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Semester 4 history

Semester 4 history

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Semester 4 history

  1. 1. AAQIB IQBAL STUDY OF ARCHITECTS (POST-WORLD WAR) INTRODUCTIONTO ART AND ARCHITECTURE - II
  2. 2. TOPICS • Characteristics of Modern Architecture – World War 2 – Characteristics & Examples • Alvar Aalto • Eero SAARINEN • RICHARD NEUTRA • LOUIS I KAHN • PHILIP JOHNSON
  3. 3. WORLD WAR 2  World War II (WWII or WW2), (after the recent GreatWar), was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, though related conflicts began earlier. It involved the huge majority of the world's nations—forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis.  It was the most widespread war in history, and directly involved more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. In a state of "total war", the major participants threw their entire economic, industrial, and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, erasing the distinction between civilian and military resources.  Marked by mass deaths of civilians, including the Holocaust (during which approximately 11 million people were killed and the strategic bombing of industrial and population centers (during which approximately one million people were killed),it resulted in an estimated 50 million to 85 million fatalities.  These madeWorldWar II the deadliest conflict in human history
  4. 4. LEADERS STALIN, ROOSEVELT AND CHURCHILL AT THE TEHRAN CONFERENCE, NOVEMBER 1943 HITLER AND MUSSOLINI
  5. 5. Commanders and leaders. Main Allied leaders Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Winston Churchill Chiang Kai-shek Main Axis leaders Adolf Hitler Hirohito Benito Mussolini Casualties and losses Military dead: Over 16,000,000 Civilian dead: Over 45,000,000 Total dead: Over 61,000,000 (1937–45) Military dead: Over 8,000,000 Civilian dead: Over 4,000,000 Total dead: Over 12,000,000 (1937–45)
  6. 6. MODERNISM • Modernism first emerged in the 1920s.The prominent figures of the movement ARE Le Corbusier,Walter Gropius, and Ludwig Mies van der Rohe. • However it was not until after the SecondWorldWar that it gained mass popularity, after modernist planning was implemented as a solution to the previous failure of architecture and design to meet basic social needs. • In the post war era, the ambitions of the modernists and their “strong sense of social responsibility is that architecture should raise the living conditions of the masses”. • During the 1930s as much as 15% of the urban populations were living in poverty, and slum clearance was one of the many social problems of this decade, Modernist planning was a popular idea, and used as a solution to these problems.
  7. 7. • Modernists believe that ornament should follow the structure and purpose of the building. Family life and social interaction was at the center of the modernist dream for a planned environment. • The modernists planned for zoned areas where residential and commercial amenities were distinct and separate. • The phrase ‘form follows function’ is often used when discussing the principles of modernism. It asserts that forms should be simplified – architectural designs should bear no more ornament than is necessary to function. • The public housing development combines a perimeter type wall of multi storey flats, low rise housing and public spaces and play areas. • The majorities were happy to reside in the new development, thanks to the social continuity and comfortable varied environment provided Maxwell Fry’s Kensal House in London
  8. 8. Housing after World War Two • SHORTAGES Many houses had been destroyed by bombing. Large numbers of slums remained a problem.The birth rate had risen after the war had ended and families required homes. • PREFABRICATED HOUSES These houses were quick to erect and provided good facilities such as bathrooms and gardens.These houses were meant to be a temporary solution to the problem of housing shortages but many remained after 40 years. • THE NEWTOWNS ACT 1946 New towns were introduced to deal with the problem of overcrowded city centers. New towns contained a variety of house types. Shops, schools and leisure facilities were within easy reach.
  9. 9. • COUNCIL HOUSING 900,000 slums were cleared in the 1950s and 1960s. 2.5 million people were re-housed. Large estates of council houses were built on the edge of towns and cities. Facilities were poor on housing estates, High rise tower blocks were built in inner city areas to house people who had lived in slum housing. • PRIVATEOWNERSHIP Private ownership of housing increased in the years after 1945. Higher wages meant that more people could now afford to buy their own homes. Mortgages were easier to arrange. • AXIS FORCES A great deal of housing was destroyed or largely damaged during the war, especially in the Soviet Union,Germany, and Japan. In Japan, about a third of the families were homeless at the end of the war In Germany, about 25% of the total housing stock was destroyed or heavily damaged.
