 times the annual
greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuels, is stored in trees, according
The deforestation of trees not only lessens the amount of carbon stored, it
also releases carbon dioxide into the air. This is because when trees die,
they release the stored carbon. According to the 2010 Global Forest
Resources Assessment, deforestation releases nearly a billion tons of
carbon into the atmosphere per year, though the numbers are not as high
as the ones recorded in the previous decade. Deforestation is the second
largest anthropogenic (human-caused) source of carbon dioxide to the
atmosphere, ranging between 6 percent and 17 percent.
Carbon isn't the only greenhouse gas that is affected by deforestation.
Water vapor is also considered a greenhouse gas. "The impact of
deforestation on the exchange of water vapor and carbon dioxide between
the atmosphere and the terrestrial land surface is the biggest concern with
regard to the climate system," said Daley. Changes in their atmospheric
concentration will have a direct effect on climate.
Deforestation has decreased global vapor flows from land by 4 percent,
according to a study published by the National Academy of Sciences. Even
this slight change in vapor flows can disrupt natural weather patterns and
change current climate models.
Other effects of deforestation
Forests are complex ecosystems that affect almost every species on the
planet. When they are degraded, it can set off a devastating chain of events
both locally and around the world.
Loss of species: Seventy percent of the world’s plants and animals live in
forests and are losing their habitats to deforestation, according to National
Geographic. Loss of habitat can lead to species extinction. It also has
negative consequences for medicinal research and local populations who
rely on the animals and plants in the forests for hunting and medicine.
Water cycle: Trees are important to the water cycle. They absorb rain fall
and produce water vapor that is released into the atmosphere. Trees also
lessen the pollution in water, according to the North Carolina State
University, by stopping polluted runoff. In the Amazon, more than half the
water in the ecosystem is held within the plants, according to the National
Soil erosion: Tree roots anchor the soil. Without trees, the soil is free to
wash or blow away, which can lead to vegetation growth problems. The
WWF states that scientists estimate that a third of the world’s arable land
has been lost to deforestation since 1960. After a clear cutting, cash crops
like coffee, soy and palm oil are planted. Planting these types of trees can
cause further soil erosion because their roots cannot hold onto the soil.
Life quality: Soil erosion can also lead to silt entering the lakes, streams and
other water sources. This can decrease local water quality and contribute
to poor health in populations in the area.
Climate change is the rise in average surface temperatures on Earth, mostly
due to the burning of fossil fuels.
Climate change, also called global warming, refers to the rise in average
surface temperatures on Earth. An overwhelming scientific consensus
maintains that climate change is due primarily to the human use of fossil
fuels, which releases carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases into the
air. The gases trap heat within the atmosphere, which can have a range of
effects on ecosystems, including rising sea levels, severe weather events,
and droughts that render landscapes more susceptible to wildfires.
The primary cause of climate change is the burning of fossil fuels, such as
oil and coal, which emits greenhouse gases into the atmosphere—primarily
carbon dioxide. Other human activities, such as agriculture and
deforestation, also contribute to the proliferation of greenhouse gases that
cause climate change.
While some quantities of these gases are a naturally occurring and critical
part of Earth’s temperature control system, the atmospheric concentration
of CO2 did not rise above 300 parts per million between the advent of
human civilization roughly 10,000 years ago and 1900. Today it is at about
400 ppm, a level not reached in more than 400,000 years.
Even small increases in Earth’s temperature caused by climate change can
have severe effects. The earth’s average temperature has gone up 1.4° F
over the past century and is expected to rise as much as 11.5° F over the
next. That might not seem like a lot, but the average temperature during
the last Ice Age was about 4º F lower than it is today.
Rising sea levels due to the melting of the polar ice caps (again, caused by
climate change) contribute to greater storm damage; warming ocean
temperatures are associated with stronger and more frequent storms;
additional rainfall, particularly during severe weather events, leads to
flooding and other damage; an increase in the incidence and severity of
wildfires threatens habitats, homes, and lives; and heat waves contribute to
human deaths and other consequences.
Approximately 90 per cent of all ozone is produced naturally in the
stratosphere. While ozone can be found through the entire atmosphere,
the greatest concentration occurs at an altitude of about 25 km. This band
of ozone-rich air is known as the "ozone layer".
Ozone Depletion - Ozone depletion is the term commonly used to describe
the thinning of the ozone layer in the stratosphere. Ozone depletion occurs
when the natural balance between the production and destruction of
ozone in the stratosphere is tipped in favor of destruction.
Health & Environmental Effects
The ozone layer acts as a natural filter, absorbing most of the sun's burning
ultraviolet (UV) rays. Stratospheric ozone depletion leads to an increase
in UV-B that reach the earth's surface, where it can disrupt biological
processes and damage a number of materials.
Ozone-depleting substances generally contain chlorine, fluorine, bromine,
carbon, and hydrogen in varying proportions and are often described by the
general term halocarbons. Chlorofluorocarbons, carbon tetrachloride, and
methyl chloroform are important human-produced ozone-depleting gases
that have been used in many applications. Another important group of
human-produced halocarbons is the halons, which contain carbon,
bromine, fluorine, and (in some cases) chlorine and have been mainly used
as fire extinguishers.
The main things that lead to destruction of the ozone gas in the ozone
layer. Low temperatures, increase in the level of chlorine and bromine
gases in the upper stratosphere are some of the reasons that leads to
ozone layer depletion. But the one and the most important reason for
ozone layer depletion is the production and emission of
chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). This is what which leads to almost 80 percent
of the total ozone layer depletion.
There are many other substances that lead to ozone layer depletion such as
hydro chlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs).
Such substances are found in vehicular emissions, by-products of industrial
processes, aerosols and refrigerants. All these ozone depleting substances
remain stable in the lower atmospheric region, but as they reach the
stratosphere, they get exposed to the ultra violet rays. This leads to their
breakdown and releasing of free chlorine atoms which reacts with the
ozone gas, thus leading to the depletion of the ozone layer.
Effects of ozone layer depletion
Let us see a few possible effects of the ozone layer depletion on the earth’s
environment and also on the plants and animals. The depletion of ozone
layer allows entering of UV rays from sun into the earth’s atmosphere
which is associated with a number of health related and environmental
issues. Let us see its major impacts on human beings
Skin Cancer / Eye Damage: UV rays are harmful for our eyes too
Damage to Immune system / Aging of skin
In humans, exposure to UV rays can also lead to difficulty in breathing,
chest pain, and throat irritation and can even lead to hampering of lung
Ozone layer depletion leads to decrease in ozone in the stratosphere and
increase in ozone present in the lower atmosphere. Presence of ozone in
the lower atmosphere is considered as a pollutant and a greenhouse gas.
Ozone in the lower atmosphere contributes to global warming and climate
change. The depletion of ozone layer has trickle down effects in the form of
global warming, which in turn leads to melting of polar ice, which will lead
to rising sea levels and climatic changes around the world.
Ozone layer depletion is not something that affects any specific country or
region. The whole world is vulnerable to its after effects. That makes it
important for each and every one of us to take actions to reduce ozone
layer depletion. International agreements such as Montreal protocol in
1987 have helped in reducing and controlling industrial emission of
More and more of such international agreements between countries is
necessary to bring down ozone layer depletion. At individual level each and
every one also can contribute towards reducing ozone layer depletion.
Buying and using recycled products, saving of energy, using of public
transport can do a lot in combating ozone layer depletion.
WHAT IS MICRO CLIMATE??
The microclimate is a local atmospheric zone where
the climate differs from the surrounding area. The term may refer to areas as
small as a few square feet (for example a garden bed) or as large as many square
miles. Microclimates exist, for example, near bodies of water which may cool the
local atmosphere, or in heavily urban areas where brick, concrete, and asphalt
absorb the sun's energy, heat up, and reradiate that heat to the ambient air: the
resulting urban heat island is a kind of microclimate.
Another contributing factor to microclimate is the slope or aspect of
an area. South-facing slopes in the Northern Hemisphere and north-facing slopes
in the Southern Hemisphere are exposed to more direct sunlight than opposite
slopes and are therefore warmer for longer.
Tall buildings create their own microclimate, both by overshadowing
large areas and by channeling strong winds to ground level. Wind effects around
tall buildings are assessed as part of a microclimate study.
Microclimates can also refer to purpose made environments, such as
those in a room or other enclosure. Microclimates are commonly created and
carefully maintained in museum display and storage environments. This can be
done using passive methods.
IMPACT UPON HUMANS
Microclimate has a significant effect upon agricultural
production and upon human comfort. Agricultural yields and crop growing season
is affected by microclimate variation in temperature, rainfall, solar insulation,
humidity and wind velocity.
