INTRODUCTION The global system is not just an environmentwithin which particular societies like Indonesiadevelop and change. The social, political and economic connectionswhich cross cut boarders between countriesdecisively condition the fate of those living withineach country. The increasing term in relation to globaleducation for the interdependence of worldsociety is globalization. According to Anthony Giddens (1992),Globalization refers to the development of socialand economic relationships stretching worldwide.
CONTINUATION It would be a mistake to think of globalization simplyas a process of the growth of world unity. Global education should be understood primarily asthe reordering of time and distance in our lives inrelation to learning. We live in a rapidly shifting era in which economicopportunities and challenges are bound. Those whoare educated in the new rules of the game stand to dowell; but those who are not will face real and growingproblems. World-wide developments affecting jobexpectations, health, physical security, public policy,communications, investment opportunities, andimmigration and community relations, are changingthe context of our lives, sometimes in very immediateways.
SCHOOLS AND GLOBALIZATION Today all of us must understand the changes towhich we must respond individually andcollectively. It is not enough to leave the requisitedevelopment of skills to colleges and graduateschools. The capacity to think and act beyond nationaland international contexts cannot be left solely toelites. Educating our citizenry to participate andsucceed in a globally interconnected world muststart in all of our schools(David Driscoll, 2006).
THE TYPES OF EDUCATION Before discussing education in a global society, weneed to clarify what is meant by the term education. A very basic point is that education and schooling arenot synonymous. Education is a more encompassing concept, referringto the general process by which a social group, anentire society or just a family transmits attitudes,beliefs, behaviours and skills to its members. Withinthese broad boundaries, education greatly varies,with educational scholars typically distinguishingthree general categories of education: formal,nonformal and informal education(LaBelle, 1976; Kevin J etal, 1990: 96-97).
GLOBAL EDUCATION Global Education is a lens (or perspective) throughwhich material on the curriculum is viewed. Teachers employ certain methods, outlined herein,which allow the students at any age to employ thislens to illuminate any subject material. Global Education respects environmental needs,peace and justice, and human rights for all throughpositive ways of reaching out to the students’ peers indeveloping countries, and around the world. It transcends subject matter and age level, andthrough focusing on developing global citizens, addsauthenticity to any curriculum.
WHY GLOBAL EDUCATION The challenges today involve forces and activities thattranscend national boundaries. Trade, finance, business, communications,entrepreneurial initiatives, ideologies, migration,environmental and epidemiological events, culturalmovements, and non-governmental systems, nolonger occur solely or even primarily within nations. To understand these emerging forces and their impacton our lives we have to be able to think and actglobally. In the last five years a consortium ofnational educational and business organizations, ledby the Asia Society, has met on a regular basis topromote the case for strengthening global educationin the nations’ public schools.
GOALS OF EDUCATION IN A GLOBAL SOCIETY The following are the goals of education in aglobal society: Understanding connections between local andglobal affairs, Ability to work and think in at least one otherlanguage than one’s own, Ability to understand and respect the cultures ofother peoples, A competent knowledge of global geography andeconomics as well as of at least one majorcultural tradition other than one’s own. An understanding of the concept of globalcitizenship
STRANDS OF EDUCATION IN AGLOBAL SOCIETYGlobal Education can be broken down into four broad strands:1. Development Education; looks at InternationalDevelopment programs and the conditions in developingcountries, examines Indonesia’s international role, andencourages us to address global issues and look criticallyat the notion of “development.”2. Environmental Education; fosters an awareness ofand concern for environmental issues that aid indeveloping new patterns of behaviour that will promoteenvironmental responsibility.3. Human Rights Education; teaches about civil,political, economic and social rights, with the goal ofpromoting social justice for all.4. Peace Education; studies war and disarmament, andencourages movement towards peace both globally and inthe classroom.
KEY ASPECTS OF A GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE Key elements of education within a globalperspective may be used to guide evaluation ofstudent outcomes and school culture. The key to this approach, for schooladministrators particularly, is: The development of a curriculum, Introducing themes and concepts in the primaryyears, Reinforcing the ideas in the junior grades, andexpanding and developing them into theintermediate and secondary years.