  10. 10. CHARACTERISTICS OF MODERNISM • the notion that "Form follows function", expressed by Frank LloydWright's early mentor Louis Sullivan, meaning that the result of design should derive directly from its purpose • simplicity and clarity of forms and elimination of "unnecessary detail" • materials at 90 degrees to each other • visual expression of structure (as opposed to the hiding of structural elements) • the related concept of "Truth to materials", meaning that the true nature or natural appearance of a material ought to be seen rather than concealed or altered to represent something else • use of industrially-produced materials; adoption of the machine aesthetic • particularly in International Style modernism, a visual emphasis on horizontal and vertical lines
  11. 11. NEO-COLONIAL (PRE-1944-1973) • Looking to the past borrowing small light sash, Garrison overhangs, and shutters, they also incorporate contemporary trends such as bay windows and garages. • They are two stories tall & they have concrete foundations • Window openings have traditional double-hung sash. • Roofs are side gable, and moderately pitched. All are covered in asphalt shingles. • Chimneys are brick and typically built either at the free (non-garage) end of the Maine house, or in the rear roof slope. Mangor House,1955
  12. 12. 1967, Lewiston • These two images show how the garage roof extends to form an entrance porch across the main volume of the two-story house. • The two car garage is a prominent feature of the facade. 1973, OldTown Rear End Chimney
  13. 13. Louis Kahn  Louis Isadore Kahn (March , 1901 – March 17, 1974) was an American architect, based in Philadelphia.After working in various capacities for several firms in Philadelphia, he founded his own atelier in 1935.While continuing his private practice, he served as a design critic and professor of architecture atYale School of Architecture from 1947 to 1957.  Kahn created a style that was monumental and monolithic; his heavy buildings do not hide their weight, their materials, or the way they are assembled. Louis Kahn's works are considered as monumental beyond modernism
  14. 14.  Kahn was one of the most influential architects of the twentieth century. He was awarded the AIA Gold Medal and the RIBA Gold Medal. At the time of his death he was considered by some as "America's foremost living architect  At the age of three, he saw coals in the stove and was captivated by the light of the coal. He put the coal in his apron, which caught on fire and seared his face. He carried these scars for the rest of his life.  In 1974, Kahn died of a heart attack in a restroom for men at Penn Station in Manhattan.[3] He had just returned from a work trip to India.
  15. 15. ESHERICK HOUSE / LOUIS KAHN • Architects: Louis Kahn • Location: Philadelphia, Pennsylvania • Completed - 1961. • Commissioned by Margaret Esherick • Construction Style – Modernism • Area - 2500 sq. feet (230 sq. m)
  16. 16. PLAN
  17. 17. SYNOPSIS • The Esherick House single-bedroom house is a flat-roofed, rectangular solid with its long side facing the street.The primary building material is concrete block with stucco facing • The Esherick house is organized into four alternating served and servant spaces, which in this case are parallel two-story strips that run the full width of the house between front to back • The most prominent served space is the two-story living room that occupies all of the house to the right of the front door. Most of its front wall is occupied by a built-in bookcase (Margaret Esherick was a bookseller)that reaches up to the horizontal window at the second story. • The side wall contains a deep fireplace. Each side of the house has a window and ventilation configuration that is distinctly different from that of the other three sides. • The resulting deep window recesses have a moderating effect on sunlight and ventilation.
  18. 18. EXTERIOR INTERIOR
  19. 19. INDIAN INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT AHMEDABAD • Architects: Louis Kahn • Location: Vastrapur, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India • Architect: Louis Kahn • ProjectYear: 1974
  20. 20. PLANS
  21. 21. CONSTRUCTION • The large facade omissions are abstracted patterns found within the Indian culture that were positioned to act as light wells and a natural cooling system protecting the interior from India’s harsh desert climate. • Even though the porous, geometric façade acts as filters for sunlight and ventilation, the porosity allowed for the creation of new spaces of gathering for the students and faculty to come together. • Brick has been used in primary building for the entire complex- walls/columns . • Brick arches has been used for wide spans. • Use of concrete has been restricted for foundations, floor slabs & ties for arched openings.