Some descriptions of microclimate affecting humans also include the
factors of noise pollution, light pollution and air pollution
• Natural environment means all living and non-living things that
are natural. The universe is natural, but often the term "natural
environment" only means nature on Earth. Two aspects are usually
• Ecological units which are natural systems without much human
interference. These include including all
vegetation, microorganisms, soil, rocks, atmosphere, and natural events.
• Universal natural resources and physical phenomena which lack clear-cut
boundaries. These include climate, air, water, energy, radiation, electric
charge, and magnetism.
• In contrast to the natural environment is the built environment. There, man
has changed landscapes to make urban settings and agricultural land. A
simpler human environment largely replaces the complex natural
• Natural environment is a composite. The natural environment includes a
great number of things—all the agents, forces, processes, and material
resources of the world of Nature. The list of all these is unbelievably long. In
fact, it is bewilderingly complex until one sorts and classifies its
components and puts them into some simple arrangement. When this is
done, the whole matter is easy to understand. For instance, the natural en-
vironment of any part of the earth’s surface can be classified into the
following sixteen elements.
1. Weather and climate / Landforms / Rocks and minerals / Soils
2. Natural vegetation / Native animal life / Micro-organic realm
3. Surface waters of the land / Underground waters / the ocean
4. The coast zone/ Geomatical position
5. Natural situation / Geographical location / Regional form or shape /
Areal space or size
• In urban planning, the idea that a large percentage of the human
environment is manmade, and these artificial surroundings are so extensive
and cohesive that they function as organisms in the consumption of
resources, disposal of wastes, and facilitation of productive enterprise
within its bounds. Recently there has also been considerable dialogue and
research into the impact of the built environment's impact on population
• Urban ecosystems are the cities, towns, and urban strips constructed by
• This is the growth in the urban population and the supporting built
infrastructure has impacted on both urban environments and also on areas
which surround urban areas. These include semi or 'peri-urban'
environments that fringe cities as well as agricultural and natural
• Scientists are now developing ways to measure and understand the effects
of urbananisation on human and environmental health.
• By considering urban areas as part of a broader ecological system, scientists
can investigate how urban landscapes function and how they affect other
landscapes with which they interact. In this context, urban environments
are affected by their surrounding environment but also impact on that
environment. Knowing this may provide clues as to which alternative
development options will lead to the best overall environmental outcome.
• urban ecosystem research is focused on: Understanding how cities work as
ecological system / Developing sustainable approaches to development of
city fringe areas that reduce negative impact on surrounding environments
• Developing approaches to urban design that provide for health and
opportunity for citizens
THE LIVING ENVIRONMENT
• People have long been curious about living things—how many different
species there are, what they are like, where they live, how they relate to
each other, and how they behave. Scientists seek to answer these questions
and many more about the organisms that inhabit the earth. In particular,
they try to develop the concepts, principles, and theories that enable people
to understand the living environment better.
• Living organisms are made of the same components as all other matter,
involve the same kind of transformations of energy, and move using the
same basic kinds of forces. Thus, all of the physical principles discussed in
Chapter 4, The Physical Setting, apply to life as well as to stars, raindrops,
and television sets. But living organisms also have characteristics that can
be understood best through the application of other principles.
• Solar radiation is radiant energy emitted by the sun, particularly
electromagnetic energy. About half of the radiation is in the visible short-
wave part of the electromagnetic spectrum. The other half is mostly in the
near-infrared part, with some in the ultraviolet part of the spectrum
What is heat flow?
• When you bring two objects of different temperature together, energy will
always be transferred from the hotter to the cooler object.
• The objects will exchange thermal energy, until thermal equilibrium is
reached, i.e. until their temperatures are equal. We say that heat flows
from the hotter to the cooler object. Heat is energy on the move.
Units of heat are units of energy. The SI unit of energy is Joule. An external
agent doing work, heat will always flow from a hotter to a cooler
object. Two objects of different temperature always interact. There are
three different ways for heat to flow from one object to another. They are
conduction, convection, and radiation.
• (in joules)
What is Heat?
All matter is made up of molecules and atoms. These atoms are always in
different types of motion (translation, rotational, vibrational). The motion
of atoms and molecules creates heat or thermal energy. All matter has this
thermal energy. The more motion the atoms or molecules have the more
heat or thermal energy they will have.
How is heat transferred?
• Heat can travel from one place to another in three ways: Conduction,
Convection and Radiation. Both conduction and convection require matter
to transfer heat.
• If there is a temperature difference between two systems heat will always
find a way to transfer from the higher to lower system.
• Conduction is the transfer of heat between substances that are in direct
contact with each other. The better the conductor, the more rapidly heat
will be transferred. Metal is a good conduction of heat. Conduction occurs
when a substance is heated, particles will gain more energy, and vibrate
more. These molecules then bump into nearby particles and transfer some
of their energy to them. This then continues and passes the energy from
the hot end down to the colder end of the substance.
• Thermal energy is transferred from hot places to cold places by convection.
Convection occurs when warmer areas of a liquid or gas rise to cooler areas
in the liquid or gas. Cooler liquid or gas then takes the place of the warmer
areas which have risen higher. This results in a continuous circulation
pattern. Water boiling in a pan is a good example of these convection
currents. Another good example of convection is in the atmosphere. The
earth's surface is warmed by the sun, the warm air rises and cool air moves
• Radiation is a method of heat transfer that does not rely upon any contact
between the heat source and the heated object as is the case with
conduction and convection. Heat can be transmitted through empty space
by thermal radiation often called infrared radiation. This is a type
electromagnetic radiation. No mass is exchanged and no medium is
required in the process of radiation. Examples of radiation is the heat from
the sun, or heat released from the filament of a light bulb.
Movement of air
• Movement of air is caused by temperature or pressure differences and is
experienced as wind.
• Where there are differences of pressure between two places, a pressure
gradient exists, across which air moves: from the high-pressure region to
the low-pressure region.
• This movement of air however, does not follow the quickest straight-line
path. In fact, the air moving from high to low pressure follows a spiraling
route, outwards from high pressure and inwards towards low pressure.
• This is due to the rotation of the Earth beneath the moving air, which
causes an apparent deflection of the wind to the right in the Northern
Hemisphere, and to the left in the Southern Hemisphere.
• The deflection of air is caused by the Coriolis force. Consequently, air
blows anticlockwise around a low-pressure center (depression) and
clockwise around a high-pressure center (anticyclone) in the Northern
Hemisphere. This situation is reversed in the Southern Hemisphere.
• Wind caused by differences in temperature is known as convection or
advection. In the atmosphere, convection and advection transfer heat
energy from warmer regions to colder regions, either at the Earth surface
or higher up in the atmosphere.
• Small-scale air movement of this nature is observed during the formation
of sea and land breezes, due to temperature differences between seawater
• At a much larger scale, temperature differences across the Earth generate
the development of the major wind belts. Such wind belts, to some degree,
define the climate zones of the world.
• Land use involves the management and modification of natural
environment or wilderness into built environment such as settlements and
semi-natural habitats such as arable fields, pastures, and managed woods.
It also has been defined as "the total of arrangements, activities, and inputs
that people undertake in a certain land cover type."
• There are many types of land use:
• Recreational - fun, non-essentials like parks. / Transport - roads, railways,
• Agricultural - farmland. / Residential - housing. / Commercial - businesses
• Drainage is the natural or artificial removal of surface and sub-surface
water from an area. The internal drainage of most agricultural soils is good
enough to prevent severe waterlogging (anaerobic conditions that harm
root growth), but many soils need artificial drainage to improve production
or to manage water supplies.
• Drainage system may refer to: A drainage system (geomorphology), the
pattern formed by the streams, rivers, and lakes in a particular drainage
• A drainage system (agriculture), an intervention to control waterlogging
aiming at soil improvement for agricultural production.
• A drainage system in urban and industrial areas, a facility to dispose of
liquid waste. See Sustainable urban drainage systems and Sewerage.
1. It is the hygienic means of promoting health through prevention of human
contact with the hazards of wastes as well as the treatment and proper
disposal of sewage or wastewater. Hazards can be either
physical, microbiological, biological or chemical agents of disease.
2. Wastes that can cause health problems include human and animal excreta,
solid wastes, domestic wastewater (sewage or greywater) industrial wastes
and agricultural wastes. Hygienic means of prevention can be by using
engineering solutions (e.g., sanitary sewers, sewage treatment, surface
runoff management, solid waste management, excreta management),
simple technologies (e.g., pit latrines, dry toilets, urine-diverting dry
toilets, septic tanks), or even simply by behavior changes in personal
hygiene practices, such as hand washing with soap.
3. Providing sanitation to people requires a systems approach, rather than
only focusing on the toilet or wastewater treatment plant itself. The
experience of the user, excreta and wastewater collection methods,
transportation or conveyance of waste, treatment, and reuse or disposal all
need to be thoroughly considered.
