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STUDY OF ARCHITECTS
INTRODUCTIONTO ART AND ARCHITECTURE - II
• Characteristics of Modern Architecture
– World War 2
– Characteristics & Examples
• Alvar Aalto
• Eero SAARINEN
• RICHARD NEUTRA
• LOUIS I KAHN
• PHILIP JOHNSON
WORLD WAR 2
World War II (WWII or WW2), (after the recent GreatWar), was a global war that lasted from 1939 to
1945, though related conflicts began earlier. It involved the huge majority of the world's nations—forming
two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis.
It was the most widespread war in history, and directly involved more than 100 million people from over
30 countries. In a state of "total war", the major participants threw their entire economic, industrial, and
scientific capabilities behind the war effort, erasing the distinction between
civilian and military resources.
Marked by mass deaths of civilians, including the Holocaust (during which approximately 11 million
people were killed and the strategic bombing of industrial and population centers (during which
approximately one million people were killed),it resulted in an estimated 50 million to 85 million fatalities.
These madeWorldWar II the deadliest conflict in human history
STALIN, ROOSEVELT AND CHURCHILL AT
THE TEHRAN CONFERENCE, NOVEMBER 1943
HITLER AND MUSSOLINI
Commanders and leaders.
Main Allied leaders
Main Axis leaders
Casualties and losses
Over 61,000,000 (1937–45)
Over 12,000,000 (1937–45)
• Modernism first emerged in the 1920s.The prominent figures of the
movement ARE Le Corbusier,Walter Gropius, and Ludwig Mies van
• However it was not until after the SecondWorldWar that it gained
mass popularity, after modernist planning was implemented as a
solution to the previous failure of architecture and design to meet
basic social needs.
• In the post war era, the ambitions of the modernists and their “strong
sense of social responsibility is that architecture should raise the living
conditions of the masses”.
• During the 1930s as much as 15% of the urban populations were living
in poverty, and slum clearance was one of the many social problems of
this decade, Modernist planning was a popular idea, and used as a
solution to these problems.
• Modernists believe that ornament should follow the structure
and purpose of the building. Family life and social interaction
was at the center of the modernist dream for a planned
• The modernists planned for zoned areas where residential
and commercial amenities were distinct and separate.
• The phrase ‘form follows function’ is often used when
discussing the principles of modernism. It asserts that forms
should be simplified – architectural designs should bear no
more ornament than is necessary to function.
• The public housing development combines a perimeter type
wall of multi storey flats, low rise housing and public spaces
and play areas.
• The majorities were happy to reside in the new development,
thanks to the social continuity and comfortable varied
Maxwell Fry’s Kensal House in London
Housing after World War Two
Many houses had been destroyed by bombing. Large
numbers of slums remained a problem.The birth rate had
risen after the war had ended and families required homes.
• PREFABRICATED HOUSES
These houses were quick to erect and provided good
facilities such as bathrooms and gardens.These houses
were meant to be a temporary solution to the problem of
housing shortages but many remained after 40 years.
• THE NEWTOWNS ACT 1946
New towns were introduced to deal with the problem of
overcrowded city centers. New towns contained a variety
of house types. Shops, schools and leisure facilities were
within easy reach.
• COUNCIL HOUSING
900,000 slums were cleared in the 1950s and 1960s. 2.5 million people
were re-housed. Large estates of council houses were built on the edge
of towns and cities. Facilities were poor on housing estates, High rise
tower blocks were built in inner city areas to house people who had lived
in slum housing.
Private ownership of housing increased in the years after 1945. Higher
wages meant that more people could now afford to buy their own
homes. Mortgages were easier to arrange.
• AXIS FORCES
A great deal of housing was destroyed or largely damaged during the
war, especially in the Soviet Union,Germany, and Japan. In Japan, about
a third of the families were homeless at the end of the war In Germany,
about 25% of the total housing stock was destroyed or heavily damaged.
CHARACTERISTICS OF MODERNISM
• the notion that "Form follows function", expressed by Frank LloydWright's early mentor Louis
Sullivan, meaning that the result of design should derive directly from its purpose
• simplicity and clarity of forms and elimination of "unnecessary detail"
• materials at 90 degrees to each other
• visual expression of structure (as opposed to the hiding of structural elements)
• the related concept of "Truth to materials", meaning that the true nature or natural appearance
of a material ought to be seen rather than concealed or altered to represent something else
• use of industrially-produced materials; adoption of the machine aesthetic
• particularly in International Style modernism, a visual emphasis on horizontal and vertical lines
• Looking to the past borrowing small light sash,
Garrison overhangs, and shutters, they also
incorporate contemporary trends such as bay
windows and garages.