  22. 22. INTERIOR
  23. 23. Alvar Aalto • Hugo Alvar Henrik Aalto was born in Kuortane, Finland (3 February 1898) • He was a Finnish architect and designer, as well as a sculptor and painter. • His work includes architecture, furniture, textiles and glassware. • Aalto's career spans the changes in style from Classicism to purist International Style Modernism to a more personal, synthetic and Modernism.
  24. 24. • In 1916 he then enrolled to study architecture at the Helsinki University ofTechnology • His studies were interrupted by the Finnish Civil War, which he fought in. • Aalto's awards included the Prince Eugen Medal in 1954, the Royal Gold Medal for Architecture from the Royal Institute of British Architects in 1957 and the Gold Medal from the American Institute of Architects in 1963. • he Alvar Aalto Museum, designed by Aalto himself, is located in what is regarded as his home city Jyvaskyla(Finland) • Death - 11 May 1976 (aged 78) Helsinki, Finland
  25. 25. Finlandia Hall • Location -Finlandia Park (Finland) • Construction started -December 1967 • Completed - 2 December 1971 • The versatile and flexible meeting, exhibition, festival and concert facilities of the Finlandia Hall offer a setting for both large international congresses and small- scale meetings, and for various entertainment and public events.
  26. 26. PLAN ELEVATION
  27. 27. INTERIORS
  28. 28. CONSTRUCTION • The main feature of the Finlandia Hall building is a tower like section with a sloping roof. Alvar Aalto’s idea behind the design was that a high empty space would provide better acoustics. • A lattice ceiling hides the space to the audience but it allows the creation of the same deep post-echo as tall church towers. Aalto used marble in both indoor and outdoor surfaces as a contrast to black granite. • Finlandia Hall features an optical illusion.The effect is created by a black trapezium on the white marble surface of the Finlandia Hall tower. • The design of each lamp, piece of furniture, panel, flooring material and decorative board reflects the mature approach resulting from Aalto’s long career as an architect. All the materials speak the language of nature, simply without technically artificial tones.
  29. 29. Villa Mairea • Location: Makkarakoskentie 100, 29600 Pori, Finland • ProjectYear: 1939 • Today,Villa Mairea is considered one of the most important buildings Aalto designed in his career • The plan of theVilla Mairea is a modified L- shape of the kind Aalto had used before.
  30. 30. PLAN
  31. 31. • It is a layout which automatically created a semi-private enclosure to one side, and a more exclusive, formal edge to confront the public world on the other. • The lawn and the swimming pool are situated in the angle of the L, with a variety of rooms overlooking them. • Horizontals and overhangs in the main composition, and the curved pool weds the nearby forest topography. In contrast to these softening devices, the main facade has a more rigid, formal mood, and even possesses a canopy restated in a garden of bindings, poles and slats. • The interiors of theVilla Mairea are richly articulated in wood, stone and brick. CONSTRUCTION
  32. 32. INTERIOR
  33. 33. Paimio Sanatorium • Completed - 1932 • Location - Paimio, Southwest Finland • It is a former tuberculosis sanatorium & today the building is part of theTurku University Hospital. • The sanatorium was nominated to become a UNESCOWorld Heritage Site. • In the early years the only known "cure" for tuberculosis was complete rest in an environment with clean air and sunshine. Thus on each floor of the building, at the end of the patient bedroom wing, were sunning balconies, where weak patients could be pulled out in their beds.
  34. 34. • Aalto's starting point for the design of the sanatorium was to make the building itself a contributor to the healing process. He liked to call the building a "medical instrument". For instance, particular attention was paid to the design of the patient bedrooms: these generally held two patients, each with his or her own cupboard and washbasin. • Aalto designed special non-splash basins, so that the patient would not disturb the other while washing.The patients spent many hours lying down, and thus Aalto placed the lamps in the room out of the patients line of vision and painted the ceiling a relaxing dark green so as to avoid glare. • Each patient had their own specially designed cupboard, fixed to the wall and off the floor so as to aid in cleaning beneath it. CONSTRUCTION
  35. 35. Saynatsalo town hall • Location – Jyväskylä , Central Finland • Construction time - 1949 - December 1951 • Architecture - Finnish vernacular architecture • The town hall is considered one of the most important buildings Aalto designed in his career.
