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Trees of hyderabad

Trees of hyderabad

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Trees of hyderabad

  1. 1. Cassia fistula
  2. 2. Trees of Hyderabad a pictorial guide BOTANICAL SURVEY OF INDIA Terminalia chebula in fruiting P.V. Prasanna N. Chandra Mohan Reddy M. Venkat Ramana P. Venu (Blank page)
  3. 3. Trees of Hyderabad a pictorial guide © Botanical Survey of India Date of Publication 1st October 2012 Published by Botanical Survey of India Ministry of Environment and Forests CGO Complex, 3rd MSO Building, DF Block 5 th and 6 th Floor, Salt Lake City, Kolkata – 700 064 All rights reserved No part of this work may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage or retrieval system, without the prior written permission of the copyright owner and the publisher. Cover credits Front - Golkonda Fort with Ficus benghalensis L. branches - Photo by N. Chandra Mohan Reddy Back - Butea monosperma Taub. photo by Dr. P Venu Layout & Design by Anand Kumar, anandayya@yahoo.com Printed at Cochlospermum religiosum CONTENTS FOREWORD i ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ii INTRODUCTION iii-xv MAP xvi-xvii TREES (Annonaceae-Zygophyllaceae) 1-266 REFERENCES 268-269 INDEX 270-279 Handroanthus impetiginosus
  4. 4. i FOREWORD In India, urban green spaces are considered as a part of cultural, economic and ecological traditions. They include a diverse range of species that are unique to the local environment and socio-cultural mores. They not only contribute to the aesthetic scenario of an urban set up, but also to conservation, and sustainable land management. The Deccan Regional Centre of the Botanical Survey of India has been actively engaged in preparing an inventory of the flora of Hyderabad since its inception in 2006. This pursuit is to document the city flora to bring awareness in people and also to execute it before the city’s landscape changes due to rapid urbanization. Numerous field visits were undertaken particularly in plant rich zones for almost five years and now the Centre has come out with a user friendly publication on the trees of Hyderabad. The publication uses minimum technical terminology but well supported by 1433 colour images to arrive at identities of 271 trees of Hyderabad. I am delighted that this document is completed with the collaboration of forest department, and in consequence could include many introduced trees in enlisting. There is no doubt that, this book will not only appeal the diverse scientific stake holders-students, researchers, foresters, but also will be of immense help to tourists and public as an identification manual. I also accentuate the motivation and painstaking effort of the centre by collecting and depositing all voucher specimens for every species documented in the book. I am happy that this book is published at most appropriate moment when Hyderabad is hosting the XI Conference of Parties (CoP-11) Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) and trust that the work is appreciated for the efforts that the authors put in. Date: Paramjit Singh Director, Botanical Survey of India
  5. 5. ii iii ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Authors sincerely thank the following for the facilities, encouragement, support and guidance. Dr. ParamjitSingh,Director;Dr. D.K. Singh, Addl. Director; Dr. Rolla Sehsagiri Rao,former Director i/c; Dr. S.S. Dash, Scientist C; Dr. V. Sampath Kumar, IBLO; Dr. L. Rasingam, Scientist–C; Dr. W. Arisdason, Scientist-B; Dr. Mudadla Sankara Rao, Presv. Asst.; Dr. Dinesh Albertson, RA; Mr. Aloke R. Chorghe JRF and Sri Varre Narsimha Rao, MTS from Botanical Survey of India; Anand Kumar A., Zool. Asst. and Karutha Pandi, SRF from Zoological Survey of India, [FBS], Hyderabad; Sri S.V. Kumar, IFS, PCCF; Sri. Hitesh Malhotra, IFS; Dr. Manoranjan Bhanja, IFS; Sri. Venkateshwara Reddy and Sri. Ramesh from AP Forest department; Prof. B. Bhadraiah, Registrar, Satavahana University; Prof. T. Rajagopal, Prof. (Ret.); P. Satyanarayana Reddy Retd. Prof. (Ret.), Sri. Jetti Swamy, JRF and E. Venkatesh, JRF from Osmania University; Dr. K.P. Sastry, Scientist i/c and Dr. B.R. Rajeshwara Rao, Sr. Scientist from Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic plants (CIMAP); Dr. M. Sanjappa, Former Director, BSI and Prof. K. N. Ganeshaiah, Head, Dept. of Forestry and environmental sciences and school of ecology and conservation, UAS from GKVK, Bengaluru; and Sri. Golla Naresh, Sri Muntha Devaraj and Smt. Lalitha. INTRODUCTION The natural tree cover of urban areas is under tremendous pressure owing to construction activity in ever expanding citiestoaccommodatecontinuousinfluxof people migrating in search of livelihoods. They incline to settle down there as the cities offer them better facilities. Negative impact of this development on the wild plant resources is vividly perceivable in majority of cities. The lack of complete knowledge of the practices we adopt, the consequences thereof, the ignorance about the trees we own and their importance in the overall habitat health are obviously the reasons for the state of affairs in the cities prevailing today. This situation can be negated when plant wealth of cities in terms of species richness, the identity, composition and the silent services they render are made known. This can be pursued through documentation of tree wealth of every city including exotics. The documentation efforts were already put in different cities and publications like ‘Trees of Delhi’ (P. Krishen, 2006), ‘Flowering plants of Indian institute of science: A field guide’ (K. Sankara Rao, 2009) ‘Wild edible fruit plants of Eastern India’ (A.K. Mahapatra & P.C. Panda, 2009) and ‘Trees of Pune’ (Shrikant Ingalhalikar & Sharvari Bharve, 2010), to name a few, have brought plant wealth of urban areas in an appealing way. With a similar objective, theDeccanregionalcentreoftheBotanical Survey of India initiated documenting the flora of Hyderabad. The publication comprises 271 species of trees recorded from metropolis of Hyderabad with brief descriptions, superbly illustrated with ample photographs and precise location. It was demonstrated well in the past how best such publications generate interest in students, teachers, amateurs and professionals alike in plant resources in their vicinity. With many colleges situated around the city and a few protected areas its vicinity with knowledgeable foresters managing them, the book is expected to unite all citizens in the conservation movement and in evolving right strategies to make the city truly green with its native species. We humbly declare that this publication is not the final word on the tree wealth of Hyderabad and hope that this publication will act as a catalyst to unearth few more species not documented in the present work. We welcome such efforts by all and their inclusion is taken care of in future edition of this work.
  6. 6. iv v Topography Hyderabad, the capital city of Andhra Pradeshwhichisalsoknownascityofpearls, is situated on the Deccan plateau between 170 36l N latitudes and 780 47l E longitudes with average elevation of 540 msl on the banks of Musi river. This is one of the metro cities of India and favourite destination for Information Technology related industries. The highest point in the Hyderabad is Banjara hills having 665 msl. Most of the city has variously shaped gneissic granite rock formations which are oldest in the world. The Greater Hyderabad municipal corporation (GHMC) formed in April 2007 comprises former Hyderabad Municipal Corporation, 10 municipalities and 8 Gram panchayats from Ranga Reddy district and 2 municipalities from Medak district. With the formation of GHMC, the area rose to 625 km2 from 172 km2 . It is divided into five zones (South, East, North, West and Central zones), 18 Circles and 150 Wards. Climate: Hyderabad exhibits tropical climate with hot summer (March–June) and pleasant winter from late October-February. Average annual rainfall is about 772 mm that spreads between 2nd week of June and early October. Demography: As per 2011 census, the population of Hyderabad is 7,74,9334. Telugu and Urdu are the principal languages spoken in the city. City of lakes: Hyderabad is popular for its lakes and tanks (widely known as ‘kuntas’ in local dialect). Some of them are Hussainsagar, Himayatsagar, Osmansagar, Durgam Cheruvu Ibrahimpatnam Cheruvu, Satam Cheruvu, Samalakunta, and many others. History: The city consists of twin cities n a m e l y , Hyderabad and Secunderabad. Hyderabad was founded by the Golkonda rulers–the Qutub Shahi dynasty in 1590. Secunderabad was established in the early part of 19th Century as a military cantonment for British colonial forces. Secunderabad named after the then Nizam, Sikander Jahit is delineated from Hyderabad by Tankbund on Hussainsagar lake. The twin cities have many heritage sites based on culture, archaeological monuments, musea and interesting rock formations. Floristic richness: Chiefly, scrub and dry deciduous types of vegetation are seen in the study area. Despite rapid urbanization of the city, the biodiversity is well preserved at several locations viz., three National parks located within and adjoining limits of the city, University of Hyderabad campus, Osmania university campus, ANGRAU campus, Agri-biodiversty park, ICRISAT campus etc. It is interesting to know that plant species new to science and new distributional records for the country have been recently described from the city limits of Hyderabad. Contrary to the general belief that urbanized cities might not possess much wild plant resources, the presentstudyonthefloraofHyderabadhas revealed the distribution of insectivorous plants well within the heart of the city like KBR National park, Mrugavani National park and Hyderabad central university. These findings are a clear testimony to the fact that the Hyderabad city flora requires a comprehensive documentation, which has now been undertaken by the Botanical Survey of India and has rich potential for novelties in plant species. Plant surveys initiated in 2007 for documenting flora of Hyderabad has so far recorded c.1500 species belonging to 730 genera and 160 families. Previous studies: Systematic studies on plants of erstwhile Hyderabad state was initiated by state forest department and Osmania university. For the first time, a list of forest plants appeared in Campell’s (1898) ‘Glimpses of the Nizam’s dominions’ published by State government. In 1909, detailed account of plants was published in ‘The imperial Gazetteer of India’ provincial series, Hyderabad state. During the same period, Bisco, a forest officer listed 128 chief timber yielding and other economically important plants for the state. This was followed by Partridge’s ‘Forest flora of Hyderabad state’ (1911) containing a consolidated floristic account of the forest plants. Khan (1953), revised Patridge’s work with additions of grasses and ferns. Santapau (1958), recorded 146 flowering plants from the present area. Rajagopal’s (1973) work on Flora coupled with studies on the foliar epidermal characters has contributed to the better understanding of the flora of Hyderabad district. His studies comprise 876 species. University of Hyderabad flora has been studied by K. Seshagiri Rao and
  7. 7. vi vii for the first time, the flora of the campus (724 species) was made available online which is being continuously updated. In 2010, Venkat Ramana’s studies on flora [doctoral thesis (in ed.)] has brought to limelight many unreported species from Hyderabad. A summary of floristic works related to Hyderabad is presented below. Present work Present work on inventorying flora of Hyderabad was initiated in 2007. During this period, 180 days of field work was done and about 7300 specimens were collected. Field trips were conducted to different areas in GHMC limits and also to arboreta and parks located in the periphery of Greater Hyderabad. This dedicated publication on trees of Hyderabad (excluding tree species of Monocotyledons and Gymnosperms) deals with 271 species (including infraspecific taxa) belonging to 170 genera under 55 families. Among these, 170 trees are indigenous and 104 are exotic. Prime objective of this publication is to provide the reader a pictorial guide to the trees of Hyderabad with brief description and suitable photographs to help their identification. To the maximum extent, each tree species is provided with photos of habit, bark, foliage, inflorescence, flower, fruit and seeds. The correct name of the tree, its family, common names, brief description containing salient features, common uses, origin and local distribution are provided. In description part, it is endeavored to minimize the usage of technical terms to enable users Author Families Genera Species *E.A. Patridge (1911) 76 269 449 *M.S. Khan (1953) 84 348 551 *T. Rajagopal (1973) 124 583 876 *K. Seshagirirao (2002) 126 435 853 **Ch. Sudhakar Reddy et al. (2000) 52 117 175 *M.Venkat Ramana (2010) 160 724 1335 * These works deal with total flora of the area. ** This publication deals with checklist of trees of Hyderabad. Some of the trees reported in this publication but could not be located during the present work are: Acacia mangium, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Euphorbia nivulia, Fernandoa adenophylla, Grevillea banksii, Litchi chinensis, Syzygium aromaticum and Syzygium malaccense. Family Genera Species Alangiaceae 01 01 Anacardiaceae 06 06 Annonaceae 03 06 species & 2 varieties Apocynaceae 05 08 Araliaceae 01 01 Balanitaceae 01 01 Bignoniaceae 13 15 Bixaceae 01 03 Boraginaceae 02 05 Burseraceae 04 06 Cannabaceae 01 01 Capparacea 02 02 Caricaceae 01 01 Casuarinaceae 01 01 Celastraceae 01 01 Clusiaceae 02 02 Combretaceae 03 07 Dilleniaceae 01 01 Ebenaceae 01 03 Euphorbiaceae 05 07 Hernandiaceae 01 01 Lauraceae 01 01 Lecythidaceae 03 04 Leguminosae- Papilionoideae 10 16 species and 1 sub species Leguminosae- Caesalpinioideae 12 22 species and 1 variety Leguminosae- Mimosoideae 08 19 Loganiaceae 01 02 Lythraceae 01 03 Magnoliaceae 01 02 Malvaceae s.l. (including Bombacaceae, sterculiaceae & Tiliaceae) 15 26 species and 1 variety Meliaceae 07 07 Moraceae 04 20 Analysis For the sake of convenience, families and within family genera and species are arranged alphabetically.