• They are two stories tall & they have concrete
• Window openings have traditional double-hung
• Roofs are side gable, and moderately pitched. All are
covered in asphalt shingles.
• Chimneys are brick and typically built either at the
free (non-garage) end of the Maine house, or in the
rear roof slope.
• These two images show how the garage roof
extends to form an entrance porch across the
main volume of the two-story house.
• The two car garage is a prominent feature of the
Rear End Chimney
Louis Isadore Kahn (March , 1901 – March 17, 1974)
was an American architect, based in Philadelphia.After
working in various capacities for several firms in
Philadelphia, he founded his own atelier in 1935.While
continuing his private practice, he served as a design
critic and professor of architecture atYale School of
Architecture from 1947 to 1957.
Kahn created a style that was monumental and
monolithic; his heavy buildings do not hide their weight,
their materials, or the way they are assembled. Louis
Kahn's works are considered as monumental beyond
Kahn was one of the most influential architects of
the twentieth century. He was awarded the AIA
Gold Medal and the RIBA Gold Medal. At the time
of his death he was considered by some as
"America's foremost living architect
At the age of three, he saw coals in the stove and
was captivated by the light of the coal. He put the
coal in his apron, which caught on fire and seared
his face. He carried these scars for the rest of his
In 1974, Kahn died of a heart attack in a restroom
for men at Penn Station in Manhattan. He had
just returned from a work trip to India.
ESHERICK HOUSE / LOUIS KAHN
• Architects: Louis Kahn
• Location: Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
• Completed - 1961.
• Commissioned by Margaret Esherick
• Construction Style – Modernism
• Area - 2500 sq. feet (230 sq. m)
• The Esherick House single-bedroom house is a flat-roofed, rectangular solid
with its long side facing the street.The primary building material is concrete
block with stucco facing
• The Esherick house is organized into four alternating served and servant
spaces, which in this case are parallel two-story strips that run the full width
of the house between front to back
• The most prominent served space is the two-story living room that occupies
all of the house to the right of the front door. Most of its front wall is
occupied by a built-in bookcase (Margaret Esherick was a bookseller)that
reaches up to the horizontal window at the second story.
• The side wall contains a deep fireplace. Each side of the house has a window
and ventilation configuration that is distinctly different from that of the
other three sides.
• The resulting deep window recesses have a moderating effect on sunlight
INDIAN INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT
• Architects: Louis Kahn
• Location: Vastrapur, Ahmedabad,
• Architect: Louis Kahn
• ProjectYear: 1974
• The large facade omissions are abstracted patterns found within
the Indian culture that were positioned to act as light wells and a
natural cooling system protecting the interior from India’s harsh
• Even though the porous, geometric façade acts as filters for
sunlight and ventilation, the porosity allowed for the creation of
new spaces of gathering for the students and faculty to come
• Brick has been used in primary building for the entire complex-
• Brick arches has been used for wide spans.
• Use of concrete has been restricted for foundations, floor slabs &
ties for arched openings.
• Hugo Alvar Henrik Aalto was born in Kuortane,
Finland (3 February 1898)
• He was a Finnish architect and designer, as well
as a sculptor and painter.
• His work includes architecture,
furniture, textiles and glassware.
• Aalto's career spans the changes in style from
Classicism to purist International
Style Modernism to a more personal, synthetic
• In 1916 he then enrolled to study architecture at
the Helsinki University ofTechnology
• His studies were interrupted by the Finnish Civil
War, which he fought in.
• Aalto's awards included the Prince Eugen Medal in
1954, the Royal Gold Medal for Architecture from
the Royal Institute of British Architects in 1957 and
the Gold Medal from the American Institute of
Architects in 1963.
• he Alvar Aalto Museum, designed by Aalto himself,
is located in what is regarded as his home
• Death - 11 May 1976 (aged 78)
• Location -Finlandia Park (Finland)
• Construction started -December 1967
• Completed - 2 December 1971
• The versatile and flexible meeting,
exhibition, festival and concert facilities of
the Finlandia Hall offer a setting for both
large international congresses and small-
scale meetings, and for various
entertainment and public events.