  36. 36. • Alto constructed the building into the wooded hillside of Säynätsalo creating a three-story multi-purpose building surrounding an elevated courtyard. • While the main program of the building is housed within a heavy brick envelope, the courtyard is bordered by a glass- enclosed circulation space • The trusses support both the roof and the ceiling, creating airflow to manage condensation in the winter and heat in the summer. • Aalto constrained his material palate to one dominated by brick and accented by timber and copper. • The hall was planned as a multifunction space which would include civic offices and meeting space, private apartment space, shops, a bank, and a library CONSTRUCTION
  37. 37. Eero Saarinen • EERO SAARINENWAS BORN IN 1910,IN FINLAND. EERO SAARINEN,THE SON OF INFLUENTIAL FINNISHARCHITECT ELIEL SAARINEN • EERO SAARINENWAS AN AMERICANARCHITECT AND PRODUCT DESIGNER,20THCENTURY. • HEWAS FAMOUS FOR HISVARYING STYLEACCORDINGTO DEMANDOFTHE PROJECT SIMPLE, SWEEPING,ARCHING STRUCTURALCURVES. • ACCORDINGTO ERRO SAARINEN- “”THE PURPOSEOF ARCHITECTURE ISTO SHELTERAND ENHANCE MAN’S LIFE ON EARTH ANDTO FULFILL HIS BELIEF IN THE NOBILITYOF HIS EXISTENCE”
  38. 38. • Beginning in September 1929, he studied sculpture at the Académie de la Grande Chaumière in Paris, France. • He then went on to study at theYale School of Architecture, completing his studies in 1934. • Saarinen was assigned to draw illustrations for bomb disassembly manuals and to provide designs for the Situation Room in theWhite House. • Saarinen founded his own architect's office, "Eero Saarinen and Associates". Eero Saarinen died of a brain tumor in 1961 at the age of 51.
  39. 39. DULLES AIRPORT •LOCATION - CHANTILLY , VIRGINIA •CONSTRUCTION TIME - 1958- 1962 • •BUILDING TYPE – AIRLINE TERMINAL •CONSTRUCTION SYSTEM - CONCRETE •STYLE – MODERN •AREA - 11,000 ACRE
  40. 40. NOTES: • 1-MAIN LANDSIDE ENTRANCE • 2-TICKET OFFICES • 3-AIRSIDE CUSTOMS HALL • 4-DEPARTURE GATES FOR MOBILE LOUNGES • 5-AIRSIDE ADMINISTRATION BUILDINGS AND CONTROL TOWER. PLAN OF DULLES AIRPORT
  41. 41. SYNOPSIS • There are two sets of gates in the main terminal • The main terminal is a very well regarded building; its roof is a suspended catenary providing a wide enclosed area unimpeded by columns. • Conceiving the main building as a plane hovering between earth and sky, Saarinen developed a suspension structure. • Eero Saarinen's greatest achievement as a designer. • The two principal elements of the airport are the 150 feet span suspension roof over the centralized airport facilities
  42. 42. GATEWAY ARCH • LOCATION - ST. LOUIS MISSOURI • CONSTRUCTION - 1961-1966 • BUILDING TYPE – MEMORIAL ARCH OBSERVATION TOWER • CONSTRUCTION SYSYTEM - STAINLESS STEEL • STYLE - STRUCTURAL EXPRESSIONIST MODERN
  43. 43. PLAN
  44. 44. • The gateway arch is a 630-foot (192 m) monument in St. louis in the u.s state of Missouri. clad in stainless steel and built in the form of an inverted, weighted catenary arch. • Gateway arch is the 8th tallest monument in the world. • The arch is located at the banks of Mississippi river. • It stands 630 feet (192 m) tall, and is 630 feet (192 m) at its widest point. • The cross-sections of its legs are equilateral triangles, narrowing from 54 feet 16.5 m per side at the base to 17 feet (5.2 m) at the top. • The arch typifies "the pioneer spirit of the men and women who won the West • The interior of the arch also contains two emergency stairwells of 1076 steps each, in the event of a need to evacuate the arch or if a problem develops
  45. 45. CONSTRUCTION(GATEWAY ARCH)
  46. 46. NORTH CHRISTIAN CHURCH •LOCATION : COLUMBUS , INDIANA • DATE : 1959 TO 1963 • BUILDING : CHURCHTYPE • CLIMATE : TEMPERATE • CONTEXT : SUBURBAN • STYLE : MODERN
  47. 47. PLAN & SECTION (NORTH CHRISTIAN CHURCH)
  48. 48. INTERIOR OF CHURCH • The building is hexagonal in shape with central spire which is 192 feet (59m) high below the spire there is oculus that admits light into main level . • The sanctuary is located at the centre of the building ,with a altar located at the centre of the sanctuary . • Rows of pews surround the altar in the circular pattern , reflecting the idea that worship should be ”central "aspect of the life of congregation.