  8. 8. viii ix to comprehend the salient features of the tree. While citing the common names, first local names in Telugu followed by popular Hindi and English names have been followed. All the tree species are provided with details of the voucher specimen indicating field number prefixed with standard herbarium acronym (BSID) of this regional centre. Voucher specimens of all tree species given in the publication are deposited in this herbarium which can be accessed by all for further clarity. In this publication, trees between 3-5 m height are considered as small sized; 5-10 m height as medium sized and beyond 10 m height as tall trees. For the sake convenience, families and within family, genera and species are arranged alphabetically. The book is to prompt not only awareness among general public about the tree wealth of this city but to encourage a policy of preserving the left out rich vegetational zones for them to go on and flourish. Family Genera Species Moringaceae 01 01 Muntingiaceae 01 01 Myrtaceae 06 09 Nyctaginaceae 01 01 Olacaceae 01 01 Oleaceae 01 01 Oxalidaceae 01 02 Phyllanthaceae 01 02 Putranjivaceae 01 01 Polygonaceae 01 01 Proteaceae 01 02 Punicaceae 01 01 Rhamnaceae 01 02 Rubiaceae 08 10 Rutaceae 05 06 Salicaceae (Flacourtiaceae) 01 01 Salvadoraceae 01 01 species and 01 variety Santalaceae 01 01 Sapindaceae 02 02 Sapotaceae 03 04 species and 01 variety Simaroubaceae 02 03 Solanaceae 01 01 Ulmaceae 01 01 Verbenaceae 05 07 Zygophyllaceae 01 01 Photo credits: All the photographs published in this work are taken by authors of this publication during the field trips. Noteworthy trees Saviour tree: An old tamarind tree (Tamarindus indica) at Osmania general hospital known for providing refuge to many flood affected people when the city was ravaged by devastating floods of Moosi River in 1908. Commemorative gathering was held in 2008 near this tree as a mark of thanksgiving gesture and an enclosure is made around the tree to ensure its protection. Heritage trees: Some of the trees which are very old and thriving well till today by virtue of their presence in the places of worshipandneartohistoricalmonuments are: • Baobab trees (Adansonia digitata) are at different parts of the city. At many places, the tree is worshipped as Kalpavriksh by locals. Baobab tree at Nayaquila (foot hill of Golkonda fort) near the HGA golf course is supposed to be one of the oldest in the country. • A large g r o v e o f ‘Indian lavender’ trees (Bursera penicillata) at Harina Vanasthali National park. • Banyan tree (Ficus benghalensis) at GonegandlavillagenearSerlingampally and at Kalyanapuri, Uppal. • Pogada (Mimusops elengi) tree in the mosque, Jame Masjid-E-Murgichowk,
  9. 9. x xi Clock tower, near Charminar. • Raavi (Ficus religiosa) at Patancheru. • Sivalingam tree (Couroupita guianensis) at old botanical garden of Osmania university. • Asoka (Saraca asoca) tree at Kidwai Cottage, Agriculture university, Rajendranagar. This tree was planted by Dr. Rajendra Prasad, the first president of Independent India on 4-7-1955. Hyderabad rulers love for trees: Erstwhile rulers of Hyderabad are known to have played key role in planting trees at many avenues and near mosques. It is said that, the tree branches of the avenue trees were used as holders of the lamps to lighten the pathways. Another significant contribution is in developing ‘Baghs’ (Gardens) near the habitations. A few notable baghs in the city are: Basheerbagh, Ibrahimbagh, Moosarambagh, Seethrambagh, Kundanbagh, Sherbagh, Akbarbagh etc. Interesting tree associations: • At many places in the city, Marri (Ficus benghalensis) associated with Thati (Borassus flabellifer) is very common. • Raavi (Ficus religiosa) tree association with Neem (Azadirachta indica). Common parasite on the trees: Throughout Hyderabad city, the parasite ‘Badanika’ (Dendrophthoe falcata) is found to infest neem, mango, pomegranate and guava trees.
  10. 10. xii xiii Hyderabad city, a haven for plant introductions: AP State forest department, Hyderabad Metropolitan development authority (HMDA), Greater Hyderabad Municipal Corporation (GHMC), Faculty of Botany from Osmania university, Central Institute for Medicinal and Aromatic Plants (CIMAP) have introduced many plants in HyderabadatSanjeevaiahpark,Indirapark, Theme garden for Ficus species at Jubilee hills near Durgam cheruvu, Botanical and experimental gardens and Arboretum at Dulapally. These locations house good collections of plant species introduced from different parts of the country. Tree cover of the city is constantly boosted due to the relentless efforts of certain forest officials and scientists like Dr. M.R. Bhanja IFS, N. Chandramohan Reddy IFS, Dr. B.R. Rajeswara Rao (Senior scientist from CIMAP) and others in introducing wild and exotic plants to strengthen the overall species diversity in the city. Abbreviations used in the work ANGRAU : Acharya N.G. Ranga Agricultural University BSID : Herbarium acronym for the Deccan Regional Centre of Botanical Survey of India, Hyderabad CIMAP: Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Eng. : English ICFRE : Indian Council of Forestry Research and Education ICRISAT : International Crops Research Institute for the Semi–Arid Tropics KBR : Kasu Brahmananda Reddy National Park LACONES : Laboratory for Conservation of Endangered Species OU : Osmania University Tel. : Telugu Common avenue trees: City offers pleasant look at several avenues due to trees planted on either side and along the road medians. Following tree species are usually used for this purpose. Along road median: • Ficus religiosa (Raavi) • G r e v i l l e a robusta (Silver oak) • Mimusops elengi (Pogada) • Millingtonia hortensis (Aakasha malle) • Swietenia macrophylla (Jamican Mahogany) • Sterculia foetida (Adavi badam) • Tabebuia aurea (Golden yellow trumpet tree) Along roadsides • Peltophorum pterocarpum (Konda chinta or Copper pod tree) • Ceiba pentandra (Tella buruga) • Sterculia foetida (Adavi babam) • Delonix regia (Thurai) • Bauhinia purpurea (Deva Kanchanamu) • Albizia saman (Rain tree) • Thespesia populnea (Ganga raavi) • Terminalia catappa (Badam) • Pongamia pinnata (Kanuga) • Dalbergia sissoo (Sissu)
  11. 11. xiv xv LEAVES SIMPLE COMPOUND LOBED Bauhinia, Carica, Cochlospermum, Firmiana, Grevillea, Gyrocarpus, Jatropha, Kavalama, Sterculia. UNLOBED CLUSTERED AT ENDS OF BRANCHLETS Alstonia, Barringtonia, Careya, Bucida, Calophyllum, Ceriscoides, Clusia, Couroupita, Crescentia, Dillenia, Euphorbia, Gardenia, Madhuca, Manilkara, Pachypodium, Plumeria, Reutealis AROMATIC Cinnamomum, Corymbia, Eucalyptus, Melaleuca, Syzygium NOT CLUSTERED AT ENDS OF BRANCHLETS NOT AROMATIC CORDATE-ROUNDED Haldina, Coccoloba, Eriolaena, Hibiscus, Kleinhovia, Macaranga, Mitragyna, Pterospermum, Thespesia, Gmelina, Gyrocarpus OTHER THAN CORDATE LATEX PRESENT Euphorbia, Ficus, Mimusops, Streblus, Artocarpus, Holarrhena, Morus LATEX ABSENT SMALL (< 6 cm) Bridelia, Callistemon, Phyllanthus, Punica, Capparis, Diospyros, Drypetes, Ehretia, Flacourtia, Grewia, Hamelia, Muntingia, Nyctanthes, Premna, Salacia, Salvadora, Santalum, Ximenia LARGE(>6 cm) Anogeissus, Alangium, Anacardium, Annona, Bridelia, Buchanania, Cananga, Citharexylum, Diospyros, Guazuma, Holoptelea, Ixora, Lagerstroemia, Magnolia, Mallotus, Mangifera, , Pavetta, Pisonia, Polyalthia, Psidium, Semecarpus, Solanum, Strychnos, Terminalia, Trema, Wrightia, Ziziphus, Bixa, Cordia, Morinda, Neolamarckia, Pterygota, Tectona PALMATE Adansonia, Bombax, Ceiba, Handroanthus, Pachira, Schefflera, Sterculia, Tabebuia, Vitex, Walsura. PINNATE 1-PINNATE LEAFLETS FEW (1-5) Aegle, Balanites, Butea, Citrus, Clitoria, Crateva, Desmodium, Erythrina, Hardwickia, Naringi, Pterocarpus, Rhus LEAFLETS NUMEROUS (> 5) Ailanthus, Averrhoa, Azadirachta, Boswellia, Brownea, Bursera, Cassia, Chloroxylon, Chukrasia, Commiphora, Dalbergia, Dolichandrone, Filicium, Garuga, Gliricidia, Guaiacum, Kigelia, Lannea, Limonia, Markhamia, Millettia, Murraya, Pongamia, Sapindus, Saraca, Sesbania, Simarouba, Soymida, Spathodea, Stereospermum, Swietenia, Tamarindus, Tecoma 2-4 PINNATE: Acacia, Adenanthera, Albizia, Caesalpinia, Cassia, Colvillea, Delonix, Dichrostachys, Jacaranda, Leucaena, Melia, Millingtonia, Moringa, Oroxylum, Parkia, Parkinsonia, Peltophorum, Pithecellobium, Prosopis, Radermachera, Senna, Stereospermum MODIFIED/REDUCED Casuarina (Scales), Acacia (Phyllodes), Euphorbia (Reduced) IDENTIFICATION OF TREES UP TO GENERIC LEVEL BASED ON LEAF CHARACTERS
  12. 12. xvi xvii
  13. 13. xviii
  14. 14. 11 Deciduous tree; bark brown-grey, smooth, peeling in thin vertical flakes; branches drooping, profuse, spinescent. Leaves simple, lanceolate-oblong. Flowers appear from February-March, in fascicles on leafless branches, fragrant, white with reflexed petals and long anthers. Fruits (Berries) appear from April-May, ovoid- globose, with persistent calyx, red when ripe, single seeded. Common throughout Hyderabad in open habitats and in National parks. BSID, 1119. Native: India. Uses: Bark, roots, leaves and seeds are used in traditional systems of medicine. Fruits are relished by birds.
  15. 15. 2 32 3 Evergreen tree; bark brownish grey. Leaves simple, obovate-oblong, thick, shining. Flowers appear from January- April, polygamous, in terminal panicles and in leaf axils, pale yellow, turning pinkish red. Fruits (Nuts) appear from April-June, kidney shaped, with thick, fleshy hypocarp which is orange or crimson when ripe. Planted in gardens, arboreta, backyards of houses and also cultivated in large scale on outskirts of city for its edible fruits. Forest arboretum, Dulapally. BSID, 1122. Native: Tropical America. Uses: Processed nut and fleshy hypocarp are edible; bark used in traditional systems of medicine. Semi evergreen tree; bark dark grey-black, rough with regular and rectangular scales, reddish inside. Leaves simple, oblong, with distinct midvein. Flowers appear from November-December, in terminal and axillary panicles, greenish yellow, sessile. Fruits (Drupes) appear from March- May, ovoid to globose, purplish black, single seeded. Occurs wild in University of Hyderabad and also planted in medicinal plant gardens, arboreta. BSID, 2010. Native: India. Uses: Fruits are edible.