4. The main objective of a sanitation system is to protect and promote human
health by providing a clean environment and breaking the cycle of
Sanitation is the hygienic means of promoting health through prevention of
human contact with the hazards of wastes. Hazards can be either physical,
microbiological, biological or chemical agents of disease. Wastes that can cause
health problems are human and animal feces, solid wastes, domestic wastewater
(sewage, sullage, and greywater), industrial wastes, and agricultural wastes.
Hygienic means of prevention can be by using engineering solutions (e.g.
sewerage and wastewater treatment), simple technologies (e.g. latrines, septic
tanks), or even by personal hygiene practices (e.g. simple hand washing with
soap).The term "sanitation" can be applied to a specific aspect, concept, location,
or strategy, such as: Basic sanitation - refers to the management of human feces
at the household level. This terminology is the indicator used to describe the
target of the Millennium Development Goal on sanitation.
Concept of Greenfield development
• Greenfield development is the creation of planned communities on
previously undeveloped land. This land may be rural, agricultural or unused
areas on the outskirts of urban areas.
• Unlike urban sprawls, where there is little or no proper suburban planning,
greenfield development is about efficient urban planning that aims to
provide practical, affordable and sustainable living spaces for growing
• The planning takes future growth and development into account as well as
seeks to avoid the various infrastructure issues that plague existing urban
areas. Going for Greenfield development is actually far more convenient
than attempting to develop or modify existing urban areas.
• The process of revitalizing old or rundown neighborhoods, which is known
as brownfield remediation, can be expensive, slow, and fraught with
various social and political issues. Landlords, for instance, may not find
development in their interest or profitable.
• If it is a rough neighborhood with dysfunctional school systems, people may
not be willing to move into it even after redevelopment. Planning and
developing new communities in new areas, on the other hand, can be a
comparatively faster and easier process, with no previous issues to contend
What is a Brownfield development?
• 'Brownfield' land is an area of land or premises that has been previously
used, but has subsequently become vacant, derelict or contaminated.
• This term derived from its opposite, undeveloped or 'greenfield' land.
Brownfield sites typically require preparatory regenerative work before any
new development goes ahead, and can also be partly occupied.
• Environmental Problems
• Our environment is constantly changing. There is no denying that.
However, as our environment changes, so does the need to become
increasingly aware of the problems that surround it.
• With a massive influx of natural disasters, warming and cooling periods,
different types of weather patterns and much more, people need to be
aware of what types of environmental problems our planet is facing.
• Global warming has become an undisputed fact about our current
livelihoods; our planet is warming up and we are definitely part of the
• However, this isn’t the only environmental problem that we should be
15 Major Current Environmental Problems
• 1. Pollution: Pollution of air, water and soil require millions of years to
recoup. Industry and motor vehicle exhaust are the number one pollutants.
Heavy metals, nitrates and plastic are toxins responsible for pollution.
While water pollution is caused by oil spill, acid rain, urban runoff; air
pollution is caused by various gases and toxins released by industries and
factories and combustion of fossil fuels; soil pollution is majorly caused by
industrial waste that deprives soil from essential nutrients.
• 2. Global Warming: Global warming leads to rising temperatures of the
oceans and the earth’ surface causing melting of polar ice caps, rise in sea
levels and also unnatural patterns of precipitation such as flash floods,
excessive snow or desertification.
• 3. Overpopulation: The population of the planet is reaching unsustainable
levels as it faces shortage of resources like water, fuel and food.
• 4. Natural Resource Depletion: Natural resource depletion is another
crucial current environmental problems. Fossil fuel consumption results in
emission of Greenhouse gases, which is responsible for global warming and
climate change. Globally, people are taking efforts to shift to renewable
sources of energy like solar, wind, biogas and geothermal energy.
• 5. Waste Disposal: The over consumption of resources and creation of
plastics are creating a global crisis of waste disposal. Developed countries
are notorious for producing an excessive amount of waste or garbage and
dumping their waste in the oceans and, less developed countries.
• 6. Climate Change: Climate change is yet another environmental problem
that has surfaced in last couple of decades. It occurs due to rise in global
warming which occurs due to increase in temperature of atmosphere by
burning of fossil fuels and release of harmful gases by industries.
• 7. Loss of Biodiversity: Human activity is leading to the extinction of species
and habitats and and loss of bio-diversity. Eco systems, which took millions
of years to perfect, are in danger when any species population is
decimating. Balance of natural processes like pollination is crucial to the
survival of the eco-system and human activity threatens the same. Another
example is the destruction of coral reefs in the various oceans, which
support the rich marine life.
• 8. Deforestation: Our forests are natural sinks of carbon dioxide and
produce fresh oxygen as well as helps in regulating temperature and
rainfall. At present forests cover 30% of the land but every year tree cover
is lost amounting to the country of Panama due to growing population
demand for more food, shelter and cloth.
Ecology is the science of the study of ecosystems. Ecological balance has been
defined by various online dictionaries as "a state of dynamic equilibrium within
a community of organisms in which genetic, species and ecosystem diversity
remain relatively stable, subject to gradual changes through natural success."
and "A stable balance in the numbers of each species in an ecosystem."
• The most important point being that the natural balance in an ecosystem is
maintained. This balance may be disturbed due to the introduction of new
species, the sudden death of some species, natural hazards or man-made
SUSTAINABLE SITE DEVELOPMENT
• The concept of sustainable development is related to environmentalism but
has evolved since its introduction in the 1980s. The most widely held
definition was published by the United Nation's World Commission on
Environment and Development in 1987. The General Assembly found
sustainable development to be that type of development that meets the
"needs of the present without compromising the ability of future
generations to meet their own needs."
Selecting and Developing the Site Wisely
Sustainable practices avoid the development of inappropriate sites and reduce the
environmental impact from the location of a building on a site. Development of
previously undeveloped sites consumes land that could have agricultural,
wetlands, and wildlife habitat value. Developing a site in an urban area with
existing infrastructure can protect Greenfields and preserve habitat and natural
Reducing Emissions Associated with Transportation
Vehicle emissions and the need for increased impervious areas for paved parking
lots are an environmental concern. Parking areas and roadways result in increased
storm water runoff and contribute to heat island effect. The use of alternative
forms of transportation can be promoted by providing bicycle racks and changing
rooms, preferred parking for carpooling and low-emitting and fuel-efficient
vehicles, and access to public transportation.
Planting Sustainable Landscapes
Sustainable landscape practices minimize the use of fertilizers, pesticides, and
irrigation. Using native and adaptive non-invasive plant species requires less
maintenance and uses little or no irrigation, fertilizers, or pesticides. Sustainable
landscaping practices reduce maintenance costs over the life of the
Protecting Surrounding Habitats
Development of building sites can encroach on agricultural land and adversely
affect wildlife habitat. Sustainable development promotes preserving and
restoring native vegetation and wildlife habitat.
Storm water Management
Impervious surfaces and reduced permeability within developed areas increase
storm water runoff that can contribute to off-site flooding and pollution. Effective
strategies exist to reduce and treat storm water runoff before it leaves the project
site and has an impact on sensitive water bodies.
Heat Island Effect Reduction
Dark, non-reflective surfaces in parking areas, hardscapes, and roofs absorb solar
radiation and radiate that heat to surrounding areas resulting in an increase in
ambient temperature. This increase in temperature can have an impact on habitat
as well as increase building energy costs for cooling. Installing reflective surfaces
and increasing the vegetation on the site can reduce or eliminate heat island
Light Pollution Prevention
Poorly designed site lighting can result in negative impacts due to light trespass
from the building and site. Light pollution reduction measures reduce night
glow and the impact from building interior and site lighting on nocturnal
environments, while still providing lighting for safety. Luminaries that do not
enhance safety, such as landscape lighting, should be avoided.
Floor area ratio (FAR)
• Floor area ratio (FAR) is the ratio of a building's total floor area (gross floor
area) to the size of the piece of land upon which it is built. The terms can
also refer to limits imposed on such a ratio.
• As a formula: Floor area ratio = (total covered area on all floors of all
buildings on a certain plot, gross floor area) / (area of the plot)
• The floor area ratio (FAR) can be used in zoning to limit the number of
people that a building can hold instead of controlling a building's external
Alternative technologies include the following:
Fuels for automobiles (besides gasoline and diesel)
Alcohol (either ethanol or methanol)
• Anaerobic digestion is a series of biological processes in which
microorganisms break down biodegradable material in the absence of
oxygen. One of the end products is biogas, which is combusted to generate
electricity and heat, or can be processed into renewable natural gas and
• Composting is nature's process of recycling decomposed organic materials
into a rich soil known as compost. Anything that was once living will
decompose. Basically, backyard composting is an acceleration of the same
process nature uses.