  49. 49. RICHARD.D.NEUTRA • Richard Joseph Neutra (April 8, 1892 – April 16, 1970) was an American Architect , Living and building for the majority of his career in Southern California he came to be considered among the most important modernist Architects. • Neutra was born in Leopoldstadt, the 2nd district ofVienna , Austria Hungary on April 8, 1892 into a wealthy Jewish family. • His domestic architecture was a blend of art, landscape and practical comfort. • Neutra sometimes used detailed questionnaires to discover his client's needs, much to their surprise. • Kaufmann Desert House1946, Palm Springs, California • Lovell House, 1929, Los Angeles, California • Rice House (National Register of Historic Places), 1964, 1000 Old Locke Lane, Richmond,Virginia
  50. 50. KAUFMANN DESERT HOUSE1946, PALM SPRINGS, CALIFORNIA INFORMATION  The Kaufmann House (a.k.a. Kaufmann Desert House) is a house located in Palm Springs,California, that was designed by Architect Richard Neutra in 1946.  TOTALAREA – 300 M2  NETWORTH - $15 MILLION
  51. 51. DECRIPTION • This five-bedroom, five-bathroom vacation house in Palm Springs,California, was designed to emphasize connection to the desert landscape while offering shelter from harsh climatic conditions. • Large sliding glass walls open the living spaces and master bedroom to adjacent patios. Major outdoor rooms are enclosed by a row of movable vertical fins that offer flexible protection against sandstorms and intense heat. • A combined living and dining space, roughly square, lies at the center of the house. • The south wing connects to the public realm and includes a carport and two long covered walkways.These walkways are separated by a massive stone wall and lead to public and service entries, respectively.
  52. 52. FLOOR PLAN
  53. 53. DETAILS ELEVATIONS VIEW
  54. 54. LOVELL HOUSE, 1929, LOS ANGELES, CALIFORNIA  The Lovell House or Lovell Health House is an International style modernist residence designed and built by Richard Neutra between 1927 and 1929.The home, located at 4616 Dundee Drive in Los Angeles, California, was built for the physician and naturopath Philip Lovell.  The Lovell House was designed for the active, health conscious Lovell family in the hills of LosAngeles.  The house is an early example of the International Style in the United States that evokes principles that were developed by Le Corbusier and Frank LloydWright.  The house consists of a series of overlapping planes that do not stick toWright’s proportionality.
  55. 55. CONSTRUCTION • The Lovell House reminds of Le Corbusier’s style and aesthetic.The ribbon windows offer expansive views and a significant amount of light to enter the interior spaces • The Lovell House is claimed to be the first house in the United States to use a steel structure that is typically found in skyscraper construction • The steel construction is not just supported by steel columns & beams, but it is only part of the structural system of the house. Because the house is suspended on the side of a cliff, it is tethered to the cliff by a tension cable that is tied into the rocky terrain
  56. 56. FLOOR PLAN
  57. 57. INTERIOR EXTERIOR
  58. 58. PHILIP JOHNSON  Philip Johnson born in 1906, in Cleveland, Ohio .  After graduating from high school he attended Harvard college, where he studied classics.  At the age of twenty-six he became the director of the museum of modern art’s new architecture department.  He was the founder of the influential department of architecture  Johnson interrupted his education with several extended trips to Europe.