  16. 16. 4 54 Deciduous tree; bark whitish-grey- green, smooth. Leaves crowded at the ends of the branchlets, pinnately compound, ovate-oblong with finely toothed margins. Flowers appear from March, in pendulous, sessile, racemes at ends of branchlets, pale yellow with pinkish stripes; male racemes compound. Fruits (Berries) appear from March-May, oblong, smooth, shining, compressed, reddish when ripe, single seeded. Occurs wild in protected areas in National parks and university campuses. BSID, 1237. Native: India. Uses: Gum exudate from cut portion of the bark is used in traditional systems of medicine. 5 Evergreen tree; bark greyish to black, with numerous small fissures and exfoliating in scales. Leaves simple, crowded at ends of the branches elliptic to lanceolate, shining. Flowers appear from November- December, small, in terminal panicles, greenish yellow, polygamous,. Fruits (Drupes) appear from March-May, ovoid- oblong, highly variable in size and form; single seeded. Various cultivars are planted in kitchen gardens, and also cultivated in large scale on city suburbs for its edible fruits. BSID, 2172. Native: India. Uses: Ripe and unripe fruits are edible. Wood is used for various purposes.
  17. 17. 6 76 Small bushy tree with thorny branches; bark greyish, smooth; young parts densely hairy. Leaves 3-foliolate; leaflets unequal, laterals broadly ovate, terminal oblong, wavy on margins. Flowers appear from November-December, small, in axillary panicles, pale yellow, Fruits (Drupes) appear from December- March, globose, reddish when ripe, shining. Common, in National parks and university campuses. KBR National park. BSID, 1632. Native: India. Uses: Bark is used in tanning leather. Fruits used in traditional systems of medicine. 7 Deciduous tree; bark greyish brown, peeling off in thin irregular flakes. Leaves simple, obovate or oblong-elliptic, dark green above, pale beneath, leathery. Flowers appear from August-September, in terminal large panicles, pale yellow with spreading stamens,. Fruits (Drupes) appear from November-January, obliquely ovoid-orbicular, smooth, shining, black when ripe with fleshy orange colored receptacle. Occurs wild in University of Hyderabad and in National parks. BSID, 2007. Native: India. Uses: Ripened receptacles are edible. Fruit contains corrosive juice which is used as marking ink.
  18. 18. 8 998 Small evergreen tree with rusty hairy branches. Leaves simple, broadly ovate, densely velvety below. Flowers appear from June-July, in leaf opposed or extra axillary cymes, greenish, solitary or 2-3,. Fruits (Syncarp) appear from August-November, ovoid-conical with protuberances. Occasionally Planted in University of Hyderabad. BSID, 2289. Native: Southern America. Uses: Ripe fruits are edible. Small evergreen tree; bark greenish, smooth, lenticellate. Leaves simple, oblong, glossy green, nerves impressed on the upper surface. Flowers appear from July-August, large, showy, drooping, perianth lobes 6, fleshy, outer 3 large, inner 3 small, creamish with blood red blotch at base. Fruit (Syncarp) appear from March-May, oblong to spherical, yellow when ripen. Planted. Forest arboretum, Dulapally. BSID, 1973. Native: South America. Uses: Fruits are edible and the tree is preferred ornamental for its evergreen foliage and showy flowers.
  19. 19. 10 1110 11 Medium sized tree; bark greyish, smooth; young branches hairy. Leaves simple, oblong-obovate, glossy, dark green. Flowers appear from June-July, greenish yellow, solitary or paired in leaf opposed or extra-axillary cymes. Fruit (Syncarp) appear from November- March, dark green, ovoid-globose, with recurved spines; seeds embedded in white pulp. Planted in gardens for edible fruits and evergreen foliage. ANGRAU Campus. BSID, 2182. Native: Tropical America. Small trees; bark greyish, smooth; young branches softly hairy. Leaves simple, oblong-lanceolate, dark green, shining. Flowers appear from August- September, greenish yellow, 2-3 on leaf opposed or extra-axillary cymes. Fruit (Syncarp) appear from October- March, subglobose, wall with pentagonal appendages, yellow when ripe; seeds black, shining, embedded in pulp. Occasionally planted in gardens and homesteads for its edible fruits. BSID, 2118. Native: Tropical America. Uses: Fruits are edible.
  20. 20. 12 1312 Small trees; bark greyish, dark brown with vertical lines in old trees. Leaves simple, oblong-lanceolate, glossy green, nerves distinct on upper surface. Flowers appear from July -August, greenish yellow, fleshy, solitary or in groups of 1-4 in leaf opposed cymes. Fruit (Syncarp) appear from October-November, globose-ovoidwithprojectingbumpy external projections; seeds shining black, embedded in sweet pulp. Common, occurs wild in National parks, wastelands and also planted in house-yardsandgardensforitsedible fruits. BSID,1281. Native: West Indies. Naturalized in India. Uses: Fruits are edible. All parts of the plant are used in ayurvedic medicine. Note: Due to large scale market for the fruit, an area in Hyderabad is named after the fruit as ‘Sitaphalmandi’. 13 Small evergreen tree; bark smooth, greyish. Leaves simple, clustered at the ends of the branchlets, ovate-lanceolate. Flowers appear from March-April, large, greenish, fragrant, pendulous, in leaf axils, solitary or in cymes. Perianth lobes linear, recurved at apex. Fruit (Apocarp) appear from June-November; monocarps ovoid, dark purplish when ripe, one seeded. Planted. Sanjeevaiah park. BSID, 2253. Native: India. Uses: Ornamental tree. Flowers yield essential oils used in soaps, cosmetics, and perfumes.
  21. 21. 14 1514 M e d i u m sizedevergreentreewith spreading branches; bark smooth, greyish-brown. Leaves simple, glossy, lanceolate, wavy on margins. Flowers appear from March, greenish-pale yellow in pendant umbels on the stem and branches hiding in foliage. Fruits (Berries) appear from May- September, ovoid-globose, purplish black when ripe. Frequently planted in gardens as an ornamental for its foliage. BSID, 2123 and 2216. Native: Sri Lanka. 15 Note: There are two distinct forms under cultivation, one with straight stem and pendulous branches (Polyalthia longifolia var. pendula) forming a compact columnar crown and the other one (Polyalthia longifolia var. angustifolia) with spreading, erect branches and linear leaves.
  22. 22. 16 1716 Evergreen tree; bark smooth, greyish. Leaves simple, whorled at apex of the branchlets, ovate- oblong, milky latex present. Flowers appear from March-April, in terminal umbels white, fragrant. Fruits (Follicles) appear from June- November, linear, many seeded; after dehiscing, the pericarps of the follicles persist for longer time on the tree. Planted in gardens. Sanjeevaiah park. BSID, 2239. Native: India. Uses: Avenue and ornamental tree for shade and fragrant flowers. 17 Large evergreen tree with whorled branches and milky latex; bark brownish to black, corky. Leaves simple, whorled at end of the branchlets, 5-7 at each node, oblong, leathery, dark green above, pale beneath. Flowers appear from November- December, in umbellate, racemose cymes, white, strongly odorous in compact. Fruits (Follicles) appear from February-May, pendulous; seeds numerous, papery with deciduous tuft of white silky hairs. Frequently planted in gardens, along roadsides, in colonies as an ornamental and avenue tree for glossy evergreen foliage. BSID, 1142. Native: India. Uses: Bark used in traditional systems of medicine.
  23. 23. 18 1918 19 Deciduous tree, looks like palm; stem bottle shaped, silvery shiny with full of thorns; thorns in pairs; straight and sharp. Leaves simple, clustered at the apex of branchlets, oblong, mid rib distinct; milky latex abundant. Flowers appear from March-April, in terminal umbels white, fragrant. Planted. Sanjeevaiah park. BSID, 2279. Native: Madagascar. Uses: Ornamental for its bottle shaped bole and habit similar to palms. Deciduous small tree with milky latex; bark greyish, smooth, lenticellate, peels off in irregular flakes in old trees. Leaves simple, ovate-lanceolate, narrowed at apex, undulate on margins. Flowers appear from March-July, in axillary and terminal cymes white, fragrant, with yellow throat. Fruits (Follicles) appear from December-March, paired, cylindric, equal or unequal at ends; seeds linear-oblong with apical tuft of light brown hairs. Occurs wild in KBR National park in rocky situations and also planted in medicinal plant gardens, arboreta. BSID, 1910. Native: India. Uses: Bark is highly valued in traditional systems of medicine.
  24. 24. 20 2120 Small evergreen tree with dense crown and milky latex; bark brownish yellow, smooth with circular rings. Leaves simple, spirally clustered at the ends of the branchlets, oblong, thick, dark green above, pale beneath. Flowers appear round the year, in terminal, corymbs, white with spoon shaped petals and yellow throat, fragrant. Fruits (Follicles) appear in March- May, in pairs or solitary, oblong, greyish black, with numerous, winged seeds. Frequently planted in gardens, office campuses, near temples. BSID, 1777. Native: Central America. Uses: Ornamental tree for evergreen foliage, showy bloom and compact habit. 21 Small evergreen tree with dense foliage; bark greyish,smooth.Leavessimple,spiral,appears whorled at apex of branchlets, shining, spoon shaped with tapering apex, dark green above, pale beneath. Flowers appear round the year, in terminal umbels, fragrant, snow white with yellow throat. Planted in gardens. Sanjeevaiah Park, BSID, 2252. Native: Central America. Uses: Ornamental tree for showy flowers and evergreen foliage.
  25. 25. 22 2322 Deciduous tree with dichotomous branches with full of tenacious milky latex; bark greenish brown, smooth. Leaves simple, spirally aggregate at ends of branches, lanceolate-oblanceolate, thick, nerves impressed on upper surface. Flowers appear throughout year, in terminal peduncled corymbs creamish yellow to brick red, fragrant. Fruits (Follicles) linear-oblong; seeds winged. Frequently planted in gardens, kitchen gardens, office campuses and temples. BSID, 1224. Native: Tropical America. Uses: Ornamental tree for foliage and showy bloom. Note: Several cultivars with various colours are under cultivation. 23 Deciduous tree with abundant milky latex; bark smooth greyish out side, brownish inside, smooth, peeling off as thin scales. Leaves simple, elliptic- ovateoroblong,shortpetioled.Flowers appear twice in January-March and July-August, in dichotomously branched terminal cymes, fragrant, white,corollawithcoronaofnumerous linear scales. Fruits (Follicles) appear major parts of the year, in pairs, pendulous, cohering basally in the beginning and gets separated later. Seeds numerous, linear, 3-angled, brownish with a basal tuft of deciduous hairs. Frequent in rocky habitats in university campuses and National parks. BSID,1198. Native: India. Uses: Bark is used in traditional systems of medicine.
  26. 26. 24 2524 Evergreen tree with dense foliage; bark smooth, greyish black; stem multiple branched from above the base; aerial roots present in old trees. Leaves palmately compound; leaflets oblong, drooping on long petiole. Flowers appear from March-May in clusters on terminally large radiating umbrella shaped racemes, brick red, sessile. Fruits (Drupes) appear from May-September, ovoid, with persistent cup shaped calyx. Frequently planted in gardens. ICRISAT Campus and NTR Gardens. BSID, 2239. Native: Australia. Uses: Ornamental tree for evergreen foliage and attractive inflorescence that resembles octopus tentacles. 25 Small thorny tree with pendulous branches; bark rugged, grey to brown. Leaves 2-foliate; leaflets ovate-lanceolate, thick, sometimes thorns bear leaves. Flowers appear from February-May, in fascicled cymes, greenish white. Fruits (Drupes) appear from May-November, ash green, oblong-ovoid, slightly 5 grooved, single seeded, embedded in pulp. Occurs wild in Mahavir Harinavanasthali National Park. BSID,1017. Native: India. Uses: Bark is used in traditional systems of medicine. Deers are fond of eating ripened fruits.
  27. 27. 26 2726 Small evergreen tree with crooked trunk and widely spreading, horizontal branches; bark corky, light grey to black. Leaves simple, clustered along the branches, spoon shaped. Flowers appear from February-March, on the stem and branches, yellowish inside, dark purplish stripes outside, spread foul smell. Planted in gardens as ornamental tree for evergreen foliage and curious cauliflorus flowers and fruits. Indira Park. BSID, 2156. Origin: Tropical America. 27 Small deciduous tree; bark smooth, light grey-brownish, exfoliating in irregular scales; young branches pubescent. Leaves pinnatelycompound;leaflets,5-7,elliptic- orbicular. Flowers appear from March- July, in few flowered corymbs on leafless branches snow white with sheathing calyx and crinkled petals, fragrant. Fruits (Capsules) appear in major parts of the year,long,sickleshaped;seedsnumerous, rectangular, winged. Frequent in University campuses and National parks. BSID, 1930. Native: India. Uses: Bark is used in traditional systems of medicine. Note: Flowers open during early hours and soon after falls down.