• The main feature of the Finlandia Hall building is a tower like
section with a sloping roof. Alvar Aalto’s idea behind the
design was that a high empty space would provide better
• A lattice ceiling hides the space to the audience but it allows
the creation of the same deep post-echo as tall church
towers. Aalto used marble in both indoor and outdoor
surfaces as a contrast to black granite.
• Finlandia Hall features an optical illusion.The effect is created
by a black trapezium on the white marble surface of the
Finlandia Hall tower.
• The design of each lamp, piece of furniture, panel, flooring
material and decorative board reflects the mature approach
resulting from Aalto’s long career as an architect. All the
materials speak the language of nature, simply without
technically artificial tones.
• Location: Makkarakoskentie 100, 29600 Pori,
• ProjectYear: 1939
• Today,Villa Mairea is considered one of the
most important buildings Aalto designed in his
• The plan of theVilla Mairea is a modified L-
shape of the kind Aalto had used before.
• It is a layout which automatically created a semi-private
enclosure to one side, and a more exclusive, formal
edge to confront the public world on the other.
• The lawn and the swimming pool are situated in the
angle of the L, with a variety of rooms overlooking
• Horizontals and overhangs in the main composition,
and the curved pool weds the nearby forest
topography. In contrast to these softening devices, the
main facade has a more rigid, formal mood, and even
possesses a canopy restated in a garden of bindings,
poles and slats.
• The interiors of theVilla Mairea are richly articulated in
wood, stone and brick.
• Completed - 1932
• Location - Paimio, Southwest Finland
• It is a former tuberculosis sanatorium &
today the building is part of theTurku
• The sanatorium was nominated to become a
UNESCOWorld Heritage Site.
• In the early years the only known "cure" for
tuberculosis was complete rest in an
environment with clean air and sunshine.
Thus on each floor of the building, at the end
of the patient bedroom wing, were sunning
balconies, where weak patients could be
pulled out in their beds.
• Aalto's starting point for the design of the sanatorium was to
make the building itself a contributor to the healing process.
He liked to call the building a "medical instrument". For
instance, particular attention was paid to the design of the
patient bedrooms: these generally held two patients, each
with his or her own cupboard and washbasin.
• Aalto designed special non-splash basins, so that the patient
would not disturb the other while washing.The patients spent
many hours lying down, and thus Aalto placed the lamps in
the room out of the patients line of vision and painted the
ceiling a relaxing dark green so as to avoid glare.
• Each patient had their own specially designed cupboard, fixed
to the wall and off the floor so as to aid in cleaning beneath it.
Saynatsalo town hall
• Location – Jyväskylä , Central
• Construction time - 1949 -
• Architecture - Finnish
• The town hall is considered one of
the most important buildings
Aalto designed in his career.
• Alto constructed the building into the wooded hillside of
Säynätsalo creating a three-story multi-purpose building
surrounding an elevated courtyard.
• While the main program of the building is housed within a
heavy brick envelope, the courtyard is bordered by a glass-
enclosed circulation space
• The trusses support both the roof and the ceiling, creating
airflow to manage condensation in the winter and heat in
• Aalto constrained his material palate to one dominated by
brick and accented by timber and copper.
• The hall was planned as a multifunction space which would
include civic offices and meeting space, private apartment
space, shops, a bank, and a library
• EERO SAARINENWAS BORN IN 1910,IN FINLAND. EERO
SAARINEN,THE SON OF INFLUENTIAL FINNISHARCHITECT ELIEL
• EERO SAARINENWAS AN AMERICANARCHITECT AND PRODUCT
• HEWAS FAMOUS FOR HISVARYING STYLEACCORDINGTO
DEMANDOFTHE PROJECT SIMPLE, SWEEPING,ARCHING
• ACCORDINGTO ERRO SAARINEN- “”THE PURPOSEOF
ARCHITECTURE ISTO SHELTERAND ENHANCE MAN’S LIFE ON
EARTH ANDTO FULFILL HIS BELIEF IN THE NOBILITYOF HIS
• Beginning in September 1929, he studied sculpture at the Académie de la
Grande Chaumière in Paris, France.
• He then went on to study at theYale School of Architecture, completing
his studies in 1934.
• Saarinen was assigned to draw illustrations for bomb disassembly
manuals and to provide designs for the Situation Room in theWhite
• Saarinen founded his own architect's office, "Eero Saarinen and
Associates". Eero Saarinen died of a brain tumor in 1961 at the age of 51.
