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  1. 1. For your first question, a Table of Specification (TOS) is very important in the content for validity of test as it puts the one who gave the test and the candidate on the same footing. This means that both are thinking of the same question, item, specification and other details. This is very important when giving tests that has tendencies of multiple interpretations. For the second question, a multiple type of question may be a good way to determine to know a person`s quality of learning but may not be very applicable to a set of manipulative skills. The best way to test a person`s manipulative skill is to do an actual demonstration. The same type of demo is required for other manipulative test like getting a driver`s license. In your case, if you want to know a person`s skills on the microscope, have an actual test. Give him or her a microscope with a subject on it, then give him or her instructions and let him or her write what are his observation for every instruction. With your question "Is a multiple choice type of test valid to determine learning assessment strategies?” the answer is dependent. Validity means that a test must measure what is supposed to be measured. That`s right. In order for a test to be valid, the purpose should be achieved. What is the purpose? The purpose is your objectives. If your objective is to determine learning assessment strategies, you should first know what level of cognitive domain you want. The levels of cognitive domain of Bloom`s taxonomy are Knowledge, Comprehension, Analysis, Application, Synthesis, and Evaluation. If the objective is under the knowledge level, the test should also be under the knowledge level. Each test item should be analyzed in order to determine if the right level of cognitive domain is achieved. Multiple Choice, True or False, Matching Type is best for Knowledge, Comprehension, Analysis, and Application levels. Essays are best for Synthesis level. In other words, multiple choices can be a valid type of test if the items achieved the correct cognitive domain it is supposed to be in. If you want to determine learning assessment strategies, analysis and application are the best levels in the cognitive domain to use. You will be able to apply these levels in the multiple choice type of test if you provide real-life situations in classroom assessment. This way, a multiple choice type of test would be valid. Source: If validity as a characteristic of test means that a test must measure what is supposed to measure, is a multiple choice type of valid to determine le? Constructing fair tests that give teachers accurate information about students learning is an important skill for teachers. The table of specification is often useful to organize the planning process of designing test allows the teacher to predetermine the content of the test. Using a table of specification to organize a teacher - made test helps alleviate content validity problems because it helps the teacher create good balance in several areas.
  2. 2. Measurement Validity- There's an awful lot of confusion in the methodological literature that stems from the wide variety of labels that are used to describe the validity of measures. I want to make two cases here. First, it's dumb to limit our scope only to the validity of measures. We really want to talk about the validity of any operationalization. That is, any time you translate a concept or construct into a functioning and operating reality (the operationalization), you need to be concerned about how well you did the translation. This issue is as relevant when we are talking about treatments or programs as it is when we are talking about measures. (In fact, come to think of it, we could also think of sampling in this way. The population of interest in your study is the "construct" and the sample is your operationalization. If we think of it this way, we are essentially talking about the construct validity of the sampling!). Second, I want to use the term construct validity to refer to the general case of translating any construct into an operationalization. Let's use all of the other validity terms to reflect different ways you can demonstrate different aspects of construct validity. Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives Cognitive Domain 1. Knowledge (Remembering previously learned material) Educational Psychology: Give the definition of punishment. Mathematics: State the formula for the area of a circle. English / Language Arts: Recite a poem. 2. Comprehension (Grasping the meaning of material) Educational Psychology: Paraphrase in your own words the definition of punishment; answer questions about the meaning of punishment. Mathematics: Given the mathematical formula for the area of a circle, paraphrase it using your own words. English / Language Arts: Explain what a poem means. 3. Application (Using information in concrete situations) Educational Psychology: Given an anecdote describing a teaching situation, identify examples of punishment.
  3. 3. Mathematics: Compute the area of actual circles. English / Language Arts: Identify examples of metaphors in a poem. 4. Analysis (Breaking down material into parts) Educational Psychology: Given an anecdote describing a teaching situation, identify the psychological strategies intentionally or accidentally employed. Mathematics: Given a math word problem, determine the strategies that would be necessary to solve it. English / Language Arts: Given a poem, identify the specific poetic strategies employed in it. 5. Synthesis (Putting parts together into a whole) Educational Psychology: Apply the strategies learned in educational psychology in an organized manner to solve an educational problem. Mathematics: Apply and integrate several different strategies to solve a mathematical problem. English / Language Arts: Write an essay or a poem. 6. Evaluation (Judging the value of a product for a given purpose, using definite criteria) Educational Psychology: Observe another teacher (or yourself) and determine the quality of the teaching performance in terms of the teacher's appropriate application of principles of educational psychology. Mathematics: When you have finished solving a problem (or when a peer has done so) determine the degree to which that problem was solved as efficiently as possible. English / Language Arts: Analyze your own or a peer's essay in terms of the principles of composition discussed during the semester. When to Use a Rubric Rubrics are expensive in terms of the time and energy they require to design and implement. The decision to use a rubric must be weighed carefully. Rubrics are best suited for situations where a wide range of variation exists between what’s considered very proficient and what’s considered not yet proficient. Teachers have found rubrics to be every useful in providing guidance and feedback to students where skills and processes are the targets being monitored. Examples of skills or processes that adapt well to being rubriced include: the writing process, the application of the method of scientific inquiry, thinking skills (i.e. constructing support, compare, problem solving, etc.), and life-long learner skills (i.e. collaborative worker, quality producer, etc.).