  28. 28. 28 2928 Deciduous tree; bark brown, furrowed. Leaves palmately compound, leaflets elliptic- broadly ovate, completely deciduous during full bloom. Flowers appear from March- May, on terminal and lateral clusters, deep pink. Fruits (Capsules) brown, elongated, ribbed. Frequently planted in gardens and along road sides. BSID, 2266. Native: America. Uses: Ornamental tree for attractive bloom. 29 Deciduous tree; bark brownish, peeling off in smallthinflakes.Leaves pinnately compound; leaflets 12-20 pairs per pinnae, narrowly elliptic. Flowers appear from March-April, in terminal racemose panicles, bluish. Fruits (Capsules) appear from February-May, ellipsoid-orbicular, woody. Planted in gardens and along roadsides as an ornamental tree for showy bloom. BSID, 1388. Origin: South America.
  29. 29. 30 3130 Evergreen tree with curious hanging gourd like fruits; bark greyish, smooth, brownish and rough in aged trees. Leaves pinnately compound; leaflets 7-13, ovate-oblong, leathery. Flowers appear from March-April in long, pendant, terminal drooping racemes, deep chocolate red, with deciduous corolla and persistent calyx. Fruits (Capsules) appear from June-December, large, looks like bottle gourd, woody, hanging with long stalks. Frequently planted along road sides, college campuses, in gardens as avenue and ornamental tree for evergreen foliage and curiously hanging woody, gourd like fruits. BSID, 1370. Native: Tropical Africa. Uses: Avenue and ornamental tree. 31 Evergreen tree with straight stem; bark greyish, vertically fissured. Leaves pinnately compound with auricled stipules; leaflets 7-11, oblong with finely toothed margins. Flowers appear from July-September, in axillaryandterminalracemes,brightyellow. Fruits (Capsules) appear from December- March, long, flat, drooping, twisted with numerous winged seeds, dehisced fruits persist long time on the tree. Planted along road sides, in gardens, near temples as an avenue and ornamental tree for evergreen foliage and showy flowers. BSID, 2158. Native: Tropical Africa.
  30. 30. 32 3332 Tall evergreen tree with drooping branches; bark yellowish, corky brittle. Leaves pinnately compound, leaflets elliptic-ovate, unequal at base. Flowers appear from October-December, in axillary and terminal, widely branched panicles, white, fragrant, open at night. Fruits (Capsules) appear from March- May, elongated, linear, compressed with winged seeds. Frequently planted in gardens, near temples, house yards, along road sides as ornamental tree for its hand some pyramidal crown and fragrant, showy flowers. BSID, 1267. Native: South East Asia. 33 Deciduous tree; bark silvery white, soft, lenticellate. Leaves large, pinnately compound; elliptic-ovate, oblique at base. Flowers appear from June-August, in erect terminal racemes, large, showy, with fleshy deciduous corolla purplish red outside, yellowish inside with unpleasant smell. Fruits (Capsules) appear from November-March, large, look like sword; seeds compressed, broad, with papery transparent wings. Planted. CIMAP and Forest arboretum, Dulapally. BSID, 2161. Native: India. Uses: Bark and fruits are used in traditional systems of medicines.
  31. 31. 34 3534 Deciduous tree; bark yellowish to greyish, exfoliating in small angular scales. Leaves pinnately compound, young ones purplish-yellowish; leaflets ovate- lanceolate. Flowers appear from March- April, on terminal racemes, white with sheathing, greenish yellow calyx. Fruits (Capsules) appear from March-June, sickle shaped, cylindrical, seeds winged, numerous. Planted. Forest arboretum, Dulapally. BSID, 2174. Native: India. Uses:Woodisusedformaking agricultural implements and in construction sites. 35 Deciduous tree; bark greyish brown, smooth; young branches brownish pubescent. Leaves pinnately compound; leaflets 9-19, oblong-obovate. Flowers appear major parts of the year, in compact, terminal, racemes, crimson orange; calyx golden brown, wooly. Fruits (Capsules) appear from September-December, erect, flattened, apex pointed with papery winged seeds, dehisced fruits persist for long on tree. Frequently planted in gardens, along roadsides as an avenue and ornamental tree, for showy flowers. BSID, 1188. Native: Tropical Africa.
  32. 32. 36 3736 Deciduous tree; bark silvery white to pale yellow, horizontally furrowed, exfoliating in rectangular scales. Leaves pinnately compound; leaflets 3-4 pairs per pinnae, elliptic-ovate, oblong, leathery. Flowers appear from June-July, in large lax, trichotomous, glandular hairy panicles, dull crimson, fragrant. Fruits (Capsules) appear from November- March, cylindrical, slightly ribbed, rough with elevated whitish specks, valves thick, hard; seeds pale yellowish brown, winged. Planted. Forest arboretum, Dulapally and Herbal garden, Osmania University. BSID, 2162. Native: India. Uses: Roots, flowers and seeds are used in traditional systems of medicine. 37 Deciduous tree, leafless in bloom; bark yellowish brown, corky, appear like crocodile skin. Leaves digitate, 5-7-foliolate; leaflets slightly unequal, lanceolate-oblong with long petiolules. Flowers appear from January-March, in panicles, yellow. Fruits (Capsules) appear from March-April, cylindrical, tapering at both ends, with numerous winged seeds on the central axis. Frequently planted in gardens, along roadsides, and on road dividers as ornamental tree for showy bloom. BSID, 1185. Native: South America. Note: Stems and branches grow asymmetrically.
  33. 33. 38 3938 Deciduous tree; bark greyish brown, furrowed. Leaves digitate, leaflets 5, unequal, elliptic-oblong, glossy green, shining. Flowers appear throughout year, in terminal few flowered racemes, pale pink with yellow throat. Fruits (Capsules) appear throughout year, linear- oblong with winged seeds. Frequently planted in gardens and along roadsides as an ornamental tree and avenue for showy bloom and shining foliage. BSID, 2160. Native: West Indies. 39 Deciduous tree; bark greyish brown, furrowed. Leaves digitately compound; leaflets elliptic-ovate, slightly unequal, narrowed at apex. Flowers appear from March-May, borne on terminal and lateral clusters, pale-dark pink; entire tree is leafless while in flowering. Fruits (Capsules) appear from May-September, brown, elongated, ribbed with winged seeds. Planted in gardens and along road sides. BSID, 1843. Native: Tropical America.
  34. 34. 40 4140 Small tree; bark brownish, smooth. Leaves pinnately compound; leaflets variable in number, sessile, toothed on margins, lanceolate, wedge- shaped at base; terminal leaflet longer than lateral ones. Flowers appear round the year in terminal panicles, bright yellow. Fruits (Capsules) appear from December–March, linear, compressed, brown at maturity; seeds winged. Widely planted in gardens, along roadsides, in house yards as an ornamental tree. BSID, 212. Native: Tropical America. Note: This species is very much similar to Tecoma stans but differs in tree habit, large size leaf blades and inflorescence with closely clustered flowers. 41 Small evergreen tree; bark greyish with yellow specks. Leaves simple, ovate-cordate. Flowers appear from August- October, on rusty brown terminal panicles, pinkish petals and stamens, fragrant. Fruits (Capsules) appear from December-March, reddish green, clothed with soft prickles, dehisce into two valves and expose the brick red colored 3-angled seeds. Planted in gardens, house yards and also cultivated on large scale. BSID, 624. Native: Tropical America. Uses: Ornamental tree. Pulp around the seed yield red dye which is used as coloring agent in various products.
  35. 35. 42 4342 Deciduous tree with straight stem; bark smooth, deeply furrowed, ash- grey, red inside; young branches and petioles pinkish. Leaves simple, 5-7 lobed; lobes with finely wavy margins. Flowers appear from February-March, in terminal thyrsoid racemes, bright yellow, showy. Fruits (Capsules) appear from May-July, pear shaped, dehisce into 3-5 valves; seeds numerous, whitish-reddish hairs. Occurs wild in rocky habitats in KBR National park and also planted in medicinal plant garden (CIMAP) and Forest arboretum, Dulapally. BSID, 2057. Native: India. Uses: Bark, gum and flowers are used in traditional systems of medicine. 43 Deciduous tree; bark smooth, ash-grey; young branches pubescent. Leaves palmately 3-5 lobed; lobes with round toothed on margins. Flowers appear from February-March, in terminal compact panicles, bright yellow, showy. Fruits (Capsules) appear from May- July, ovoid or pear shaped, brownish, 3-5-valved, many seeded. Planted. Occasional. Sanjeevaiah park. BSID, 2257. Native: America. Uses: Ornamental tree for showy flowers.
  36. 36. 44 4544 Medium sized tree with drooping branches; bark greyish-black, with deep vertical lines. Leaves simple, ovate-orbicular. Flowers appear in March, in axillary and terminal dichotomous cymes white. Fruits (Berries)appearfromMay-September, globose-ovoid, with saucer-shaped persistent calyx, yellowish brown, single seeded with sticky pulp. Found in open places. BSID, 1857. Native: India. Uses: Ripe fruits are highly mucilaginous, edible, effective in curing mouth ulcers. 45 Small deciduous tree; bark greenish brown, smooth, compact vertical lines; young branchesclothedwithdensegreystarshaped hairs. Leaves simple, ovate-cordate, leathery. Flowers appear in March, in compact cymes on rusty peduncles, creamish white; styles spreading. Fruits (Drupes) appear from May-September, ovoid, with saucer-shaped, persistent calyx. Occasionally planted. Forest arboretum, Dulapally. BSID, 2165. Native: India. Uses: Wood is used for making furniture, agricultural implements and other ornamental articles.
  37. 37. 46 4746 Small tree; bark greyish brown, smooth, furrowed. Leaves simple, ovate-oblong, leathery. Flowers appear from April-June, in terminal cymes, orange red. Fruits (Drupes) appear from July- December, ovoid, surrounded by persistent calyx. Planted in gardens, office campuses and along roadsides for attractive flowers and evergreen foliage. BSID, 116. Native: Tropical America. Uses: Ornamental tree. 47 Small tree; bark greyish, smooth; young branches rusty tomentose. Leaves simple, elliptic-ovate, leathery, thinly hairy on both sides. Flowers appear from March-July, in dichotomous, scorpioid cymes on terminal racemes, white, fragrant. Fruits (Drupes) appear from August- September, globose, fleshy, orange red when ripe. Frequent in University campuses and National parks. BSID, 1438. Native: India. Uses: Ripe fruits edible.
  38. 38. 48 4949 Medium sized tree; bark papery, ash-colored. Leaves crowded at ends of branches, young foliage reddish, imparipinnate; leaflets ovate- oblong. Flowers appear from March-April, in axillary panicles, greenish. Fruits (Drupes) appear from April- June,trigonouswith3-nutlets. Occasionallyplanted.CIMAP. BSID, 2281. Native: India. Uses: Resin exudates is used in perfumery products. 48 Small deciduous tree; bark greyish, smooth. Leaves simple, broadly obovate-oblong, hairy on both sides. Flowers appear from June-November, aggregated in scorpioid cymes on terminal racemes, fragrant, white. Fruits (Drupes) appear from August- December, globose, orange at first, turning black and wrinkled when dry, breaks into 4 single-seeded pyrenes. Occurs wild in KBR National park. BSID, 1429. Native: India. Uses: Wood is used for agricultural implements. Ripened fruits are edible.