•LOCATION - CHANTILLY ,
•CONSTRUCTION TIME - 1958-
•BUILDING TYPE – AIRLINE
•CONSTRUCTION SYSTEM -
•STYLE – MODERN
•AREA - 11,000 ACRE
• 1-MAIN LANDSIDE
• 2-TICKET OFFICES
• 3-AIRSIDE CUSTOMS HALL
• 4-DEPARTURE GATES FOR
BUILDINGS AND CONTROL
PLAN OF DULLES AIRPORT
• There are two sets of gates in the main terminal
• The main terminal is a very well regarded building; its roof is a
suspended catenary providing a wide enclosed area unimpeded by
• Conceiving the main building as a plane hovering between earth and
sky, Saarinen developed a suspension structure.
• Eero Saarinen's greatest achievement as a designer.
• The two principal elements of the airport are the 150 feet span
suspension roof over the centralized airport facilities
• LOCATION - ST. LOUIS
• CONSTRUCTION - 1961-1966
• BUILDING TYPE – MEMORIAL
ARCH OBSERVATION TOWER
• CONSTRUCTION SYSYTEM -
• STYLE - STRUCTURAL
• The gateway arch is a 630-foot (192 m) monument in St. louis in the u.s state
of Missouri. clad in stainless steel and built in the form of an inverted,
weighted catenary arch.
• Gateway arch is the 8th tallest monument in the world.
• The arch is located at the banks of Mississippi river.
• It stands 630 feet (192 m) tall, and is 630 feet (192 m) at its widest point.
• The cross-sections of its legs are equilateral triangles, narrowing from 54 feet
16.5 m per side at the base to 17 feet (5.2 m) at the top.
• The arch typifies "the pioneer spirit of the men and women who won the West
• The interior of the arch also contains two emergency stairwells of 1076 steps
each, in the event of a need to evacuate the arch or if a problem develops
NORTH CHRISTIAN CHURCH
•LOCATION : COLUMBUS , INDIANA
• DATE : 1959 TO 1963
• BUILDING : CHURCHTYPE
• CLIMATE : TEMPERATE
• CONTEXT : SUBURBAN
• STYLE : MODERN
PLAN & SECTION
(NORTH CHRISTIAN CHURCH)
INTERIOR OF CHURCH
• The building is hexagonal in shape with central
spire which is 192 feet (59m) high below the spire
there is oculus that admits light into main level .
• The sanctuary is located at the centre of the
building ,with a altar located at the centre of the
• Rows of pews surround the altar in the circular
pattern , reflecting the idea that worship should be
”central "aspect of the life of congregation.
• Richard Joseph Neutra (April 8, 1892 – April 16, 1970) was an American
Architect , Living and building for the majority of his career in Southern
California he came to be considered among the most important modernist
• Neutra was born in Leopoldstadt, the 2nd district ofVienna , Austria
Hungary on April 8, 1892 into a wealthy Jewish family.
• His domestic architecture was a blend of art, landscape and practical
• Neutra sometimes used detailed questionnaires to discover his client's
needs, much to their surprise.
• Kaufmann Desert House1946, Palm Springs, California
• Lovell House, 1929, Los Angeles, California
• Rice House (National Register of Historic Places), 1964, 1000 Old Locke
KAUFMANN DESERT HOUSE1946, PALM
The Kaufmann House (a.k.a. Kaufmann
Desert House) is a house located in Palm
Springs,California, that was designed by
Architect Richard Neutra in 1946.
TOTALAREA – 300 M2
NETWORTH - $15 MILLION
• This five-bedroom, five-bathroom vacation house in Palm
Springs,California, was designed to emphasize connection
to the desert landscape while offering shelter from harsh
• Large sliding glass walls open the living spaces and master
bedroom to adjacent patios. Major outdoor rooms are
enclosed by a row of movable vertical fins that offer flexible
protection against sandstorms and intense heat.
• A combined living and dining space, roughly square, lies at
the center of the house.
• The south wing connects to the public realm and includes a
carport and two long covered walkways.These walkways
are separated by a massive stone wall and lead to public
and service entries, respectively.
LOVELL HOUSE, 1929, LOS ANGELES, CALIFORNIA
The Lovell House or Lovell Health House is an International
style modernist residence designed and built by Richard Neutra
between 1927 and 1929.The home, located at 4616 Dundee
Drive in Los Angeles, California, was built for the physician and
naturopath Philip Lovell.