  59. 59. • These trips became the pivotal moment of his education; he visited Chartres, the Parthenon, and many other ancient monuments, which arouse great interest in him towards architecture. • Before designing his first building at the age of 36, Johnson had been client, critic, author, historian, museum director, but not an architect. • His first practical architectural work in 1949,was a residence for himself in new Canaan, Connecticut for his master degree thesis, the now famous glass house. • He became known at this time as builder of iconic office towers. • Johnson died in January 2005
  60. 60. GLASS HOUSE ,NEW CANAAN(1949)  ONE OF THE WORLD'S MOST BEAUTIFUL YET LEAST FUNCTIONAL HOUSES  TRANSPARENT OPEN-PLAN FRAME STRUCTURE WHICH WAS HIS OWN RESIDENCE.  INCLUDES OUTDOOR SCULPTURE AND A SEPARATE BLANK- WALLED BRICK GUEST HOUSE  SPATIAL DIVISIONS IN THE GLASS BUILDING ARE ACHIEVED BY A BRICK CYLINDER CONTAINING A BATHROOM, AND BY LOW WALNUT CABINETS—ONE OF THEM CONTAINING KITCHEN EQUIPMENT.  IT WAS A BUILDING REALLY EXPRESSING MANY CONCERNS OF CLASSIC DESIGN, FROM THE ELEVATED PLACEMENT OF AN OBJECT IN A SPACE, TO ITS PROPORTION, OVERALL SYMMETRY, AND COMBINING OF A BALANCE OF ELEMENTS
  61. 61. PLAN
  62. 62. Gate of Europe • Building slope is 14.3 degrees • Height above plaza is 113.56 mts. • Floor to floor height is 3.97 mts. • Location - Paseo de la Castellana 189/216, Madrid, Spain • Construction started – 1989 – 1996
  63. 63. CONSTRUCTION  The Gate of Europe towers also known as KIO Towers are twin office buildings in Madrid, Spain. The towers have a height of 114 m (374 ft.) and have 26 floors.  The Puerto de Europa is the second tallest twin towers in Spain after theTorres de Santa Cruzan Santa Cruz deTenerife.  A 60x10x10 meter concrete counterweight located on the opposite side of inclination underground and connected to the top by cable provides the necessary resistance to counteract the forces trying to overturn the towers.
  64. 64. • A primary diagrid of structural steel on the perimeters of the building and a reinforced central core housing the main vertical circulation serves to further strengthen the buildings. • Secondary horizontal and vertical structural steel members serve to strengthen the diagrid members and provide the necessary lateral stability. • Typically, these elements are hidden in this type of construction.
  65. 65. SEAGRAM BUILDING Architects: Mies van der Rohe Location: The Seagram Building, NewYork, NY 10022, USA Architects: Mies van der Rohe + Philip Johnson Structural Engineering: Severud Associates Area: 150918.0 ft2 ProjectYear: 1958
  66. 66. CONSTRUCTION • Concrete hid the structure of the building — something Mies wanted to avoid at all costs — so Mies used non-structural bronze-toned I-beams to suggest structure instead. • These are visible from the outside of the building, and run vertically, like mullions, surrounding the large glass windows. As designed, the building used 1,500 tons of bronze in its construction. • On completion, the construction costs of Seagram made it the world's most expensive skyscraper at the time, due to the use of expensive, high-quality materials and lavish interior decoration including bronze, travertine, and marble.
  67. 67. • Another interesting feature of the Seagram Building is the window blinds. People using different windows will draw blinds to different heights, making the building appear disorganized. • To reduce this disproportionate appearance, Mies specified window blinds which only operated in three positions – fully open, halfway open/closed, or fully closed.
  68. 68. BIBLIOGRAPHY

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