  39. 39. 50 5150 Deciduous tree; bark golden yellow, smooth,peelingoffinthinpaperyflakes, resinous inside; young shoots hairy. Leaves crowded at the ends of branches, odd pinnate; leaflets opposite, ovate– lanceolate, entire-toothed on margins. Flowers appear from February-April, in axillary racemes, white with red colored disc. Fruits (Drupes) appear from May- August, 3-angled, greenish yellow. Planted. Forest arboretum, Dulapally and Sanjeevaiah park, BSID, 1328. Native: India. Uses: Resin exudate from the bark is used as incense and traditional systems of medicine. 51 Deciduous tree with short trunk and horizontally spreading branches; bark silvery white, smooth; young branches hairy, reddish brown. Leaves odd pinnate with winged rachis; leaflets elliptic-ovate, toothed on margins, sweet scented when crushed. Flowers appear from March-May, in axillary racemes, greenish-pale yellow. Fruit (Drupes) appear from May-August, ovoid, softly pubescent, reddish when ripe. Planted in Mahavir Harinavanasthali National park on large scale. BSID,1868. Native: Tropical America. Uses: The tree yields strongly aromatic linaloe essential oil which is used as a flavoring agent in food processing industry and in aromatherapy.
  40. 40. 52 5352 53 Small deciduous tree with short trunk and spiny branchlets; bark greyish white-greenish, smooth, peeling off in long thin paper like scrolls. Leaves simple, clustered at the ends of branchlets, obovate, aromatic. Flowers appear from September-October, 2-3 together with strap shaped petals. Fruits (Drupes) appear from December- March, compressed, apex pointed, red when ripen. Planted. CIMAP. BSID, 2137. Native: India Uses: The tree yields a gum called “Guggul” which is obtained from incisions made in the bark, used in traditional systems of medicine. Deciduous tree; bark green, peels off in thin papery flakes. Leaves unipinnate; leaflets elliptic-oblong, long acuminate, shining, aromatic when crushed. Planted. Sanjeevaiah park, CIMAP. BSID, 826. Native: India. Uses: The plant yields essential oil which is used in various products. Bark and fruits are used in traditional systems of medicine.
  41. 41. 54 5554 Deciduous tree with spreading crown; bark silvery white, smooth, lenticellate. Leaves pinnately compound; leaflets oblong- lanceolate, base unequal, margins finely toothed. Flowers appear from February-March, on terminal panicles, creamish outside, yellow inside. Fruits (Drupes) appear from March-May, ellipsoid-globose, smooth, greenish yellow. Planted. Forest arboretum, Dulapally. BSID, 1332. Native: India. Uses: Wood is suitable for furniture. Cut portion of the bark yield resinous gum used in preparation Ayurvedic drugs. 55 Small deciduous tree with spreading branches; bark greyish, smooth; young branches densely hairy. Leaves simple, ovate-oblong, lower surface soft wooly, margins finely toothed. Flowers appear from May-June, in axillary cymes, greenish; male and female separate, small. Fruits (Drupes) appear from August-December, small, ovoid-globose, black when ripe. Planted. Forest arboretum, Dulapally. BSID, 1976. Native: India. Uses: A fast growing tree, useful in reclamation of barren areas; fruits are relished by birds.
  42. 42. 56 5756 Small tree with pendulous branches; bark yellowish to dark-brownish, irregularly cracked with short straight spines; young branches yellowish hairy. Leaves simple, broadly ovate, lower surface yellowish pubescent. Flowers appear from March-April, in terminal corymbs, pale yellow; stamens pale yellow, filiform. Fruits (Berries) appear from May-July, globose, smooth, shining, pinkish red when ripe, with black, ellipsoid, compressed seeds embedded in pink pulp. Occurs wild on hill slopes. Golkonda Fort and Attapur. BSID, 468. Native: India. Uses: Bark and leaves are used in traditional systems of medicine. Fruits edible. 57 Medium sized deciduous tree;barkgreyishwithyellow specks. Leaves trifoliate; leaflets broadly ovate- oblong. Flowers appear from March-April, fragrant in terminal corymbs, pale yellow, turning bright yellow. Fruits (Berries) appear from April-June, globose, bright scarlet when ripen, fleshy with a hard rind; seeds many, embedded in pulp. Common on hill slopes in rocky situations. Golkonda Fort, also planted in gardens and arboreta. BSID, 1860. Native: India. Uses: Wood is used for making drums, models, combs and leaves are used as fodder for cattle. Fruits edible. Bark is valued in traditional systems of medicine.
  43. 43. 58 5958 59 Fast growing tree with soft trunk; stem unbranched with leaf-scars and milky latex. Leaves simple, large, palmate, divided to the middle, forming a crown at the top of the tree. Flowers appear throughout the year, in axillary panicles, dioecious (Male and female on separate plats), occasionally monoecious (Male and female on same plants), pale yellow, fragrant. Fruits (Berries) appear throughout the year, peak during November-December, oblong, greenish yellow, orange inside, with numerous black seeds embedded in sweet pulp. Frequently planted in kitchen gardens, house yards and also cultivated on large scale. BSID, 2146. Native: West Indies, Central and Tropical America. Uses: Ripe fruits edible. Tall fast growing tree; stem straight with brownish bark; branchlets greyish-green, drooping, arising from the axils of small recurved scales. Leaves reduced to scales. Flowers appear from January on distinct male and female spikes. Perianth absent. Fruits (Winged Nutlets), appear from March- May, ovoid-ellipsoid. Frequently planted in gardens as an ornamental tree and also cultivated in large scales for poles. BSID, 2217. Native: Australia.
  44. 44. 60 6160 Small deciduous tree, semi erect; bark greyish, smooth. Leaves simple, elliptic- oblong, leathery, margins undulate. Flowers appear from November-March, in axillary clusters, greenish yellow; ovary half sunk in the disk. Fruits (Berries) appear from April-September, globose, orange when mature, single seeded; seeds yellowish brown, compressed. Occasionally planted. Herbal garden, Osmania University. BSID, 2151. Native: South East Asia. Uses: Root bark is used in traditional systems of medicine. 61 Evergreen tree with crooked trunk; bark greyish black, deeply fissured, exudates milky yellow. Leaves simple, large, ovate- oblong, thick, leathery, shining with parallel venation. Flowers appear from July-September, on terminal racemes, white, fragrant; stamens yellow; ovary pink. Fruits (Drupes) appear from December-March, ovoid-globose, greenish yellow when ripe, single seeded. Planted in gardens and in house-yards as an ornamental tree for showy flowers and evergreen foliage. BSID, 1339. Native: India. Uses: Wood is used in making boats and railway sleepers; seed-oil used in skin diseases and for application in rheumatism.
  45. 45. 62 6362 Small evergreen tree with dense foliage; bark smooth, greyish, peeling in small thin flakes. Leaves simple, closely developed at the end of the branchlets, spoon shaped, leathery, thick, dark green above. Flowers appear from March-April, in terminal cymes, white; sepals and petals fleshy. Fruits (Capsules) appear from May-September, ovoid, dehisce into 7 valves. Planted in gardens and near function halls. Sanjeevaiah park. BSID, 2244. Native: America. Uses: Ornamental tree for evergreen foliage. 63 Mediumsized deciduous tree; bark smooth, pale brown, exfoliating in thin rounded flakes. Leaves simple, elliptic- oblong, midrib prominent, rounded at base, petioles pink. Flowers appear from April-May, in fascicled heads on short axillarypeduncles,greenish-yellow,small. Fruits (Drupes) appear from May-July, broadly 2 winged, indehiscent, 1-seeded, yellowish brown. Occurs wild in National Parks and University of Hyderabad in rocky situations. BSID, 1283. Native: India. Uses: Leaves are used in tanning. Indian gum also known as ghatti gum comes from this tree. Leaves are good feed for a moth that produces the tassar silk. Timber used for agricultural implements and house building.
  46. 46. 64 6564 Evergreen tree with horizontal branches. Leaves simple, clustered, spoon shaped, erect, with toothed margins. Planted. Sanjeevaiah park. BSID, 2249. Native: America. Uses: Ornamental tree. 65 Tall deciduous tree; bark silvery white outside, brownish inside, smooth, peeling off in large thin irregular sheets. Leaves simple, elliptic-oblong with finely wavy margins; petiole with 1 or 2 prominent glands. Flowers appear from March-April, in axillary and terminal panicled spikes, pale yellow; petals absent. Fruits (Drupes) appear from July-December, ovoid with broad, wavy 5 hard projecting wings. Planted in gardens, National parks, and along road sides. BSID, 688. Native: India. Uses: Bark is valued in traditional systems of medicine. The trees are host for Tassar moth.
  47. 47. 66 6766 Tall deciduous tree with whorled branches; bark brownish grey with vertical cracks. Younger branches brownish. Leaves simple, clustered at the ends of branches, broadly elliptic- oblong, nerves impressed on upper surface. Flowers appear from March- April, in axillary spikes, greenish- yellow with offensive odour,. Fruits (Drupes) appear from June-September, broadly ellipsoid- subglobose, brownish, velvety, 5-6 ridged. Occur wild in National parks and also planted in gardens and arboreta. Botanical Garden, Osmania university. BSID, 1354. Native: India. Uses: Fruits are one of the 3 ingredients in Ayurvedic drug “Triphala”. 67 Deciduous tree; bark grey, smooth, faintly fissured, branches horizontal, whorled at each node. Leaves simple, oblong-obovate, yellowish green; petiole with 2 glands. Flowers appear from January-May, in slender spikes with more number of male and few bisexual flowers, pale yellow, small. Fruits (Drupes) appear from January- September ellipsoid or ovoid, bilaterally compressed, 2 ribbed. Frequently planted in residential colonies and house yards. BSID, 164. Native: South East Asia. Uses: Avenue tree for shade. Kernels are edible.
  48. 48. 68 6968 Deciduous tree; bark greyish black, irregularly fissured with deep furrows. Leaves simple, elliptic-ovate-oblong, base and apex rounded; petiole hairy with 2 glands near the base on lower side. Flowers appear from April- August, in terminal spikes, pale yellow. Fruits (Drupes) appear from August-November, ellipsoid, faintly ridged, yellowish-green. Plantedingardensforitsmedicinalimportance. Herbal garden (Near Examination Centre- IPE), Osmania University. BSID, 1342. Native: India. Uses: Fruits in dried form is one of the ingredients in Ayurvedic drug “Triphala”. 69 Deciduous tree; bark blackish-grey with deep longitudinal fissures, appear like crocodile-skin. Leaves simple, ovate-oblong leathery, wooly, rounded at apex and base; petiole with 1-2 glands. Flowers appear from April- July, in axillary and terminal panicled spikes, pale yellow, small. Fruits (Drupes) appear throughout the year, with 5 broad, leathery, reddish brown wings. Occurs wild in University of Hyderabad campus. BSID, 1948. Native: India. Uses: Timber is used for house building, poles and fuel.
  49. 49. 70 7170 Evergreen tree; bark greyish black, peeling in small thin flakes, reddish inside. Leaves simple, clustered at the end of the branchlets, elliptic-oblong, shining, leathery, sharply toothed on margins, Flowers appear from March- April, solitary, large, dull white; petals earlydeciduous;sepalspersistent.Fruits (Berries) appear from September- December, large, indehiscent, covered with greenish yellow calyx, mucilaginous, many seeded. Planted. Lotus pond (Jubilee Hills- MLA Quarters). Sanjeevaiah park. BSID, 2240. Native: India. Uses: Avenue for shade. Ripened fruit pulp is edible and used in Jams, Jellies, etc., and also used in traditional systems of medicine. 71 Evergreen tree with straight stem; bark corky,blackish,peelinginrectangularscales. Leaves simple, oblong-lanceolate, leathery, dark green above, silvery beneath. Flowers appear in March, solitary in leaf axils, fragrant, white. Fruits (Berries) appear from June-December, ovoid-globose, brownish velvety. Occasionally planted in Botanical garden, Osmania University. BSID, 2215. Native: Philippines. Uses: Ornamental tree for dense foliage and velvety fruits.
  50. 50. 72 7372 Small tree; bark dark-grey, nearly black inoldtrees,peelingoffverticallyinsmall rectangular corky scales; branchlets rusty tomentose, often modified into thorns. Leaves simple, ovate, hairy on bothsides,shining.Flowersappearfrom July-August, female flowers solitary in leaf axils, dull white; male flowers 5-6 in capitate cymes. Fruits (Berries) appear from September-November, globose- ovoid with persistent calyx, ripe fruits orange-purplish black. Occurs wild in National Parks and University campuses. BSID, 919. Native: India. Uses: Fruits edible. Wood is used as fuel. 73 Moderate sized deciduous tree; stems straight with blackish-grey, distinct, regular lengthwise rows of bark; young branches rusty hairy. Leaves simple, yellowish green, elliptic- oblong, yellowish green, hairy on upper and lower surface. Flowers appear from February-May, female flowers solitary in leaf axils, dull white; male flowers in short umbellate cymes. Fruits (Berries) appear from April-September, rusty when young, glabrous, yellowish when ripe, supported with thick leathery fruiting calyx. Occurs wild in KBR National Park and University of Hyderabad campus. BSID, 1833. Native: India. Uses: Ripe fruits edible. Young leaves used for wrapping beedies.
