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Hormone pp


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Hormone pp

  1. 1. Hormones The Chemicals of Stress and Love.
  2. 2. I.B. Learning Outcome  B7- Using one or more examples, explain functions of two hormones in human behavior.  I can explain the difference between a neurotransmitter and hormone.  I can explain the impact that oxytocin and cortisol have on human behavior.
  3. 3. Hormones  Chemical substances, secreted by organs called glands, that affect the functioning of other organs.
  4. 4. Hormones vs. Neurotransmitters  Neurotransmitters are released in the brain  Hormones are released by glands in the body.  When hormones are active in the brain, they serve as neurotransmitters.  Assume cortisol and oxytocin are hormones.
  5. 5. Stress Questions  What are stressors in your life?  What is it like when you are under stress? Is there a difference between short-term and long-term stress?  How do you deal with stress?
  6. 6. Stress: Fight or Flight 1. Oh geez…ZOMBIE!!!!! 2. Eyes and Ears send information to the A(HHH!!)mygdala. 1. If danger, Amygdala sends a message to the Hypothalamus. 2. Hypothalamus sends signal to the Adrenal Gland to release epinephrine. 3. Epinephrine increases heart rate, lung capacity increase. Ready for action. 4. If danger continues, the body releases cortisol. This allows the body to regain energy lost from the adrenaline burst and return to homeostasis.
  7. 7. Example #1: Cortisol  Stress hormone  Produced in adrenal gland  Designed to return the body to homeostasis following a stressful event.  Some cortisol is good.  Chronic stress and continual release of cortisol is bad.
  8. 8. McEwen et al. (2006)  Learning Outcome: B8: Environment & Physiology  Aim: To determine the impact of chronic stress on neural structure  Method:  Control: Rats in cages with two other rats.  Treatment: Rats who were placed in highly stressful restraints for 6 hour each day for 21 days.  On the 22nd day, all rats were euthanized and their brains dissected.
  9. 9. McEwen et al. (2006) Continued  Findings: The treatment rats had weakened dendrites in their frontal lobes and hippocampus. They also had stronger neural connections in their amygdala.  Conclusions: Chronic stress brought about by isolation weakens the frontal lobe and hippocampus, while strengthening the amygdala.  Critical Thinking?
  10. 10. Hippocampus Neurons
  11. 11. Bremner et al. (2003)  Learning Outcome: B8, B10, (B5, B7)  Aim: To investigate whether prolonged stress (PTSD) reduces the volume of the hippocampus.  Method:  Participants: War veterans and female adults who were sexually abused as children. (Some had PTSD, but not all)  Took MRI scans of brains and had participants take a memory test.
  12. 12. Bremner et al. (2003) continued  Finding: Veterans with the most memory problems had the smallest hippocampus.  The Hippocampus of PTSD suffers was smaller than a control group.  Conclusions: Chronic stress reduces the volume of the hippocampus and impairs memory.  Critical Thinking:  Small Sample Size  Small Hippocampus leads to PTSD?
  13. 13. Newcomer et al (1999)  Learning Outcome: B7 & B9  Hormone: Cortisol  Aim: To determine the role of cortisol on memory.  Method: Double-Blind study that had asked three groups to take varying levels of cortisol over a four day period and tested their ability to remember verbal information. 1. High Level: Tablet of 160 mg Cortisol each day…simulates a major stressful event. 2. Low Level: Tablet of 40 mg of Cortisol each day…Simulated a minor stressful event. 3. Placebo: Tablet with no active ingredient.
  14. 14. Newcomer et al. (1999) continued Findings:  The High Level group performed worse on the memory test than the Low Level group.  The Low Level group showed no memory decrease when compared with the placebo group. Conclusions: High Levels of cortisol have a negative impact on a person’s ability to recall verbal data.
  15. 15. Love Discussion Questions  How is being in love similar to addiction?  What advice would you have for someone who is in love? Heartbroken?  Does this change the way you think about love? Human behavior?  Would “Love Drugs” be ethical? Would you want to take them?  Would you be interested in seeing how you or your partner reacts on a biological level to you? Why or why not?
  16. 16. Example #2: Oxytocin  Released by the pituitary gland.  Only exists in mammals.  Acts primarily as a neurotransmitter.  Involved in building bonds, trust, and generosity.  The coolest hormone ever!
  17. 17. Feldman et al. (2012)  Hormone: Oxytocin  Aim: To investigate the role of Oxytocin in early relationships in young adults.  Method:  Measured the oxytocin levels of 120 young adults (60 couples of 3 months) and 43 singles.  Measured oxytocin levels of the same participants six months later.
  18. 18. Feldman et al. (2012)  Findings:  Oxytocin levels were higher for the new couples than the single individuals.  High Oxytocin levels at the first test correlated with couples staying together after 6 months.  High Oxytocin predicted more affectionate touch, reciprocity, positive emotions, and worries about the partner and relationship.  Conclusion: Oxytocin plays a key role in the formation of new romantic relationships among young adults.  Critical Thinking:  Did not test Oxytocin before falling in love...  Ecological Validity?
  19. 19. Ditzen (2013)  Hormone: Oxytocin  Aim: To determine the impact of oxytocin on couples’ communication.  Method: Had couples either spray oxytocin or a placebo up their nose and engage in a high stress conversation.
  20. 20. Ditzen (2013) Continued  Findings:  Oxytocin improved communication and lowered levels of cortisol.  Women: showed less social stress  Men: showed more social stress and were more engaged in the conversation (Eye contact, smiling, etc.)  Conclusions: Oxytocin impacts the ways that couples communicate.
  21. 21. Nakajima et al. (2014)  Aim: To determine the role of oxytocin in female rats interest levels in male rats.  Method: Gave a group of female rats a chemical that blocked the receptor sites of oxytocin in the frontal lobe.  Finding: The females showed almost no interest in males and even showed equal attention to a LEGO block.  Conclusion: Oxytocin is responsible for sexual interest in female rats.