• Biodiesel refers to a vegetable oil - or animal fat-based diesel
fuel consisting of long-chain alkyl (methyl, ethyl, or propyl) esters. Biodiesel
is typically made by chemically reacting lipids (e.g., vegetable oil, soybean
animal fat (tallow
)) with an alcohol producing fatty acid esters.
• Biodiesel is meant to be used in standard diesel engines and is thus distinct
from the vegetable and waste oils used to fuel converted diesel engines.
Biodiesel can be used alone, or blended with petro diesel in any
Biodiesel blends can also be used as heating oil.
• Greywater is gently used water from your bathroom sinks, showers, tubs,
and washing machines. It is not water that has come into contact with
feces, either from the toilet or from washing diapers. Greywater may
contain traces of dirt, food, grease, hair, and certain household cleaning
• Alternative natural materials
• Alternative natural materials is a general term that describes natural
materials like rock or adobe that are not as commonly in use as materials
such as wood or iron. Alternative natural materials have many practical
uses in areas such as sustainable architecture and engineering. The main
purpose of using such materials is to minimize the negative effects that our
built environment can have on the planet while increasing the efficiency
and adaptability of the structures.
• In Asian countries, bamboo is being used for structures like bridges and
homes. Bamboo is surprisingly strong and rather flexible and grows
incredibly fast, making it a rather abundant material. Although it can be
difficult to join corners together, bamboo is immensely strong and makes
up for the hardships that can be encountered while building it.
• Rock is a great way to get away from traditional materials that are harmful
to the environment. Rocks have two great characteristics: good thermal
mass and thermal insulation. These characteristics make stone a great idea
because the temperature in the house stays rather constant thus requiring
less air conditioning and other cooling systems.
What is Rainwater harvesting?
• The term rainwater harvesting is being frequently used these days,
however, the concept of water harvesting is not new for India. Water
harvesting techniques had been evolved and developed centuries ago.
• Ground water resource gets naturally recharged through percolation. But
due to indiscriminate development and rapid urbanization, exposed surface
for soil has been reduced drastically with resultant reduction in percolation
of rainwater, thereby depleting ground water resource. Rainwater
harvesting is the process of augmenting the natural filtration of rainwater
in to the underground formation by some artificial methods. "Conscious
collection and storage of rainwater to cater to demands of water, for
drinking, domestic purpose & irrigation is termed as Rainwater Harvesting."
Why Harvest Rainwater
• This is perhaps one of the most frequently asked question, as to why one
should harvest rainwater. There are many reasons but following are some
of the important ones.
• To arrest ground water decline and augment ground water table / To
beneficiate water quality in aquifers
• To conserve surface water runoff during monsoon / To reduce soil erosion
• To inculcate a culture of water conservation
Onsite Sewage Systems
• Onsite sewage systems are effective at treating household sewage if
designed and installed properly in appropriate soil and maintained
regularly. In typical onsite sewage systems, the wastewater from toilets and
other drains flows from your house into a tank that separates the solids and
scum from the liquid. Bacteria help break down the solids into sludge. The
liquid flows out of the tank into a network of pipes buried in a disposal field
of gravel and soil. Holes in the pipes allow the wastewater to be released
into the disposal field. The soil, gravel and naturally occurring bacteria in
the soil filter and cleanse the wastewater. There are about 250,000 onsite
sewage systems in British Columbia, despite expansion of municipal sewage
collection and treatment facilities.
You may have a failing onsite sewage system if you notice one or more of the
• unusually green or spongy grass over the system;
• toilets, showers and sinks back up or take a long time to drain;
• sewage surfacing on your lawn or in a nearby ditch;
• Sewage odors around your yard, especially after rain.
• Sewage treatment is the process of removing contaminants
from wastewater, primarily from household sewage. It includes physical,
chemical, and biological processes to remove these contaminants and
produce environmentally safe treated wastewater (or treated effluent)
• Recycling and reuse
• Recycling involves the collection of used and discarded materials processing
these materials and making them into new products. It reduces the amount
of waste that is thrown into the community dustbins thereby making the
environment cleaner and the air more fresh to breathe.
• Surveys carried out by Government and non-government agencies in the
country have all recognized the importance of recycling wastes. However,
the methodology for safe recycling of waste has not been standardized.
Studies have revealed that 7 %-15% of the waste is recycled. If recycling is
done in a proper manner, it will solve the problems of waste or garbage. At
the community level, a large number of NGOs and private sector
enterprises have taken an initiative in segregation and recycling of waste
(EXNORA International in Chennai recycles a large part of the waste that is
collected). It is being used for composting, making pellets to be used in
gasifies, etc. Plastics are sold to the factories that reuse them.
• The steps involved in the process prior to recycling include
a) Collection of waste from doorsteps, commercial places, etc.
b) Collection of waste from community dumps.
c) Collection/picking up of waste from final disposal sites
• Most of the garbage generated in the household can be recycled and
reused. Organic kitchen waste such as leftover foodstuff, vegetable peels,
and spoilt or dried fruits and vegetables can be recycled by putting them in
the compost pits that have been dug in the garden. Old newspapers,
magazines and bottles can be sold to the kabadiwala the man who buys
these items from homes.
• In your own homes you can contribute to waste reduction and the recycling
and reuse of certain items. To cover you books you can use old calendars;
old greeting cards can also be reused. Paper can also be made at home
through a very simple process and you can paint on them.
• Waste recycling has some significant advantages. It leads to less utilization
of raw materials.Reduces environmental impacts arising from waste
treatment and disposal. Makes the surroundings cleaner and
healthier. Saves on landfill space. Saves money. Reduces the amount of
energy required to manufacture new products.
• In fact recycling can prevent the creation of waste at the source.
Passive energy system design
After including every available conservation technique in a building design, the
next step in decreasing the energy and water demands of the site are passive
building designs. A passive design uses several techniques, included in the actual
structural design and lot layout, to significantly reduce the amount of energy
needed to heat, cool and light a building and also to reduce the runoff from the
site, thus decreasing pollution and increasing infiltration of precipitation. Passive
methods do not require any mechanical or electronic devices, so after the design
is implemented, minimal additional inputs are required. The costs of passive
designs are usually the same as or only slightly higher than conventional designs,
making the payback of these techniques relatively short .Many of the water-
conserving benefits of passive design via landscaping are listed in the
Environmentally-Friendly Urban Landscaping section.
Passive design is the control of ventilation and temperature without using any
products that consume energy or money (such as heaters, dehumidifiers or fires).
Good passive design includes:
House orientation – positioning the house to allow maximum sun in the
winter and coolness in the summer. This includes deciding which rooms you
want to be the sunniest.
Solar energy – using solar panels for water heating.
Use of shading elements – for example, wide eaves protect from the sun in
summer and provide increased weather protection in winter.
Placement and glazing of windows – the larger windows should face the
sun to capture the warmth, use glazing to stop heat escaping, and have
shading to limit summer overheating.
Ventilation – using window joinery that allows ventilation, such as security
catches allowing windows to remain partially open, or vents in the joinery.
Insulation – to reduce heat loss.
Thermal Mass – using heavy building materials to store solar energy and
limit overheating during the day but then release energy during the night to
Passive design is based on these simple principles:
using the sun s energy (solar gain) to heat the home (space heating & water
using the sun to provide light in the home,
using very high levels of insulation to retain the heat (i.e. floors, walls, roof,
use a compact design to reduce the surface area to volume ratio,
airtightness - control air flow to reduce heat loss,
using the heat produced by people and appliances to heat the home,
use energy efficient appliances,
Using the lie of the land and planting to provide shelter.
In practice, a passive house will have most of the following features:
rectangular in plan, so the sun can shine deep into the house,
compact (low surface to volume ratio: not necessarily small) design to
reduce surface area,
positioned on the site so that one of the main facades is facing south,
south facing facade will have lots of glazing,
north facing facade will have very little glazing,
rooms that are used most (e.g. living room, kitchen will be on the south
rooms that used the least (e.g. utility room, toilets, storage) will be on the
thermal mass (e.g. concrete floor) to absorb and store solar energy (heat),
very high levels of insulation to retain heat,
air tight structure to reduce heat loss through draughts,
controlled ventilation to provide good indoor air quality,
Solar collectors for water heating.
1. The primary role of the building envelope is to separate different
environments, typically the interior from exterior, by managing the flow of
air, moisture, and heat between them. The envelope must also consider the
impact of architectural orientation and styles, as well as heating and
venting strategies, owner s expectations, and future requirements.
Successful envelope design harmonizes of all these needs, while looking for
synergies in design.