IMPORTANT ELEMENTS THE GLOBALPERSPECTIVE Thinking and teaching holistically, incorporatinglearning from one topic or theme to the next Celebrating cultural diversity in the classroom, theschool in Indonesia and the world Encouraging optimism in a troubled world, for societyin general and international development inparticular. Providing opportunities to care for self, for others athome and abroad, and for the global physicalenvironment. Integrating this approach across the curriculaincreases the impact. Teaching critical thinking and problem-solving leadsdirectly to action.
INFUSING A GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE INTOSCHOOL CURRICULUM In this era of globalization, most of our countries’national curriculum frameworks and standardsare necessary to ensure that studentsdemonstrate competence in literacy, numeracy,and each country’s national studies. It is possible for teachers to excite studentlearning while developing the requisite globalskills by infusing a global perspective intoexisting curriculum frameworks.
EXAMPLES OF GLOBAL PERSPECTIVES Social Studies: Integrating teaching about globaleconomics into the geography curriculum. Science/Math: Including relevant globalperspectives and instructional resources inscience and mathematics classes. Interdisciplinary: Providing mid-year specialinterdisciplinary projects or extra-curricularactivities that enable students to become moreknowledgeable about global problems andpossibilities. Foreign Language: Combining the study of asecond language with teaching about the culturein which that language functions.
CONTINUATION English/Social Studies: Strengtheningcomparative understanding, e.g. by studyinglinkages between a country’s and world history orthematic comparisons in a given country’sliterature and another major literary tradition. Foreign Language: Giving greater opportunity,significance and continuity to foreign languageinstruction at the middle school and high schoollevels. This is one skill set that needs to bestarted as early as possible in a student’seducation. English: Studying literature that reflectscosmopolitan and global views and values.
CONTINUATION Arts: Using art, music, and dance to engagestudents in learning about other cultures. Foreign Languages: Engaging the culturallydiverse groups of students that are found in somany of today’s classrooms in social studiespresentations and discussions, in foreignlanguage classes, or in topics discussed in ModelUN forums.
EDUCATORS SEEKING FOREFFECTIVE INSTRUCTIONALRESOURCES Educators can capitalize on effective resources fromoutside the schools to engage students by: Utilizing the vast research base available on theinternet. Engaging in school-to-school and/or peer-basedcollaborative projects through appropriateorganizations. For instance, exchange programmes and the GlobalClassroom Project etc. Developing an exchange relationship with a school orschool system in another country (either virtual orreal). Arranging for student study tours or semester studyto abroad
SOME EXAMPLES OF HOW PROVINCES ORSCHOOLS HAVE ENGAGED IN GLOBALEDUCATION Indonesia’s student exchange program Indonesia’s partnership programmes with othercountries like the ADF at UPI, AMNEF and etc. Universities like UPI have established anddeveloped links with foreign Universities,Coordination of International Educationconferences, to promote and support globaleducation and international school exchanges. UPI has established standards for internationaleducation and significantly increasedenrollments in world languages and cultureexchange programmes.
WHY TEACH WITH A GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE? Students learn to respect, to value and tocelebrate other cultures. Students learn about developing and developedcountries and their issues in a positive way. Students become socially and environmentallyresponsible, by learning about theirinterdependence with other peoples and species.
CONTINUATION Many Provincial curriculum documentsencourage a global perspective. Students gain a positive outlook on their role inmaking the world a more peaceful and just place Global Education enriches any curriculum byclarifying the connections to real life.(Source: adapted from CHF at www.chf.ca)
CONTINUATION Universities are creating projects to globalizetheir curriculums under partnership andconsultancy. Indonesia’s national education department hasdeveloped guidelines to infuse global perspectivesinto the study of geography, history, civics andeconomics at the elementary, Junior and seniorhigh schools. Education teaching guides have been developedto provide instruction which often includes aglobal perspective.
CONCLUSIONCurriculum units can be infused with a globalperspective in a myriad of ways. For example,through using Pike and Selby’s four dimensionsof globality in Pike, G. & Selby, D.,(1999) In TheGlobal Classroom pp. 12-14.