  51. 51. 74 7574 Small deciduous monoecious tree ((Male and female flowers on same plant) with straggling branches; young branches reddish; bark smooth, greyish. Leaves simple, rhomboid-broadly obovate, leathery, shining above. Flowers appear from August-September, in axillary clusters, small, greenish. Fruits (Drupes) appear from November-December, globose, purplish black when ripe. Common in rocky situations. KBR National Parks and Osmania University campus. BSID, 2144. Native: India. Uses: Roots and bark used in traditional systems of medicine. Wood is very hard and of red color. 75 Medium sized dioecious (Male and female flowers on different plants), deciduous tree; bark grey-dark brown with longitudinal cracks. Leaves simple, oblong, dark green above, pale beneath. Flowers appear from July-August, in terminalpendantspikes,greenishyellow. Fruits (Drupes) appear from December- March, depressed globose, dark reddish when ripe. Occasionally planted. Forest arboretum, Dulapally. BSID, 2280. Native: India. Uses: Fruits are eaten by birds. Wood is used for agricultural implements. Bark and roots used in traditional systems of medicine.
  52. 52. 76 7776 Fleshy erect shrub or small tree; branches with twin stipular spines and milky latex. Leaves simple, spoon shaped, crowded at the ends of branches, obovate-oblong. Inflorescence (Cyathia), appear in February, in leaf axils on corymbs, greenish yellow; central flower male, sessile, 2 lateral flowers bisexual, stalked; glandular; stamens numerous, in 5 bundles. Fruits (Capsules) appear in March, deeply 3-lobed. Plantedingardens.Botanicalgarden, Osmania University. BSID, 2143. Native: India. Uses: Ornamental tree. Latex and leaves used in traditional systems of medicine. 77 Profusly branched tree; branches terete, green, succulent, dichotomously branched. Leaves small linear–lanceolate, falls of early. Inflorescence (Cyathia), appear from March-April, subsessile, developed at forks of branches or terminal of branches, yellowish green. Planted in gardens as an ornamental tree and hedge plant. Osmania University. BSID, 2221. Native: Africa. Uses: Ornamental tree.
  53. 53. 78 7978 Small tree; bark smooth, peeling off in thin papery flakes. Leaves simple, 3-5 lobed, heart shaped. Flowers appear from April-July, in terminal, dichotomous cymes with solitary terminal female and the rest male flowers, greenish yellow; male and female flowers produced on same inflorescence. Fruits (Capsules) oblong-ovoid, with brownish black seeds. Planted in Herbal garden. Osmania University campus. BSID, 2148. Native: Tropical America. Uses: Twigs used as tooth brush. Seeds are valued as as bio-diesel. 79 Medium sized dioecious (male and female flowers on different plants) tree with round crown; bark light brown, smooth. Leaves simple, peltate (shield shaped). Flowers appear from December-April in panicles, green; bracts glandular. Fruits (Capsules) globose, spinous before ripens. Planted. Forest arboretum, Dulapally. BSID, 2164. Native: India.
  54. 54. 80 8180 Much branched medium sized tree; bark greyish, peeling in small rectangular flakes; branchlets soft hairy. Leaves simple, ovate-lanceolate, with numerous red, orbicular glands beneath. Flowers appear in August, male flowers clustered in erect terminal spikes; female flowers solitary, in short spikes, small, pale yellow. Fruits (Capsules) appear in November, globose, 3-lobed, covered with bright red powder with minute star shaped hairs. Planted. Forest Arboretum, Dulapally. BSID, 2282. Native: India. Uses: Fruits used in traditional systems of medicine and a source of Red dye. 81 Medium sized tree; bark black, peeling in small scales. Leaves simple, crowded at the end of the branchlets, cordate- oblong, margins unudulate. Flowers appear from March-April, in terminal racemes, white with pink streaks. Fruits (Capsules) appear round the year, depressed globose, velvety, brownish when mature. Habitat: Planted. Indira Park and Sanjeevaiah Park. BSID, 2157. Native: Philippines. Uses: Ornamental tree.
  55. 55. 82 8382 Deciduous tree; stem with shining smooth silvery bark; young branches markedwithleafscars.Leavessimple, crowded at the apex of branches, broadly ovate-circular, often 3-lobed. Flowers appear from February- March, crowded on branched cymes with many male flowers with few female flowers, small, yellowish cream; leafless during flowering. Fruits (Drupes) appear April-May, ovoid, velvety, winged. Occurs in wild on hill slopes of Golkonda Fort and also planted in botanical gardens and arboreta. BSID, 1210. Native: India. Uses: As the Wood is soft, it is preferredinmakingboxesandKondapally toys. 83 Evergreen tree; stems greenish, bark smooth, longitudinally fissured in aged trees. Leaves simple, ovate-lanceolate, dark green above, pale beneath, aromatic. Flowers appear from January-February, in axillary panicles, greenish-pale yellow, small. Fruits (Drupes) appear from March- May, ovoid-sub globose, purplish black when ripe. Occasionally planted. Sanjeevaiah park. BSID, 2254. Native: Japan. Uses: Leaves, bark, and roots used in the traditional systems of medicines.
  56. 56. 84 8584 Mediumsized evergreen tree; bark greyish black. Leaves simple, obovate. Flowers appear from November-December, in long pendulous spicate racemes; stamens numerous, reddish, spreading. Fruits (Berries) obtusely quadrangular, narrowed towards ends, crowned by small persistent calyx tube, appear in March; 1 seeded. Planted in gardens for its evergreen foliage, and attractive long pendant racemes. On bank of Hussainsagar and Sanjeevaiah Park. BSID, 582, 2275. Native: India. Uses: Bark used to intoxicate fish in traditional medicine; wood used for boat- building. 85 Moderate sized tree with blackish fissured bark. Leaves simple, crowded at the end of the branchlets, obovate-oblong. Flowers appear from September-November, in terminal, short erect racemes, white; stamens numerous, white, spreading. Fruits (Drupes) appear round the year, broadly pyramidal with tapering apex and crowned with persistent calyx. Occasionally planted. Sanjeevaiah park. BSID, 2238. Native: India. Uses: Ornamental tree for showy bloom and evergreen foliage.
  57. 57. 86 8786 Deciduous trees; bark dark grey with deep vertical and diagonal cracks, red inside. Leaves simple, crowded at the ends of branches, obovate, round-sharp toothed on margins, turning red in cold season. Flowers appear from March-May, on leafless branches in capitates cymes, large, showy. Fruits (Berries) appear from June-November, globose with persistent calyx; seeds numerous, embedded in fleshy pulp. Occasionally planted. Botanical garden, Osmania University and Forest arboretum, Dulapally. BSID, 2119. Native: India. Uses: Bark and flowers are used in traditional systems of medicine. Easily recognizable during winter as all leaves turn red making trees prominent. 87 Tall deciduous tree; bark greyish brown. Leaves simple, crowded at the ends of the branches, obovate. Flowers appear from June- September, in clusters on main trunk and branches, large, showy, fragrant; petals pinkish red; staminal sheath yellowish white enclosing the gynoecium. Fruits (Drupes) appear round the year, large, globose, on a long pendant, persisting stalks on main trunk resembling cannon balls. Frequently planted near temples, gardens as an ornamental tree for fragrant showy flowers. Old botanical garden, near VC-lodge, Osmania University. BSID, 1386. Native: South America. Uses: Ornamental and Sacred tree.
  58. 58. 88 8988 Deciduous tree with spreading branches; bark greyish-silvery white, smooth. Leaves simple, ovate- cordate, divided into half way down, with rounded lobes. Flowers appear from October-December in terminal racemes, dark pinkish purple, upper petal with red stripes. Planted in gardens, and office campuses for foliage and showy flowers. ZSI campus. BSID, 2194. Native: Hong Kong. Uses: Ornamental and avenue tree. Note: Hong Kong orchid tree, most spectacular and very popular garden tree is of great horticultural value. It is sterile and is the result of natural hybridization between Bauhinia purpurea and Bauhinia variegata. 89 Deciduous tree; bark brownish, smooth. Leaves ovate- suborbicular, cleft into halfway down their length. Flower buds club-spindle shaped. Flowers appear from August and September, in terminal or axillary racemes, purplish pink. Fruits (Pods) appear from December-March, strap- shaped, flat, seeds oblong-ellipsoid, light brown. Frequently planted in gardens, along roadsides. BSID, 1656. Native: India. Uses: Avenue and ornamental tree; leaves used for making dinner plates.
  59. 59. 90 9191 Small tree; branches zigzag, Leaves broader than long, suborbicular, cleft into halfway down their length into 2 rounded lobes. Flowers appear from July- December, in leaf opposed cymes, pendulous, yellow with a purple blotch on the upper petal. Fruits (Pods) appear from January- March, oblong, pointed at apex, seeds oblong, rounded at apex. Planted in gardens and along roadsides in residential colonies. BSID, 1390. Native: India. Uses: Ornamental tree for showy yellow flowers. 90 Deciduous trees with crooked stem and drooping branches; bark dark, with transverse rectangles. Leaves kidney shaped-broadly ovate, cleft into one tenth–one third way down their length. Flowers appear February- March, buds spindle shaped; open flowers in terminal and axillary racemes, pale yellow. Fruits (Pods) appear from July- December, narrowly oblong; seeds ovate-rectangular, compressed, dark brown. Common in rocky situations in National parks and university campuses. BSID, 752. Native: India. Uses: Bark used in traditional systems of medicine; leaves are considered sacred and used by Hindus during Dussera and Ugadi.
  60. 60. 92 9393 Medium sized tree; bark smooth, greyish brown. Leaves ovate- suborbicular, bifid, 1/3 way down their length, lobes cordate at base. Flowers appear from January-March, in few- flowered terminal or axillary racemes, white, fragrant, with yellow streak on upper petals. Fruits (Pods) appear from March-June, oblong with pointed at apex. Planted in gardens, along roadsides for as ornamental tree. On the way to ICFRE, Dulapally and Ramakrishna mutt. BSID, 2150. Native: South-East Asia. 92 Medium sized deciduous trees, bark greyish brown, smooth to slightly fissured and scaly; inner bark pinkish. Leaves simple, ovate, connate for about two-thirds; lobes broadly cordate at base. Flowers appear from February- April, on short racemes, pinkish-violet; calyx sheathing; petals margins wavy. Fruits (Pods) appear from April-May, flat, strap-shaped. Planted in gardens, along roadsides as an ornamental tree for showy bloom and avenue for shade. BSID, 2291. Native: India. Uses: Bark used in traditional systems of medicine.
  61. 61. 94 9595 Deciduous tree with umbrella shaped canopy; bark greyish brown, peeling off in small irregular flakes. Leaves bipinnate, with 5-10 pairs of pinnae; leaflets oblong- linear. Flowers appear from September-November, in short dense corymbose panicles, small, pale yellow. Fruits (Pods) appear from November-March, hooded, strap shaped, twisted. Occasionally planted. SP College, Secunderabad. BSID, 2065. Native: South America. Uses: Avenue tree. Pods are source of tannin “Dividivi” used in leather processing. 94 Small evergreen tree with dense crown and pendulous bunches of young leaves; bark greyish black, smooth. Leaves pinnately compound; leaflets opposite, shining, leathery, dark green above. Flowers appear from March-April, in dense umbels on stems and branches; umbels scarlet red, looks like bell. Occasionally planted in gardens, house yards opposite to GVK Shopping Mall and ICRISAT Campus. BSID, 2261. Native: Tropical America. Uses: Ornamental tree and avenue for attractive bloom and evergreen foliage. Note: Flowers are source for nectar.