2. In terms of sustainable or green design the envelope must perform its
functions for the life of the building without excessive maintenance or
renewals. In addition, the materials should be locally extracted or
manufactured, resistant to degradation, recyclable/reusable, and balance
lifecycle cost and embodied energy. Together these characteristics define
There are several basic parameters for building orientation that are incorporated
in any passive solar design. The site where the building will be located must have
access to the sun, especially between 9 am and 3 pm, during the heating season,
and there should be no more than 20 percent blockage along the sun s path (City
of Austin s Green Building Program 2004). A long, thin building with one of the
longer sides facing south and most of the windows on the southern wall will allow
for maximum solar exposure during the
winter months, providing both heat and
light. An open floor plan placing the
rooms requiring the most light and heat
along the south face of the building
optimizes passive system operation.
Garages, storage rooms, and other such
spaces can act as thermal buffers when located on the east and west side of a
building (Consumer Energy Center 2004).
1. The building fabric is a critical component of any building, since it both
protects the building occupants and plays a major role in regulating the
indoor environment. Consisting of the building's roof, floor slabs, walls,
windows, and doors, the fabric controls the flow of energy between the
interior and exterior of the building.
2. For a new project, opportunities relating to the building fabric begin during
the predesign phase of the building. An optimal design of the building fabric
may provide significant reductions in heating and cooling loads-which in
turn can allow downsizing of mechanical equipment. When the right
strategies are integrated through good design, the extra cost for a high-
performance fabric may be paid for through savings achieved by installing
smaller HVAC equipment.
3. The building fabric must balance requirements for ventilation and daylight
while providing thermal and moisture protection appropriate to the
climatic conditions of the site. Fabric design is a major factor in determining
the amount of energy a building will use in its operation. Also, the overall
environmental life-cycle impacts and energy costs associated with the
production and transportation of different envelope materials vary greatly.
4. In keeping with the whole building approach, the entire design team must
integrate design of the fabric with other design elements including material
selection; daylighting and other passive solar design strategies; heating,
ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) and electrical strategies; and
project performance goals. One of the most important factors affecting
fabric design is climate. Hot/dry, hot/humid, temperate, or cold climates
will suggest different design strategies. Specific designs and materials can
take advantage of or provide solutions for the given climate.
5. A second important factor in fabric design is what occurs inside the
building. If the activity and equipment inside the building generate a
significant amount of heat, the thermal loads may be primarily internal
(from people and equipment) rather than external (from the sun). This
affects the rate at which a building gains or loses heat. Building
Configuration also has significant impacts upon the efficiency and
requirements of the building fabric. Careful study is required to arrive at a
building footprint and orientation that work with the building fabric to
maximize energy benefit
Windows and Shading
1. The performance of solar passive cooling techniques such as solar shading,
insulation of building components and air exchange rate was evaluated. In
the study a decrease in the indoor temperature by about 2.5 °C to 4.5°C is
noticed for solar shading. Results modified with insulation and controlled
air exchange rate showed a further decrease of 4.4-6.8 °C in room
2. The analysis suggested that solar shading is quite useful to development of
passive cooling system to maintain indoor room air temperature lower than
the conventional building without shade. Although shading of the whole
building is beneficial, shading of the window is crucial. The total solar load
consists of three components; direct, diffuse and reflected radiation. To
prevent passive solar heating, when it is not wanted, learning about
different methods employed to shade a building leading to natural cooling
and energy conservation.
3. A window must always be shaded from the direct solar component and
often so from the diffuse and reflected components. Decisions on where
and when to include shading can greatly affect the comfort level inside a
closed space. Shading from the effects of direct solar radiation can be
achieved in many ways:
• Shade pro ided the effe t of re esses i the e ter al e elope of the
• Shade pro ided stati or o ea le e ter al li ds or lou res.
• Tra sie t shading provided by the orientation of the building on one or more of
its external walls.
• Per a e t or tra sie t shadi g pro ided the surrou di g uildi gs, s ree s
• Shadi g of roofs rolli g refle ti e a ass, earthe pots, egetation etc.
The different criteria of shading of buildings for various climatic zones have been
in the following Table 1.
High rise buildings
A high-rise is a tall building or structure. Normally, the function of the building is
added, for example high-rise apartment building or high-rise offices. Compare:
High-rise buildings became possible with the invention of the elevator (lift) and
cheaper, more abundant building materials. Buildings between 75 feet (23 m) and
491 feet (150 m) high are, by some standards, considered high-rises. Buildings
taller than 492 feet (150 m) are classified as skyscrapers. The average height of a
level is around 13 feet (4 m) high, thus a 79 foot (24 m) tall building would
comprise 6 floors.
The materials used for the structural system of high-rise buildings are reinforced
concrete and steel. Most American style skyscrapers have a steel frame, while
residential tower blocks are usually constructed out of concrete.
Utilities & Building Operations (Division)
Utilities Division areas of responsibility can be categorized as:
BUILDING MECHANICAL SYSTEM OPERATIONS & CONTROLS
ELECTRICAL AND ELEVATOR SERVICES
CENTRAL MECHANICAL SERVICES
Planned or unplanned interruptions to building electrical and/or mechanical
services occur due to breakdowns, renovation work and regular maintenance.
Where possible F & S will call the Department or Faculty Administration.
That Department or Faculty Administration, in turn, is responsible for
calling all affected users to ensure that they have input into the timing of
A "Notice of Shutdown" is issued by the Utilities Division.
As much advanced notice as possible is given to the Department or Faculty
Administration and all others involved for posting and circulation.
Cooperation and communication are vital in minimizing the effects of
Restricted Access: Electrical Rooms, Mechanical Rooms and Service Tunnels are
secured areas and kept locked to prevent unauthorized entry.
What is a Tall Building?
Tall buildings are often regarded as being greater than 20 storeys. However, a tall
building is really defined with respect to the height of the surrounding buildings. If
the majority of the buildings in a city are 3 or 4 storeys, then a 12 storey building
would be considered tall. In locations such as New York or Hong Kong, a tall
building is 40 plus storeys high. This paper examines primarily tall buildings in the
UK, i.e. buildings of 20 storeys or more.
The tall buildings considered here are assumed to be residential, offices, retail or
hotel accommodation, with a requirement for building services, not industrial
processes or multi-storey car parks.
What is a Sustainable Tall Building?
A sustainable building is one in which the design team have struck a balance
between environmental, economic and social issues at all stages – design,
construction, operation and change of use/end of life.
A purist s definition of a sustainable tall building is one which emits no pollution
to air, land and water, and can be economically occupied throughout its design
life, whilst contributing positively to the local community.
So the challenge is to achieve sustainability and build high-rise buildings. There
are specific aspects where tall buildings are less sustainable than low rise, e.g. in
their requirement for energy for vertical transportation, but there are others
where they undoubtedly have advantages e.g. utility of land in densely populated
urban areas. So the advantages need to be capitalized on, and the disadvantages
minimized or mitigated.
Modular building construction
The Modular Building Institute (MBI 2006) defines modular construction as a
method of construction that utilizes pre-engineered, factory-fabricated
structures in three-dimensional sections that are transported to be tied together
on a site . This definition, however, focuses solely on the production and form of
prefabricated parts. Modular construction involves much more.
• Modular o stru tio i ol es odular parts asse led i the fa tor ,
transported by road and installed on the building site to create a modular
• Modular parts ha e esta lished grid di e sio s.
• Parts just s all e ough to e tra sported road are alled odules.
• The odular uildi gs are asse led, tra sported and installed by specially
• The odular parts are o e ted usi g o e ie t dr -point and like
• The o po e ts of the odular parts a d odules are kept i sto k at the
• The poi t at hi h a order a e roke do i to its i di idual o po e ts
precedes the assembly of modular parts.
• Modular parts a d odules are a ufa tured a ordi g to usto er
• A odular uildi g a e take apart a d the reused to create the same or
another type of building.
Modular building construction (Wikipedia)
The modules can be placed side-by-side, end-to-end, or stacked, allowing a wide
variety of configurations and styles in the building layout.
Modular buildings are often priced lower than their site-built counterparts, for a
variety of reasons, manufacturers cite the following reasons for the typically
lower cost/price of these dwellings:
Speed of construction/faster return on investment. Modular construction
allows for the building and the site work to be completed simultaneously,
reducing the overall completion schedule by as much as 50%.
Indoor construction. Assembly is independent of weather, which increases
work efficiency and avoids damaged building material.
Favorable pricing from suppliers. Large-scale manufacturers can effectively
bargain with suppliers for discounts on materials.
Ability to service remote locations. Particularly in countries in which
potential markets may be located far from industrial centers, such as
Australia, there can be much higher costs to build a site-built house in a
remote area or an area experiencing a construction boom such as mining
towns. Modular homes can be built in major towns and sold to regional
Low waste. With the same plans being constantly built, the manufacturer
has records of exactly what quantity of materials is needed for a given job.