  4. 4. Methods other than rubrics are more conducive to monitoring quantities or amounts of factual information known by a learner. These methods may include tests, quizzes, checklists, etc. Helpful Hint: Don’t rubric everything. Some teachers reserve rubrics for processes and skills in which students are having difficulty demonstrating a high degree of proficiency. Others use rubrics to scaffold new performance tasks or introduce new skills and processes. However, or whenever, the decision is made to use a rubric, best results usually occur when students are involved in the work of designing a rubric, as well as in the feedback loop and in the reporting- out to stakeholders process, (i.e., parents, school board members, community, etc.). Analytic Rubrics An analytic rubric resembles a grid or matrix in which the criteria representing the essential learning being assessed is organized in the leftmost column and the levels of achievement are represented in the top row. Analytic rubrics can be created in Excel (and information can easily be aggregated and numerically summarized), with Word's table function, or even just sketched out on a pad of paper. Additionally there are several free (though generally registration is required) on-line generators for rubric creation including iRubric and Rubistar. Regardless of the medium used for creating a rubric the steps are the same. The following steps illustrate how an analytical rubric is created. 1. Determine the various skills and abilities that students should demonstrate to show achievement of the learning outcome(s). These skills and abilities are the various criteria. Each criterion should focus on a different skill identified by a phrase or brief statement, and each criterion should be measureable through the examination of student work. The criteria become the leftmost column of the grid. 2. The next step is to determine the levels of achievement possible given the expectations of what students are to be able to demonstrate. The levels can be numerical categories but more frequently are descriptions, sometimes with an associated number. It is at this stage that the number of columns is determined and the levels of achievement are listed across the top row. 3. The next step in the creation of an analytic rubric is to create descriptions for the criteria along each level of achievement. While sometimes this step is skipped, this is not
  5. 5. recommended as the descriptions are valuable for helping to increase reliability among multiple raters and even for a single rater as s/he assesses the work of different students. Holistic Rubrics When using a holistic rubric the assessor judges the level of performance across all criteria together, instead of separately as is done with an analytic rubric. The steps for creating a holistic rubric are similar to that of the analytical, but do not describe each criteria and level of achievement separately as the scorer will be selecting one holistic score for the entire assignment rather than separate scores for each criterion. In general holistic rubrics are considered faster to create and implement, however, they do not facilitate analysis and feedback in the same way as analytical rubrics. 1. Determine all the skills and abilities students need to demonstrate in order to achieve the learning outcome. Clarity, organization, and grammar. 2. Determine the appropriate levels of accomplishment. Needs improvement, developing, sufficient, and above average. 4. Write an overall description of how a student would demonstrate the learning outcome for each level of accomplishment. When creating a holistic rubric this step cannot be skipped. Advantages of Rubrics in General 1. Forces the teacher to clarify criteria in detail. 2. Useful feedback for the effectiveness of instruction. 3 .Motivates students to reach the standards specified. 4. Narrows the gap between instruction and assessment. 5. Flexible tool, having uses across many contexts, in many grade levels and for a wide range of abilities. 6. Potential to be transferred into grades if necessary. 7. Can offer a method of consistency in scoring by clearly defining the performance criteria.
  6. 6. 8. Giving the child more control of their own learning process. 9. Potential to open communication with caregivers. Disadvantages of Rubrics in General 1.Rubrics can also restrict the students mind power in that they will feel that they need to complete the assignment strictly to the rubric instead of taking the initiative to explore their learning. 2. If the criteria that is in the rubric is too complex, students may feel overwhelmed with the assignment, and little success may be imminent. 3. For the teacher creating the rubric, they may find the task of developing, testing, evaluating, and updating time consuming. What benefits have scoring brought to the teaching learning process? Scoring rubric means in education terminology "a standard of performance for a defined population". Scoring rubrics are used to delineate consistent criteria for grading wherein the criteria are public, this allows teachers and students alike to evaluate criteria, which can be complex and subjective. It can also provide a basis for self-evaluation, reflection, and peer review. Its aim is to have accurate and fair assessment, fostering understanding, and indicating a way to proceed with subsequent learning-teaching process. Scoring rubrics help the teacher to show the students what the goals are and let the students understand why they were given such grade or score. The students will be able to grasp an understanding of their performance in contrast with the prescribed criteria. It will be easier for the teacher to maintain a standard that students should adhere to. BOON OR BANE? Of course, Boon, because it helps to grade the students fairly and just and it can offer also a method of consistency in scoring by clearly defining the performance criteria. Boon of course...developments can never be bane for anyone.....Yes there are good and bad ways to conduct a development...but if its sustainable it is the best.....i think you have watched too much fictional movies like terminator i guess.. It is a boon. Believe me there is a still a lot dearth for doctors especially in the suburbs and taluk places. Quality doctors will mean quality health care. But the key to achieving this success would be to increase the no. Of pg seats too.
  7. 7. They are definitely a good thing when implemented and used properly. Of course, if you have a terrible rubric then this is not useful. It`s usually best when someone directly involved in working with the students who knows what they can achieve and what they are learning has a hand in making the rubric. Rubrics are used to assess how well a student is doing, academically, in certain areas. They are administered by teachers. Boon means the usefulness of the scoring rubrics in the classroom. Bane means the something that cause not useful to used it in the classroom. OBSERVED IN MAKING RUBRICS In making and using score rubrics. first you must have objectives included in the rubrics for a specific activity. a rubric must be definitive, quantitative and objective in nature. the scoring rubric is a device that guides you to keep track the corresponding score or credits that you may give to a particular task. RELATED TO FORTFOLIO Scoring Rubrics is related to portfolio assessment because we rated the performance of a student such as giving them portfolio which compiled their written reports and so on. DIFFICULTY FOR TEACHER Rubrics are important basis for a performance tests, projects or output of the students. A teacher may experience difficulty in adapting rubrics which do not measure the target learning outputs of the students. There will be mismatch between what you taught them and how do you measure their performance. It is best for teacher to review the criteria and scoring of rubrics to match the learning outputs versus the learning assessments.