  62. 62. 96 9797 Deciduous tree; bark yellow-green, Smooth. Leaves paripinnate, pendulous; leaflets ovate, bright green, rounded at base, entire at margins. Flowers appear from March-April, in axillary, dense pendant racemes, bright yellow; entire tree is leafless in flowering. Fruits (Pods) cylindric, nearly straight, smooth, shining, brown-black, indehiscent; seeds numerous, heart shaped, brownish, shining. Occurs wild in National parks, University campuses and also planted in gardens, along roadsides as an ornamental tree, for its showy bloom. BSID, 160. Native: India. Uses: Bark and fruits are used in traditional systems of medicine. 96 Medium sized deciduous tree; stems and branches armed with recurved prickles. Leaves compound, pinnae with small prickles at base; leaflets oblong. Flowers appear from August-September, in terminal and axillary racemes, yellow; stamens orange. Fruit (Pods) appear from November-March, woody, obliquely oblong, indehiscent with a hard recurved, short beak at apex; seeds ellipsoid, brown. Planted in CIMAP and Herbal garden, Osmania University. BSID, 2166. Native: India. Uses: The secondary wood yields reddish dye which is used for dyeing fabric, making red paints and inks and also in traditional medicine.
  63. 63. 98 9999 Medium sized tree with spreading and drooping branches; bark brownish, corky. Leaves pinnately compound; leaflets elliptic-oblong. Flowers appear from July-August, in terminal and axillary racemes, pink-red. Fruits (Pods) appear from December-March, cylindrical, faintly ribbed, indehiscent; seeds many, separated by papery partitions. Frequently planted in gardens and roadsides. BSID, 2111. Native: South-East Asia. Uses: Ornamental tree for showy flowers and avenue for shade. 98 Medium sized deciduous tree; bark smooth, blackish. Leaves pinnately compound; leaflets elliptic-ovate. Flowers appear from January- March, in terminal and axillary racemes, pinkish, turning white; stamens bright yellow. Fruits (Pods) appear from March-May, pendant, rounded, blackish brown; seeds numerous, embedded in flat disk. Planted in gardens as an ornamental tree. Indira Park. BSID, 2159. Native: Myanmar.
  64. 64. 100 101101 Deciduous tree with spreading crown; bark greyish, smooth, shining. Leaves, bipinnate; leaflets, oblong. Flowers appear from January-March, in axillary and terminal corymbose racemes, creamy white; petals rounded in outline and crinkled on margins; stamens large, spreading, pale yellow-red. Fruits (Pods) appear from March- June, flat, oblong, green with brown spots, narrowed at apex. Planted along railway tracks and road sides as an ornamental and avenue tree. Adikmet flyover bridge. BSID, 1336. Native: India. 100 Tall deciduous tree; bark brownish, smooth, peeling off in papery flakes. Leaves pinnately compound, foliage appear fern- like; leaflets numerous, oblong. Flowers appear from November- December, in cone shaped clusters on pendant terminal racemes, bright orange with bright yellow stamens. Fruits (Pods) appear from January- May, flattened, woody, narrowly oblong, with several seeds; seeds ovoid-oblong, brownish. Planted. Old botanical garden, near VC Lodge, Osmania University and NTR Garden, Necklace road. BSID, 2153, 2264. Native: Madagascar. Uses: Ornamental tree for showy bloom.
  65. 65. 102 103103 Deciduous tree; bark greyish brown-black with deep irregular vertical lines, peeling off in narrow flakes. Leaves bifoliate; leaflets elliptic-oblong, opposite. Flowers appear from April-May, in axillary and terminal lax panicled racemes, small, pale yellowish-green. Fruits (Pods) appear from August-December, flat, oblong- lanceolate, 1-seeded. Occurs wild in Mahavir Harinavanasthali National Park. BSID, 1705. Native: India. Note: Leaves are preferred as fodder to cattle; provides excellent firewood and good charcoal; bark yields strong fiber largely employed for making ropes; wood is extremely durable and makes excellent poles and in bridge-foundations. 102 Deciduous tree with short crooked trunk and spreading horizontal branches; bark smooth, brown. Leaves 2 pinnate; leaflets oblong, dense. Flowers appear from March- July, in terminal racemes, showy, crimson red; entire tree is leaf less in flowering. Fruits (Pods) appear from July-March, oblong, woody, slightly sickle shaped; seeds rod shaped with brownish and black stripes. Frequently planted in gardens, along roadsides as an ornamental tree for showy bloom and avenue for shade. BSID, 105. Native: Madagascar.
  66. 66. 104 105105 Deciduoustree;branchesspreading;Stemsrusty-redwooly;barksmooth,greyish- black. Leaves pinnately compound; leaflets oblong. Flowers appear intermittently throughoutyear,interminalpanicles;budsglobose,brownish;openflowersbright yellow. Fruits (Pods) appear throughout year, flat, elliptic, tapering towards ends, coppery in color, 1-2 seeded. Common avenue tree planted along roadsides and gardens. BSID, 132. Native: South East Asia. Uses: Avenue tree for shade and for showy yellow bloom and coppery pods. 104 Small sized thorny tree, with spreading branches and multiple stems; bark greyish brown, peeling off in small rectangular scales;brancheswithsharpspines. Leaves bipinnate; leaflets small, elliptic-ovate, deciduous. Flowers appear from February-March, in lax axillary and terminal racemes, yellowish. Fruits (Pods) appear from Aril-December, slender, cylindrical, constricted between seeds; seeds ovoid-oblong, dark brownish. Planted along roadsides and hedges. BSID, 523. Native: Tropical America. Uses: Planted along roadsides as an ornamental tree and also self propagating. Stems and branches used as fuel.
  67. 67. 106 107107 Medium sized tree with smooth greyish brown bark. Leaves pinnately compound. Flowers appear from August-November, in axillary and terminal panicles, bright yellow; petals spoon shaped. Fruits (Pods) appear from January-March, flattened, linear-oblong, brownish red, sutures thickened, indented between seeds; seeds compressed, brownish. Frequently planted along road sides and in gardens. BSID, 252. Native: Sri Lanka. Uses: Avenue for shade, and ornamental tree for showy bloom; wood is hard and durable, yields excellent timber. Leaves and roots are used in traditional medicine. 106 Evergreen tree; bark brownish, smooth turning black in aged trees. Leaves pinnately compound; leaflets oblong-lanceolate, young leaves coppery, shining, overlapping and drooping. Flowers appear from January-March, in dense, axillary and terminalpanicles;calyxorangeyellow, turning red; petals absent. Fruits (Pods) appear from March-June, oblong-lanceolate, compressed; seeds ovoid-oblong, polished, brownish. Planted in gardens, near temples and arboreta. Old trees have been seen at Public garden, ICRISAT Campus and Agricultural university Campus. BSID, 1366. Native: India. Uses: Bark and flowers are used in traditional systems of medicine and the tree as ornamental tree for evergreen foliage and showy flowers.
  68. 68. 108 109109 Small tree; bark greyish. Leaves unipinnate; leaflets 5 pairs, elliptic-ovate; Flowers appear from August-November, in terminal racemes, bright yellow. Fruits (Pods) appear from November- March, flat, oblong, rounded, apiculate, constricted between the seeds. Frequently planted in gardens, parks as an ornamental tree. BSID, 2277. Native: Central America. Uses: Ornamental tree for showy bloom. Self propagating. 108 Medium sized tree with dense crown; bark greyish brown, smooth. Leaves unipinnate; leaflets 8-15 pairs, ovate- lanceolate. Flowers appear from August, in terminal racemes, bright yellow. Fruits (Pods) appear from January-April, cylindric-linear, pendulous; seeds brownish, ovoid, compressed. Planted in gardens, along roadsides. Habsiguda, kakatiya nagar. BSID. 01382. Native: Central America. Uses: Ornamental tree for showy bloom.
  69. 69. 110 111110 Tall tree with irregular branches; bark blackish, horizontally and vertically fissured. Leaves pinnate, leaflets, elliptic- oblong. Flowers appear from June, in axillary and terminal racemes, pale yellow; upper three petals with brownish stripes, middle one hooded, lower reduced to scales. Fruits (Pods) appear from December-March, oblong, slightly curved, brownish; seeds blackish, shining, compressed. Planted near college campuses, hospitals, road sides and also occurs in open places. BSID, 1891. Native: Central Africa. Uses: Fruits are edible, young leaves are used as leafy vegetable. Note: Though specific epithet refers to India, it is a native of Central Africa. 111 Unarmed tree with drooping branches and dense foliage; bark greyish brown, peeling in vertical flakes. Leavesmodifiedintophyllodes,sickle shaped, glossy green, thick, leathery. Flowers appear from September- October, in axillary and terminal spikes, bright yellow, scented. Fruits (Pods) appear from January-March, spirally twisted, brown; seeds blackish, shinning, ovoid-orbicular. Frequently planted in gardens and roadsides. BSID, 530. Native: Australia. Uses: Ornamental tree for showy bloom, and avenue for shade.
  70. 70. 112 113113 Thorny deciduous tree; bark brownish, corky, exfoliating in long narrow stripes. Leaves bi-pinnate; rachis glandular at the base of the first pair of pinnae; leaflets oblong. Flowers appear from July- September,inaxillaryspikes,paleyellow. Fruits (Pods) appear from September- December, oblong, flat, brown, bluntly narrowed, depressed between seeds. Occurs wild in National parks and university campuses. BSID, 2147. Native: India. Uses: Heart wood yields Katha; timber is used in construction works and making agricultural implements. Bark and roots are used in traditional medicine. 112 Small thorny, deciduous tree with umbrella shapedcrown;barkbrownishblack,peeling inrectangularflakes.Leavesbipinnate,gland just below the first pair of pinnae; pinnae 5-7 pairs, linear-oblong. Flowers appear from November-December, in axillary clusters on heads, fragrant; buds blood red; open flowers with yellowish stamens. Fruits (Pods) appear from January-March, sickle shaped, papery, with oblong greyish brown seeds. Occurs wild in KBR National park. BSID, 1389. Native: India. Uses:Woodusedasfuelandbarkusedinthetraditional medicine. Leaves and young fruits are feed for goats. Note: Acacia campbellii is treated as synonymous to A. eburnea in certain nomenclature databases. However, a close scrutiny of the type images from Kew herbarium and live specimens from this area, it is opined that these two species are distinct.
  71. 71. 114 115115 Small tree with numerous branches from base, giving a multi stemmed appearance; bark smooth, greenish grey. Leaves modified into phyllodes (expanded leaf like petiole); phyllodes sickle shaped, silvery white, distinctly 3-5 nerved. Flowers appear from November-Decemberinaxillaryspikes. Fruits (Pods) appear from March-May, narrow, coiled in dense clusters with oval-slightly flattened seeds. Planted on large scale in city suburbs. BSID, 2283. Native: Australia. Uses: Avenue and ornamental tree. Wood is used as fuel. 114 Much thorny deciduous tree; bark brown-black, longitudinally fissured. Leaves pinnately compound with a gland between the first pair of pinnae and one between the terminal pair; leaflets elliptic-oblong. Flowers appear from July-September, in globose solitary heads in leaf axils,yellow.Fruits(Pods)appear from September-December, beaded necklace shaped, greyish white, constricted between seeds; seeds orbicular, black, white wooly. Common in open habitats, waste places, along roadsides and in protected areas. BSID, 1117. Native: India.
  72. 72. 116 117117 Thorny deciduous tree; bark greyish brown- black,longitudinallyfissured.Leavespinnately compound with a gland between the first pair of pinnae and one between the terminal pair; leaflets elliptic-oblong. Flowers appear from July-September, in globose solitary heads, or in axillary clusters of 2-5 heads, golden yellow, fragrant. Fruits (Pods) appear from January- April, beaded necklace shaped, greyish white, constricted between seeds. Common in open habitats, waste places along the margins of drains and in protected areas. BSID, 1117. Native: Africa and India. Uses: Wood is hard and used for furniture making, building constructions, hubsforcartwheelsandwellcurbs.Gumobtained from the stem is used in traditional systems of medicine, young branches are relished by goats and also used for fuel. “Katuka” (Eyetex) obtained from the dried seeds is applied by women and young girls on eye lashes for beauty and cooling effect. 116 Thorny deciduous tree; bark light yellowish brown, exfoliating in irregular scales. Leaves pinnately compound, rachis with a cup like gland between each pair of pinnae; leaflets linear-oblong. Flowers appear from August-September, in globose heads in terminal panicles, pale yellow. Fruits (Pods) appear from November-March, oblong, clothed with pale brown wooly hairs. Occurs wild in open hábitats and in National Parks and University Campuses. BSID, 620. Origin : India. Uses: Stems and branches used for fuel. Wood used in making country liquor.