While waste from a site-built dwelling may typically fill several large
dumpsters, construction of a modular dwelling generates much less waste.
Environmentally friendly construction process. Modular construction
reduces waste and site disturbance compared to site-built structures.
Environmental benefits for used modular buildings. Modular buildings
contain 100% reusable components. This means you have the ability to take
the building down and relocate it. Should a company's needs change, the
modular room can be moved and they never lose their original investment.
Flexibility. Conventional buildings can be difficult to extend, however with
a modular building you can simply add sections, or even entire floors.
Healthier. Because modular homes are built in a factory, the materials are
stored indoors in a controlled environment, eliminating the risk of mold,
mildew, rust, and sun damage that can often lead to human respiratory
problems. Traditional site-built homes are always at risk from these threats.
Whilst there are many advantages to all forms of modular buildings, there can
be limitations also.
Volumetric: Transporting the completed modular building sections take up
a lot of space. This is balanced with the speed of construction once arrived
Flexibility: Due to transport and sometimes manufacturing restrictions,
module size can be limited, affecting room sizes. Panelized forms and flat
pack versions can provide easier shipment, and most manufacturers have
flexibility in their processes to cope with the majority of size requirements.
Partially open-sided modules
Open-sided (corner-supported) modules
Modules supported by a primary structural frame
Non-load bearing modules
Mixed modules and planar floor cassettes
Special stair or lift modules.
manufactured with four closed sides to create cellular type spaces designed
to transfer the combined vertical load of the modules above
the height of buildings in fully modular construction is in the range of 6 to
Modules are manufactured from a series of 2D panels, beginning with the
For buildings of 6 to 10 storeys height, a vertical bracing system is around
an access core, and horizontal bracing in the corridor floor between the
OPEN SIDED (CORNER-SUPPORTED) MODULES
An open ended module is a variant of a 4 sided module in which a rigid end
frame is provided, usually consisting of welded or rigidly connected
Rectangular Hollow Sections (RHS).
Modules can be placed side by side to create larger open plan spaces, as
required in hospitals and schools, etc.
As open sided modules are only stable on their own for one or two storeys,.
A steel external framework comprising walkways or balconies may be also
designed to provide stability.
MIXED MODULES AND FLOOR CASSETTES
In this hybrid or mixed form of construction, long modules may be stacked
to form a load-bearing serviced core.
floor cassettes span between the modules and load-bearing walls.
this mixed modular and panel form of construction is limited to buildings of
4 to 6 storey height.
used in residential buildings, particularly of terraced form.
MODULES SUPPORTED BY A PRIMARY STRUCTURE
Modules supported by long spanning cellular beams to create open plan
space at the lower levels .
the supporting columns are positioned at a multiple of the width of the
modules (normally 2 or 3 modules). The beams are designed to support the
combined loads from the modules above (normally a maximum of 4 6
NON LOAD BEARING MODULES
Non load bearing modules are of similar form to fully modular units, but are
not designed to resist external loads, other than their own weight and the
forces during lifting.
They are used as toilet/bathroom units, plant rooms or other serviced units
and are supported directly on a floor or by a separate structure.
The walls and floor of these pods are relatively thin (typically <100mm).
The units are designed to be installed either as the construction proceeds
or slid into place on the completed floor.
A curtain wall is a building façade that does not carry any dead load from the
building other than its own dead load, and one that transfers the horizontal loads
(wind loads) that are incident upon it. These loads are transferred to the main
building structure through connections at floors or columns of the building. A
curtain wall is designed to resist air and water infiltration, wind forces acting on
the building, seismic forces (usually only those imposed by the inertia of the
curtain wall), and its own dead load forces.
Curtain walls are typically designed with extruded aluminum members, although
the first curtain walls were made of steel. The aluminum frame is typically in filled
with glass, which provides an architecturally pleasing building, as well as benefits
such as day lighting. However, parameters related to solar gain control such as
thermal comfort and visual comfort are more difficult to control when using
highly-glazed curtain walls. Other common in fills include: stone veneer, metal
panels, louvers, and operable windows or vents.
Curtain walls differ from storefront systems in that they are designed to span
multiple floors, and take into consideration design requirements such as: thermal
expansion and contraction; building sway and movement; water diversion; and
thermal efficiency for cost-effective heating, cooling, and lighting in the building.
METAL CURTAIN WALLS
R.C.C CURTAIN WALLS
SPECIAL PURPOSE CURTAIN WALLS
METAL CURTAIN WALLS ARE BASICALLY DIVIDED INTO TWO CATEGORIES ON THE
BASIS OF TYPE OF ERECTION.
STICK & UNITIZED
STICK SYSTEM Stick system are shipped in pieces for field-fabrication and/or
assembly. These systems can be furnished by the manufacturer as stock lengths
to be cut, machined, assembled, and sealed in the field, or knocked down parts
pre-machined in the factory, for field-assembly and sealing only. All stick curtain
walls are field-glazed
UNITIZED CURTAIN WALL
To accomplish sealed and easily assembled, unitized curtain wall systems
have been developed.
Unitized curtain walls are factory-assembled and -glazed, then shipped to
the job site in units.
This accommodates thermal expansion and contraction, inter-story
differential movement, concrete creep, column foreshortening, and/or
WINDOW WALL –
A type of metal curtain wall installed between floors or between floor and roof
and typically composed of vertical and horizontal framing members, containing
operable sash or ventilators, fixed lights or opaque panels or any combination
MULLION AND PANEL= this is a type of Curtain wall in which only vertical mullions
are Installed and pre-fabricated Frames are installed.
R.C.C OR PRECAST CURTAIN WALLS-
Precast cladding or curtain walls are the most commonly used precast concrete
components for building envelopes. This type of precast concrete panel does not
transfer vertical loads but simply encloses the space
Store fronts are non-load-bearing glazed systems that occur on the ground floor,
which typically include commercial aluminium entrances. They are installed
between floor slabs, or between a floor slab and building structure above.
Typically field-fabricated and glazed, storefronts employ exterior glazing stops at
one side only. Provision for anchorage is made at perimeter conditions.
Maintenance and repair
Curtain walls and perimeter sealants require maintenance to maximize service
life. Perimeter sealants, properly designed and installed, have a typical service life
of 10 to 15 years. Removal and replacement of perimeter sealants require
meticulous surface preparation and proper detailing.
Aluminum frames are generally painted or anodized. Factory applied fluoro
polymer thermo set coatings have good resistance to environmental degradation
and require only periodic cleaning. Recoating with an air-dry fluoro polymer
coating is possible but requires special surface preparation and is not as durable
as the baked-on original coating.
Anodized aluminum frames cannot be "re-anodized" in place, but can be cleaned
and protected by proprietary clear coatings to improve appearance and
Exposed glazing seals and gaskets require inspection and maintenance to
minimize water penetration, and to limit exposure of frame seals and insulating
glass seals to wetting.
The production and use of building materials consumes large quantities of energy
and resources and generates waste. The choice of materials used in a building
therefore has important implications for the environment; wherever possible they
should be selected to minimize negative environment impacts and the
consumption of non-renewable resources.
A key concept when thinking about what materials to use is life cycle
stewardship . This means that the consequences and impacts of using materials
must be considered from the point at which they are mined/harvested, through
processing and manufacture, to installation, use, reuse/recycling and disposal.
Key considerations regarding sustainable materials include:
Reused or recycled – where possible reuse materials or use recycled
materials instead of new ones as this cuts out the emissions and energy
consumption associated with producing new materials and reduces waste.
For example, where demolition is involved, identify opportunities for reuse
or recycling of demolition materials (e.g. use recycled aggregates in new
low toxicity - use non-toxic materials that are free of harmful chemicals
such as CFCs
local sourcing – sourcing of materials locally may help to reduce the energy
use and environmental impacts associated with transportation
Responsible sourcing - independent certification schemes exist to confirm
that specific materials comply with responsible sourcing standards. For
example timber from well-managed forests is certified by the Forest
Stewardship Council (FSC).
maintenance/replacement and durability – using materials that are long
lasting and that are cheap and relatively easy to maintain, adapt and/or
replace will ensure that buildings are flexible and built to last
reusable or recyclable – select materials that can be easily dismantled and
reused or recycled at the end of their useful life
Retaining and re-using existing materials
Embodied energy can be minimized by
retaining and re-using existing building
structures and materials, particularly if
demolition of existing structures is required.
Therefore, consideration should be made to
re-use the existing materials within a new
development in either their existing state or in a revised/renewed state. For
example, crushed hard materials such as bricks and concrete may be re-used as
aggregate. But also when building new, future recyclability through easy
disassembly should be considered.