The Lovell House was designed for the active, health conscious
Lovell family in the hills of LosAngeles.
The house is an early example of the International Style in the
United States that evokes principles that were developed by Le
Corbusier and Frank LloydWright.
The house consists of a series of overlapping planes that do not
stick toWright’s proportionality.
• The Lovell House reminds of Le Corbusier’s style and
aesthetic.The ribbon windows offer expansive views
and a significant amount of light to enter the interior
• The Lovell House is claimed to be the first house in
the United States to use a steel structure that is
typically found in skyscraper construction
• The steel construction is not just supported by steel
columns & beams, but it is only part of the structural
system of the house. Because the house is suspended
on the side of a cliff, it is tethered to the cliff by a
tension cable that is tied into the rocky terrain
Philip Johnson born in 1906, in Cleveland, Ohio .
After graduating from high school he attended
Harvard college, where he studied classics.
At the age of twenty-six he became the director of
the museum of modern art’s new architecture
He was the founder of the influential department of
Johnson interrupted his education with several
extended trips to Europe.
• These trips became the pivotal moment of his
education; he visited Chartres, the Parthenon, and
many other ancient monuments, which arouse great
interest in him towards architecture.
• Before designing his first building at the age of 36,
Johnson had been client, critic, author, historian,
museum director, but not an architect.
• His first practical architectural work in 1949,was a
residence for himself in new Canaan, Connecticut
for his master degree thesis, the now famous glass
• He became known at this time as builder of iconic
• Johnson died in January 2005
GLASS HOUSE ,NEW CANAAN(1949)
ONE OF THE WORLD'S MOST BEAUTIFUL YET LEAST
TRANSPARENT OPEN-PLAN FRAME STRUCTURE WHICH WAS HIS
INCLUDES OUTDOOR SCULPTURE AND A SEPARATE BLANK-
WALLED BRICK GUEST HOUSE
SPATIAL DIVISIONS IN THE GLASS BUILDING ARE ACHIEVED BY A
BRICK CYLINDER CONTAINING A BATHROOM, AND BY LOW
WALNUT CABINETS—ONE OF THEM CONTAINING KITCHEN
IT WAS A BUILDING REALLY EXPRESSING MANY CONCERNS OF
CLASSIC DESIGN, FROM THE ELEVATED PLACEMENT OF AN
OBJECT IN A SPACE, TO ITS PROPORTION, OVERALL SYMMETRY,
AND COMBINING OF A BALANCE OF ELEMENTS
Gate of Europe
• Building slope is 14.3 degrees
• Height above plaza is 113.56 mts.
• Floor to floor height is 3.97 mts.
• Location - Paseo de la Castellana
189/216, Madrid, Spain
• Construction started – 1989 – 1996
The Gate of Europe towers also known as KIO
Towers are twin office buildings in Madrid, Spain.
The towers have a height of 114 m (374 ft.) and
have 26 floors.
The Puerto de Europa is the second tallest twin
towers in Spain after theTorres de Santa
Cruzan Santa Cruz deTenerife.
A 60x10x10 meter concrete counterweight
located on the opposite side of inclination
underground and connected to the top by cable
provides the necessary resistance to counteract
the forces trying to overturn the towers.
• A primary diagrid of structural steel
on the perimeters of the building
and a reinforced central core
housing the main vertical circulation
serves to further strengthen the
• Secondary horizontal and vertical
structural steel members serve to
strengthen the diagrid members
and provide the necessary lateral
• Typically, these elements are hidden
in this type of construction.
Architects: Mies van der Rohe
Location: The Seagram Building, NewYork, NY
Architects: Mies van der Rohe + Philip Johnson
Structural Engineering: Severud Associates
Area: 150918.0 ft2
• Concrete hid the structure of the building — something Mies
wanted to avoid at all costs — so Mies used non-structural
bronze-toned I-beams to suggest structure instead.
• These are visible from the outside of the building, and run
vertically, like mullions, surrounding the large glass windows. As
designed, the building used 1,500 tons of bronze in its
• On completion, the construction costs of Seagram made it the
world's most expensive skyscraper at the time, due to the use of
expensive, high-quality materials and lavish interior decoration
including bronze, travertine, and marble.
• Another interesting feature of the
Seagram Building is the window
blinds. People using different
windows will draw blinds to different
heights, making the building appear
• To reduce this disproportionate
appearance, Mies specified window
blinds which only operated in three
positions – fully open, halfway
open/closed, or fully closed.