  73. 73. 118 119119 Deciduous tree; bark greyish brown-black. Leaves pinnately compound with grooved rachis; leaflets oblong-elliptic. Flowers appear from July, in spiciform axillary or terminal racemes, pale yellow, scented. Fruits (Pods) appear from December- April, sickle shaped, shining, dehisced pods twisted and gaping with bright scarlet red, heart shaped shining seeds. Planted in gardens as an ornamental tree. Botanical garden, Osmania university. BSID, 2117. Native: India. Uses: Shining scarlet color seeds are used as weights by jewelers and as ornaments in the form of beads and bracelets. 118 Medium sized prickly tree; bark greyish, peeling in papery flakes; prickles just below the nodes, with the middle one hooked downwards and the lateral ones curved upwards. Leaves bi-pinnate; leaflets linear-elliptic-oblong. Flowers appear from June, in axillary spikes, pale yellow. Fruits (Pods) appear from October-March, oblong; seeds orbicular, brownish. OccurswildinMahavirHarinavanasthali National Park. BSID, 918. Native: Africa. Uses: Gum is used in preparation of medicine. Note: Probably it might have been introduced during Nizams period, now it is naturalized and self propagating. This species is not reported in local floras from South India.
  74. 74. 120 121121 Deciduous tree; bark greyish brown- black, peeling in irregular flakes. Leaves pinnately compound; rachis with glands near the base of petiole and below upper most pair of pinnae; leaflets elliptic-oblong. Flowers appear from March, fascicled heads in corymbose racemes, fragrant, greenish yellow. Fruits (Pods) appear from September-March, flat, compressed, yellowish green, shining, straw colored when mature, alternately depressed with ellipsoid-oblong, compressed, brownish seeds. Frequently planted along road sides, in gardens in open places as an avenue and ornamental tree and also self propagating. BSID, 1184. Native: India. Uses: As Avenue tree for shade. Self propagating. 120 Deciduoustreewithspreading crown; bark greyish, smooth; young branches yellowish- grey hairy. Leaves pinnately compound; rachis with gland betweenupperpinnae;leaflets linear-oblong. Flowers appear from April, in axillary heads, creamish yellow, fragrant. Fruits (Pods) appear from November- March, greyish brown, oblong with undulate margins. Occurs wild in rocky situations in National parks university campuses. BSID, 1197. Native: India. Uses: Avenue for shade. Branches used as fuel.
  75. 75. 122 123123 Deciduous tree with yellowish smooth stem;barkgreyishblack.Leavespinnately compound; rachis with a gland at base; leaflets elliptic-oblong. Flowers appear from July-August, in heads on terminal panicles, pale yellow. Fruits (Pods) appear from January-April, oblong, flat, brick red with greenish margins; seeds 6-8, ovoid-oblong, brownish. Occasionally planted. Botanical garden, Osmania University. BSID, 1946. Native: India. Uses: Wood is used for various purposes. Leaves used in traditional systems of medicine. 122 Deciduous tree with drooping branches; bark greyish-white with numerous horizontal cracks. Leaves pinnately compound, rachis with gland near the base and between upper most pairs of pinnae; leaflets elliptic- oblong. Flowers appear from April, in globoseheadsinterminalpanicles, dull white, fragrant. Fruits (Pods) appear from January-April, compressed, flat, purplish green, reddish brown when mature with ellipsoid-oblong, compressed, brownish seeds. Occasionally planted. Botanical garden. Osmania University. BSID, 2105. Native: India. Uses: Wood is used for making furniture and agriculture implements.
  76. 76. 124 125125 A strong thorny small tree with solitary or multiple stems; bark greyish, peeling in thin longitudinal flakes. Leaves bipinnate; pinnae 3-6 pairs; leaflets oblong. Flowers appear from August- December, in elongate spikes, dimorphic, the upper bisexual with yellowish corolla and the lower neuter pinkish corolla and staminodes. Fruits (Pods) appear from December-March, linear oblong, curled or twisted in clusters. Occurs wild in National parks and university campuses. BSID, 1228. Native: India. Uses: Wood used for fuel. 124 Large fast growing evergreen tree with spreading crown; bark greyish brown- black, irregularly fissured. Leaves pinnately compound, rachis glandular betweenbasesofpinnae;leafletselliptic, shining, unequal at base. Flowers appear from March-April, in globose heads, solitary or 2-3 together in axils of upper leaves, white with pinkish red stamens. Fruits (Pods) appear throughout year, oblong, depressed between seeds, with thickened sutures; seeds dark brownish-black, shining, oblong, embedded in viscous pulp. Common avenue tree planted along roadsides and in gardens. BSID, 151. Native: South America. Note: In peak summer, the tree shed wáter droplets, therefore, aptly named as Rain tree. Self propagating.
  77. 77. 126 127127 Large deciduous tree; bark greyish brown, peeling in small rectangular scales. Leaves pinnately compound; rachis with glands above the base; leaflets linear-oblong. Flowers appear from January, in stalked globose heads, pale yellow, upper bisexual and lower male or sterile. Fruits (Pods) appear from March-May, 5-10 from each head, twisted, stalked; seeds ovoid- oblong, brownish, embedded in white pulp. Frequently planted along roadsides, in gardens, college campuses. BSID, 1791. Native: West Africa. Uses: Avenue for shade, ornamental tree for showy tennis ball like heads. 126 Fast growing deciduous tree; stem straight with smooth, greyish bark. Leaves pinnately compound; main rahis ends with a weak spine; pinnae 3-8 pairs; leaflets linear-oblong. Flowers appear from August-October, in dense globose heads, greenish yellow with numerous dull white stamens. Fruits (Pods) appear from October-March, oblong, flat, brownish when mature; seeds ellipsoid, dark brownish. Planted along road sides as an avenue tree, cultivated for fodder and also runs wild in fallow lands. BSID, 570. Native: South America. Uses: Leaves and young branches used as fodder. Self propagating and colonizes in gardens and open places.
  78. 78. 128 129129 Thorny, slow growing, deciduous tree with drooping branches; bark brownish, with deep longitudinal fissures and horizontal cracks. Leaves pinnately compound; leaflets oblong. Flowers appear from February- March,inaxillaryandterminalspikes, yellow. Fruits (Pods) appear from March-May, constricted between seeds; seeds ovoid-oblong, embedded in fleshy pulp. Planted in temple premises. Habsiguda, Venkateshwara Temple. BSID, 1864. Native: India. Uses: As per Hindu mythology, it is believed that during exile, Arjuna (one of the pandava brothers) has preserved his bow and arrows on this tree. 128 Thorny tree with smooth, greyish, bark, peeling in small rectangular scales, fissured and peeling on old trees. Leaves bipinnate; leaflets elliptic-oblong; petiole with solitary apical concave gland; stipules spinescent. Flowers appear from February-March, in globose heads, pale yellow, fragrant. Fruits (Pods) appear from March-April, spirally twisted, beaded necklace shaped, reddish when ripe; seeds 6-10, black, embedded in fleshy, white edible aril. Common in open places, near houses and planted. Self propagating. BSID, 1260. Native: South America. Uses: Aril is edible. Stems and branches used for fuel.
  79. 79. 130 131131 Deciduous tree; bark greyish brown, fibrous, exfoliating in small irregular flacks. Leaves pinnately trifoliate, unequal, terminal leaflet broadly obovate, laterals elliptic-oblong, leathery. Flowers appear from February-April, in terminal racemes, bright orange scarlet; calyx dark, olive green velvety; entire tree is leafless in flowering. Fruits (Pods) appear from March- May, strap shaped, leathery, silky hairy; seed one, kidney shaped. Occurs wild in protected areas in National Parks and in University campuses. BSID,1183. Native: India. Uses: Leaves are used for making dinner plates. Bright yellow dye obtained from flowers are used in Holi festival. Leafy twigs are revered during Hindu thread marriage. Bark used in traditional medicine. Seeds are eaten by squirrels. 130 Thorny deciduous tree with spreading branches; bark greyish-black with longitudinal fissures. Leaves pinnately compound; rachis grooved with a solitary gland; leaflets linear-oblong. Flowers appear from July- September, in dense axillary pendulousspikes,paleyellow. Fruits (Pods) appear from September-March, sickle shaped; seeds compressed, brownish, surrounded by pulpy aril. Common in fallow lands & along drainage canals. BSID, 129. Native: Tropical America. Uses: Roots, stems and branches gives charcoal which is widely used as fuel.
  80. 80. 132 133133 Large deciduous tree; bark yellowish grey, smooth. Leaves pinnately compound; leaflets oblong. Flowers appear from April-May, in axillary and terminal scorpioid racemes, purplish white with brownish calyx. Fruits (Pods) appear from May-December, narrowed at both ends, reticulately veined, 1-2 seeded. Occurs wild in University campuses. Osmania University, near Department of Physics. BSID, 2128. Native: India. Uses: Wood used for fuel and agricultural implements. 132 Small sized tree, branches spreading, arching, appears like umbrella; bark brownish. Leaves 3-foliate; leaflets elliptic-oblong, shiny green. Flowers appear from April-July in pendent racemes, pinkish violet with white blotch at the centre. Fruits (Pods) appear from October- January, stalked. Occasionally planted. Sanjeevaiah park, BSID, 2099. Native: Tropical America. Uses: Ornamental tree.
  81. 81. 134 135135 Deciduous tree; bark greyish brown, peeling in vertical flakes. Leaves pinnately compound; leaflets obovate-orbicular, notched at apex. Flowers appear from September, in axillary and extra axillary racemes, pale yellow. Fruits (Pods) appear from November-March, narrowed at both ends, 1-2 seeded. Occus wild in University of Hyderabad and also planted in botanical gardens, arboreta, parks, and college campuses. BSID, 2128. Native: India. Uses: Wood is used for making furniture and agricultural implements. 134 Deciduous tree; bark greyish, smooth. Leaves pinnately compound; leaflets oblong. Flowers appear from July, in terminal or axillary panicles, dull white, fragrant, with greenish yellow calyx. Fruits (Pods) appear from September- December, narrowed at both ends, net veined, 1-seeded. Planted in botanical garden, Osmania University. BSID, 1919. Native: India. Uses: Stems and branches used for fuel.
  82. 82. 136 137137 Small bushy tree with straggling spiny branches; bark brown, exfoliating in largeverticalflakes.Leaves pinnately compound; leaflets oblong-obovate. Flowers appear from March-April, dull white, in axillary and terminal racemes, fragrant. Fruits (Pods) appear from Au g u s t - D e c e m b e r, narrowed at both ends, 1-2 seeded. Planted. Department of Botany, Osmania University. Self propagating. BSID, 1285. Native: India. Uses: Stems and branches used for fuel. 136 Semi-deciduous tree with drooping branches; bark greyish brown, exfoliating in narrow longitudinal stripes. Leaves pinnately compound; leaflets ovate-circular in outline. Flowers appear from February-March, in axillary and terminal scorpioid racemes, creamy yellow. Fruits (Pod) appear from March-December, strap- shaped, narrowed at both ends, 1-4- seeded. Frequently planted along road sides, gardens, and in open places. BSID, 1205. Native: India. Uses: Avenue for shade.
  83. 83. 138 139139 Small tree with irregular prickles on the stem; bark corky, greyish. Leaves pinnately trifoliolate; leaflets small, ovate-oblong with entire margins. Flowers appear from March-May, in terminal racemes, brick red. Fruits (Pods) appear from May-September, cylindrical; seeds oblong-ovoid, brownish. Occasionally planted. Sanjeevaiah park. BSID, 2265. Native: South America. Uses: Ornamental tree for its attractive flowers. 138 Deciduous tree; bark greyish- dark brown, with longitudinal and horizontal cracks. Leaves pinnately trifoliate; lateral leaflets obliquely elliptic, terminal one broadly ovate, leathery. Flowers appear from February-March, in fascicles on branches, white with pinkish red calyx. Fruits (Pods) appear from March-June, distinctly jointed, shining, with 1-3 brownish seeds. Planted in Forest arboretum, Dulapally. BSID, 2167. Native: India. Uses: Wood is used for furniture, agriculturalimplementsandbuildingconstructions.

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