Consideration should be given to composite materials which are more difficult to
recycle than raw materials. For example, facade and roof structures that are easily
disassembled are more likely to be reused than those that would be damaged
when taken apart.
If none of these options are possible, then ensuring that most existing materials
are recycled and re-used off site should
be the next option.
Recycling involves processing used
materials into new products to prevent
waste of potentially useful materials,
reduce the consumption of fresh raw
materials, reduce energy usage, reduce
air pollution (from incineration) and water pollution (from landfilling) by reducing
the need for "conventional" waste disposal, and lower greenhouse gas emissions
as compared to virgin production. Recycling is a key component of modern waste
management. Recycling of a material would produce a fresh supply of the same
There are many building materials and appliances that can be re-used and
recycled including windows, doors, roofing tiles and dishwashers.
Building materials that can be recycled include:
bricks and tiles
Aggregates and concrete
Concrete aggregate collected from demolition sites is put through a crushing
machine, often along with asphalt, bricks, dirt, and rocks. Smaller pieces of
concrete are used as gravel for new construction projects. Crushed recycled
concrete can also be used as the dry aggregate for brand new concrete if it is free
of contaminants. This reduces the need for other rocks to be dug up, which in
turn saves trees and habitats
Steel crushed and baled for recycling
Iron and steel are the world's most recycled materials, and among the easiest
materials to reprocess, as they can be separated magnetically from the waste
stream. Recycling is via a steelworks: scrap is either remelted in an electric arc
furnace (90-100% scrap), or used as part of the charge in a Basic Oxygen Furnace
(around 25% scrap). Any grade of steel can be recycled to top quality new metal,
with no 'downgrading' from prime to lower quality materials as steel is recycled
repeatedly. 42% of crude steel produced is recycled material.
Aluminum is one of the most efficient and widely-recycled materials. Aluminum is
shredded and ground into small pieces or crushed into bales. These pieces or
bales are melted in an aluminum smelter to produce molten aluminum. This
process does not produce any change in the metal, so aluminum can be recycled
Recycling aluminum saves 95% of the energy cost of processing new aluminum.
This is because the temperature necessary for melting recycled, nearly pure,
aluminum is 600 °C, while to extract mined aluminum from its ore requires
900 °Americans throw away enough aluminum every year to rebuild their entire
commercial air fleet. Also, the energy saved by recycling one aluminum can is
enough to run a television for three hours.
A stack of wooden pallets awaits reuse or recycling.
Recycling timber has become popular due to its image as an environmentally
friendly product, with consumers commonly believing that by purchasing recycled
wood the demand for green timber will fall and ultimately benefit the
environment. Greenpeace also view recycled timber as an environmentally
friendly product, citing it as the most preferable timber source on their website.
The arrival of recycled timber as a construction product has been important in
both raising industry and consumer awareness towards deforestation and
promoting timber mills to adopt more environmentally friendly practices.
Alternative calcareous materials
Limestone's composition makes it a durable material that is easy to work with and
a favorite in the construction world. Limestone has been used for centuries as a
building material and can be found in buildings around the world. Limestone is an
extremely diverse material and, depending on its makeup, has varying levels of
strength and a variety of colors to choose from. Today, limestone continues to be
an important aspect of home construction and design.
*it s cheap and plentiful, and it s not too difficult to transport
*Getting it out of the ground isn't difficult
*No special, rare or dangerous chemicals are needed to make it into usable
*the products it can be made into are very numerous.
*it forms very strong bonds
*to make CaCO3 usable you have to convert it into quicklime, or CaO - Calcium
Oxide. This requires a lot of heating, and for eco boffs it releases CO2 - below:
CaCO3 + shed loads of heat to CaO + CO2
*If you use pure CaCO3 it tends to be dissolved by acids so your wonderful stature
may become a little crumbly.
*once your done with it it s very difficult to get rid of - it won't rot down.
Chalk, soft, fine-grained, easily pulverized, white-to-grayish variety of limestone.
The purest varieties contain up to 99 percent calcium carbonate in the form of the
Like any other high-purity limestone, chalk is used for making lime and Portland
cement and as a fertilizer. Finely ground and purified chalk is known as whiting
and is used as a filler, extender, or pigment in a wide variety of materials,
including ceramics, putty, cosmetics, crayons, plastics, rubber, paper, paints, and
linoleum. The chief use for chalk whiting, however, is in making putty, for which
its plasticity, oil absorption, and aging qualities are well suited.
Marl, old term used to refer to an earthy mixture of fine-grained minerals. The
term was applied to a great variety of sediments and rocks with a considerable
range of composition. Calcareous marls grade into clays, by diminution in the
amount of lime, and into clayey limestone s. Greensand marls contain the green,
potash-rich mica mineral glauconitic; widely distributed along the Atlantic coast in
the United States and Europe, they are used as water softeners.
Slag, by-product formed in smelting, welding, and other metallurgical and
combustion processes from impurities in the metals or ores being treated. Slag
consists mostly of mixed oxides of elements such as silicon, sulfur, phosphorus,
and aluminum; ash; and products formed in their reactions with furnace linings
and fluxing substances such as limestone. Slag floats on the surface of the molten
metal, protecting it from oxidation by the atmosphere and keeping it clean. Slag
forms a coarse aggregate used in certain concretes; it is used as a road material
and ballast and as a source of available phosphate fertilizer.
Metallic and Non- Metallic materials
These are metals and alloys containing a high proportion of the element
They are the strongest materials available and are used for applications
where high strength is required at relatively low cost and where weight is
not of primary importance.
As an example of ferrous metals such as: bridge building, the structure of
large buildings, railway lines, locomotives and rolling stock and the bodies
and highly stressed engine parts of road vehicles.
The ferrous metals themselves can also be classified into "families', and
these are shown in figure 4.
Steel – Corrosion is the most common and expensive form of material
degradation for construction steels, including concrete reinforcement. Steel
corrosion (rusting, or oxidation) is an electrochemical reaction that occurs when
iron atoms loose electrons in the presence of oxygen and water. The most
effective and common procedure for preventing or slowing corrosion is
to prevent contact with water, either by coatings or by protecting it within a
viable building envelope.
Cast iron is iron or a ferrous alloy which has been heated until it liquefies, and is
then poured into a mould to solidify. It is usually made from pig iron. The alloy
constituents affect its color when fractured: white cast iron has carbide impurities
which allow cracks to pass straight through. Grey cast iron has graphitic flakes
which deflect a passing crack and initiate countless new cracks as the material
Cast iron columns enabled architects to build tall buildings without the
enormously thick walls required to construct masonry buildings of any height.
Such flexibility allowed tall buildings to have large windows
Non – ferrous metals
These materials refer to the remaining metals known to mankind.
The pure metals are rarely used as structural materials as they lack
They are used where their special properties such as corrosion resistance,
electrical conductivity and thermal conductivity are required. Copper and
aluminum are used as electrical conductors and, together with sheet zinc
and sheet lead, are use as roofing materials.
They are mainly used with other metals to improve their strength.
Some widely used non-ferrous
metals and alloys are classified as shown
in figure 5.
1. Aluminum is one of the most
efficient and widely-recycled materials.
Aluminum is shredded and ground into
small pieces or crushed into bales. These
pieces or bales are melted in an
aluminum smelter to produce molten aluminum.
2. By this stage the recycled aluminum is indistinguishable from virgin
aluminum and further processing is identical for both. This process does not
produce any change in the metal, so aluminum can be recycled indefinitely.
3. Recycling aluminum saves 95% of the energy cost of processing new
aluminum. This is because the temperature necessary for melting recycled,
nearly pure, aluminum is 600 °C, while to extract mined aluminum from its
ore requires 900 °C.
4. To reach this higher temperature, much more energy is needed, leading to
the high environmental benefits of aluminum recycling. Americans throw
away enough aluminum every year to rebuild their entire commercial air
fleet. Also, the energy saved by recycling one aluminum can is enough to
run a television for three hours.
Non – metallic materials
Non – metallic (synthetic materials)
These are non – metallic materials that do not exist in nature, although they are
manufactured from natural substances such as oil, coal and clay. Some typical
examples are classified as shown in figure 6.
They combine good corrosion resistance with ease of manufacture by
moulding to shape and relatively low cost.
Synthetic adhesives are also being used for the joining of metallic
components even in highly stressed applications.
1. The term "plastics"
covers a range of synthetic
or semi-synthetic organic
that can be molded or
extruded into objects, films,
2. Their name is derived
from the fact that in their semi-liquid state they are malleable, or have the
property of plasticity. Plastics vary immensely in heat tolerance, hardness,
and resiliency. Combined with this adaptability, the general uniformity of
composition and lightness of plastics ensures their use in almost all
industrial applications today.
1. These are produced by baking naturally occurring clays at high
temperatures after moulding to shape. They are used for high – voltage
insulators and high – temperature – resistant cutting tool tips.
2. It is a useful and necessary term because, especially when initially found in
archaeological excavation, it may be difficult to distinguish, for example,
fragments of bricks from fragments of roofing or flooring tiles. However,
ceramic building materials are usually readily distinguishable from
fragments of ceramic pottery by their rougher finish.
Non – metallic (Natural materials)
Such materials are so diverse that only a few can be listed here to give a basic
introduction to some typical applications.
1. Wood has been used as a building material for thousands of years in its
natural state. Today, engineered wood is becoming very common in
2. Wood is a product of trees, and sometimes other fibrous plants, used for
construction purposes when cut or pressed into lumber and timber, such as
boards, planks and similar materials. It is a generic building material and is
used in building just about any type of structure in most climates.
3. Wood can be very flexible under loads, keeping strength while bending, and
is incredibly strong when compressed vertically. There are many differing
qualities to the different types of wood, even among same tree species.
This means specific species are better suited for various uses than others.
And growing conditions are important for deciding quality.
4. "Timber" is the term used for construction purposes except the term
"lumber" is used in the United States. Raw wood (a log, trunk, bole)
becomes timber when the wood has been "converted" (sawn, hewn, split)
in the forms of minimally-processed logs stacked on top of each other,
timber frame construction, and light-frame construction.
5. The main problems with timber structures are fire risk and moisture-related
problems.In modern times softwood is used as a lower-value bulk material,
whereas hardwood is usually used for finishing s and furniture.
6. Historically timber frame structures were built with oak in Western Europe,
recently Douglas fir has become the most popular wood for most types of
7. Many families or communities, in rural areas, have a personal woodlot from
which the family or community will grow and harvest trees to build with or
sell. These lots are tended to like a garden.
8. This was much more prevalent in pre-industrial times, when laws existed as
to the amount of wood one could cut at any one time to ensure there
would be a supply of timber for the future, but is still a viable form of
1. Glassmaking is considered an art form as well as an industrial process or
2. Clear windows have been used since the invention of glass to cover small
openings in a building. Glass panes provided humans with the ability to
both let light into rooms while at the same time keeping inclement weather
3. Glass is generally made from mixtures of sand and silicates, in a very hot
fire stove called a kiln, and are very brittle. Additives are often included the
mixture used to produce glass with shades of colors or various
characteristics (such as bulletproof glass or light emittance).
4. The use of glass in architectural buildings has become very popular in the
modern culture. Glass "curtain walls" can be used to cover the entire
facade of a building, or it can be used to span over a wide roof structure in
a "space frame". These uses though require some sort of frame to hold
sections of glass together, as glass by itself is too brittle and would require
an overly large kiln to be used to span such large areas by itself.
Active energy system
Active green energy systems refer to the use of technology applications
(electrical or mechanical) for utilizing or generating power.
This systems incorporate the use of renewable energy technologies, such as
solar photovoltaic panels, solar thermal collectors, wind turbines, bio fuel
systems, etc., to gather renewable energy to offset conventional energy.
Active solar systems are employed to convert solar energy into another
more useful form of energy.
This would normally be a conversion to heat or electrical energy.
Active solar uses electrical or mechanical equipment for this conversion.
Around 70% of solar radiation is absorbed by clouds, oceans and land
They are environmentally friendly.
Helps save the earth s energy resources.
It is the best choice for people who have allergies.
To use a little energy while saving money.
You can save between 50%- 80% on your current heating bill.
Going solar is an excellent start for reducing energy as well as to saving the
Active Solar Systems Mechanical/Electrical equipment s Heat Energy
(cooking, water heat purposes.) & Electrical Energy (solar panels, electric
ENERGY FROM SUN
• The Earth receives 174 pet watts (PW; 1petawatts=1015
incoming solar radiation at the upper atmosphere.
• Approximately 30% is reflected back to space while the rest is absorbed
by clouds, oceans and land masses. The spectrum of solar light at the
Earth's surface is mostly spread across the visible and near-
infrared ranges with a small part in the near-ultraviolet.
• Photons:-Light from the sun consists of photons.
• Solar panels:-Photons are absorbed by solar panels and the photoelectric
effect causes the flow of free electrons - electricity.
• Amp meter:-The amp meter measures the amount of instantaneous solar
current output. The current decreases as cloud cover sets in.
• Grid interactive inverter:-The inverter is the device where Direct Current
(DC) from the solar panels is transformed into 240 volt Alternating
Current (AC) at 50 Hertz, suitable for running household appliances.
• Kilo Watt Hour Meter:-The kilo Watt hour (kWh) meter is a cumulative
measurement of solar electricity. It is the total amount of electricity
produced by the solar panels.
• Electricity grid:-When the solar panels generate more electricity than the
electricity load, excess power is exported to the electricity grid.
• Main switchboard:-The kWh meter is located within the main
switchboard, which is the common link to the whole grid interactive
system. When its night, or a cloudy day, and the solar panels aren’t
generating any electricity, the electricity grid supplies electricity to the
switchboard. Additionally, it also provides electricity to the switchboard
when consumption is greater than the amount of electricity the solar
panels are providing.
• Electricity load:-the electricity that is used your home that is supplied via
Solar panels are devices that convert light into electricity.
They are also called as photo voltaic which means, basically, "light-
To get the most from solar panels, you need to point them in the direction
that captures the most sun.
Solar panels should always face true south if you are in the northern
hemisphere, or true north if you are in the southern hemisphere.
The angle at which a solar panel is installed changes depending on the
latitude of the location where you live.
The closer to the equator you live, the flatter your roof should be as the sun
is more directly overhead.
The more pole centric you live, the steeper your roof should be as the sun is
shining at more of an angle as opposed to overhead.
Solar panels should always face true south in the Northern Hemisphere,
North in the
Southern Hemisphere, tilted from the horizontal at a degree equal to your
latitude plus 15
Degrees in winter, or minus 15 degrees in summer.
LIQUID BASED SOLAR HEATING
• Cold water from the bottom of the tank is pumped to the solar collector.
• After passing through the collector, the hot water returns to the tank.
• Because hot water rises, the water coming from the collector stays at the
top of the tank. Hot water for the home is drawn from the top of the tank
• Tank material will be dependent on your water quality and whether you are
connected to the mains water supply.
• 1)vitreous enamel or mild steel:
• 2)stainless steel: less susceptible to corrosion and requires less
• >roof mounted tanks are placed horizontally above collectors.
• >split system, with the tank on ground level, needs a pump to circulate the
solar transfer fluid.
Wind is a form of solar energy.
They are caused by the uneven heating of the atmosphere by the sun, the
irregularities of the earth's surface, and rotation of the earth.
This wind flow, or motion energy, when "harvested" by modern wind
turbines, can be used to generate electricity.
How Wind Power Is Generated
• Wind turbines convert the kinetic energy in the wind into mechanical
• This mechanical power can be used for specific tasks (such as grinding grain
or pumping water) or a generator can convert this mechanical power into
electricity to power homes, businesses, schools, etc.
The multiple horizontal wind axis turbines alone generate half of the
necessary power for a typical small commercial building.
They are ideal for most areas of the world, where the prevailing wind speed
is above 3m/s. working in union with this system is a photovoltaic array.
The combination of these two systems is a key element in any green design
– the building will rely more on the wind turbines in the winter months,
while the photovoltaic array will take on more of a role during the summer
A wind tower is a traditional Persian architectural element to create natural
ventilation in buildings.
Wind tower tend to have one, four, or eight openings. The construction of a wind
tower. Depends on the direction of airflow at that specific location: if the wind
tends to blow from only one side, it is built with only one downwind opening
Geothermal heat pump
A geothermal heat pump or ground source heat pump (GSHP) is a
heating and/or cooling system that pumps heat to or from the ground.
It uses the earth as a heat source (in the winter) / or a heat sink (in the
It is used to provide heating and cooling to the building.
By extracting heat from the outdoor air, a heat pump can release several
times as much heat into the building as the heat value of the electricity it
The heat pump uses a vertical closed loop system, taking advantage of land
mass as a heat exchanger to either heat or cool the building.
Air conditioning is the process whereby the condition of air, as defined by
its temperature and moisture content, is changed.
Environmental requirements of the conditioned space may be determined
by human occupancy as related to comfort and health.
In construction, a complete system of heating, ventilation and air
conditioning is referred to as “HVAC”.
An air conditioner works similar to a refrigerator. The refrigerant flows through
the system, and changes in state or condition. All air conditioner units must have
the four basic components to work: