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Researh design and conceptual framework

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Researh design and conceptual framework

  1. 1. An Overview of Research Design and Conceptual Framework Achyut Raj Pandey Research Officer Nepal Health Research Council1 An Overview of Research Design and Conceptual Framework
  2. 2. Research DesignResearch Design
  3. 3. ManipulationManipulation RandomizationRandomization Study TypeStudy Type ExperimentalExperimental Pre ExperimentalPre Experimental ObservationalObservational YesYes YesYes NoNo NoNo NoNo YesYes Quasi-experimentalQuasi-experimental
  4. 4. Observational study EcologicalEcologicalCross Sectional, case control or cohort Unit of Study ObservationObservation Ecological Cohort StudyCohort Study ObservationObservation Data on exposure and outcome collected simultaneously Data on exposure and outcome collected simultaneously Outcome determined, data collection retrospectively for exposure Outcome determined, data collection retrospectively for exposure Cross-sectionalCross-sectional Case-ControlCase-Control Prospective Retrospective Ambispective
  5. 5. Pre and Quasi Experimental Research Design Control Group Pre-experimentalPre-experimental Quasi Experimental No Yes Non Equivalent group DesignNon Equivalent group Design InterventionInterventionStudy TypeStudy Type Post testPost testPretestPretest Post test only design (Without control) Post test only design (Without control) NoNo YesYes YesYes Pre test-Post test design (Without control) Pre test-Post test design (Without control) YesYes YesYes YesYes Non Equivalent group DesignNon Equivalent group Design Regression Discontinuity DesignRegression Discontinuity Design Proxy Pretest DesignProxy Pretest Design
  6. 6. True Experimental Designs Posttest-Only Control Group Design Posttest-Only Control Group Design Pretest-Posttest Control Group Design Pretest-Posttest Control Group Design InterventionIntervention Post testPost testPretestPretest NoNo YesYes YesYes NoNo NoNo YesYes GroupGroup InterventionIntervention ControlControl YesYes YesYes YesYesInterventionIntervention Types Pretest-Posttest Control Group Design Pretest-Posttest Control Group Design Solomon Four- Group Design Solomon Four- Group Design YesYes NoNo YesYes Intervention ControlControl YesYes YesYes YesYes NoNo YesYes YesYes Intervention 1Intervention 1 Intervention 2Intervention 2 YesYes NoNo YesYes NoNo NoNo YesYes Control 1Control 1 Control 2Control 2
  7. 7. Experimental study Unit of studyUnit of study Community TrialCommunity TrialClinical TrialClinical Trial Parallel DesignParallel Design GroupIndividual Cross-over DesignCross-over Design Factorial DesignFactorial Design
  8. 8. Identifying Research Design for the Study Identifying Research Design for the Study
  9. 9. Factors influencing research design There is no best type of research design. It depends on: • Purpose/area of the study • Strength of evidence desirable • Time and resource available • Ethics There is no best type of research design. It depends on: • Purpose/area of the study • Strength of evidence desirable • Time and resource available • Ethics
  10. 10. Purpose/area of the study Cross sectional Case Control Cohort Rare disease - +++++ - Rare Cause - - +++++ Multiple Endpoints ++ - +++++ Multiple exposure(including confounding) +++ ++++ +++aMultiple exposure(including confounding) +++ ++++ +++a Temporal sequence - +b +++++ Direct measurement of incidence - +b +++++ Long induction period + +++++ +++c +++++= Highly Suitable, ++++=Very Suitable, +++=Suitable, ++= Moderately Suitable, +=Limited suitability, -=Not suitable a= if prospective, b=if nested in cohort or combined with incidence study c=if retrospective
  11. 11. Strength of evidence desired
  12. 12. Time and resource available European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) -521,457 healthy adults, mostly aged 35–70 years, were enrolled in 23 centers in ten European countries: Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, The Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom -Recruitment to the study took place between 1993 and 1999 -Up to 2004, there were over 26,000 new cases of cancer recorded among participants -Several Articles published on stomach, colorectal, breast, prostate and lung cancers European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) -521,457 healthy adults, mostly aged 35–70 years, were enrolled in 23 centers in ten European countries: Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, The Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom -Recruitment to the study took place between 1993 and 1999 -Up to 2004, there were over 26,000 new cases of cancer recorded among participants -Several Articles published on stomach, colorectal, breast, prostate and lung cancers
  13. 13. Time and resource available Framingham Heart Study -The study began in 1948 with 5,209 adult subjects -Study had been intended to last 20 years, the study continued, and in 1971, it enrolled a second generation of participants -April 2002, a third generation was enrolled in the core study -Over 1000 medical papers have been published related to the Framingham Heart Study. Other: British Doctors study(1951), Nurses’ Health Study(1976) Framingham Heart Study -The study began in 1948 with 5,209 adult subjects -Study had been intended to last 20 years, the study continued, and in 1971, it enrolled a second generation of participants -April 2002, a third generation was enrolled in the core study -Over 1000 medical papers have been published related to the Framingham Heart Study. Other: British Doctors study(1951), Nurses’ Health Study(1976)
  14. 14. Ethics • Human Experimentation in Nazi Concentration Camp • Study on Natural study of disease: Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment (1932 and 1972) 1947, penicillin had become the standard treatment for syphilis 1979 Belmont Report and the establishment of the Office for Human Research Protections (OHRP) • Willowbrook State School study on Hepatitis(1947) • Human Experimentation in Nazi Concentration Camp • Study on Natural study of disease: Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment (1932 and 1972) 1947, penicillin had become the standard treatment for syphilis 1979 Belmont Report and the establishment of the Office for Human Research Protections (OHRP) • Willowbrook State School study on Hepatitis(1947)
  15. 15. Research Design Selection Objective Appropriate Research design Prevalence Cross-sectional Incidence Cohort Cause Cohort,Case-control,Cross- sectional Prognosis Cohort Treatment effect Controlled trial
  16. 16. Conceptual FrameworkConceptual Framework
  17. 17. What is a conceptual framework? A written or visual presentation that: -explains either graphically, or in narrative form, the main things to be studied – the key factors, concepts or variables -and the presumed relationship among them. A written or visual presentation that: -explains either graphically, or in narrative form, the main things to be studied – the key factors, concepts or variables -and the presumed relationship among them.
  18. 18. The conceptualization part of the research process might well be called the thinking part of the research while the factual part of the research process is more related to the doing aspect. The conceptualization part of the research process might well be called the thinking part of the research while the factual part of the research process is more related to the doing aspect.
  19. 19. Conceptual framework should cover • Establishment of the tentative relationships between the dependent and independent variables included in the study. • Visualizing conceptual causal threads to form a representation of inter-relatedness among the identified issues or variables. • Establishment of the tentative relationships between the dependent and independent variables included in the study. • Visualizing conceptual causal threads to form a representation of inter-relatedness among the identified issues or variables.
  20. 20. Conceptual framework should cover • What are the assumptions? What are the relationships? • Identification of possible answers to the research questions? How are the possible answers to the question explained and defended? • What are the assumptions? What are the relationships? • Identification of possible answers to the research questions? How are the possible answers to the question explained and defended?
  21. 21. Where does the conceptual framework fit in - Research? • Research problem: • Aims and objectives: • Literature review: • Conceptual framework: • Research questions: • Data collection and analysis: • Interpretation of the results: • Evaluation of the research: The issue of theoretical or practical interest. What we want to know and how the answer may be built up. A critical and evaluative review of the thoughts and experiences of others. Provides the structure/content for the whole study based on literature and personal experience Specific questions that require answers. Methodology, methods and analysis. Making sense of the results. Revisit conceptual framework. • Research problem: • Aims and objectives: • Literature review: • Conceptual framework: • Research questions: • Data collection and analysis: • Interpretation of the results: • Evaluation of the research: The issue of theoretical or practical interest. What we want to know and how the answer may be built up. A critical and evaluative review of the thoughts and experiences of others. Provides the structure/content for the whole study based on literature and personal experience Specific questions that require answers. Methodology, methods and analysis. Making sense of the results. Revisit conceptual framework.
  22. 22. Purpose • Identify relevant variables • Define variables • Have an idea of analysis • Identify relevant variables • Define variables • Have an idea of analysis
  23. 23. Concepts and theories A theory is used in the broad sense to refer to an abstraction which summarizes and explains phenomena. Concepts are mental images or ideas relating to phenomena or objects that share common properties. A theory is used in the broad sense to refer to an abstraction which summarizes and explains phenomena. Concepts are mental images or ideas relating to phenomena or objects that share common properties.
  24. 24. Conceptual framework and Theoretical Framework Conceptual Framework Theoretical Framework Genesis Created from a variety of conceptual and theoretical perspectives Adapted from existing theory Created from a variety of conceptual and theoretical perspectives Conceptual Meaning Synthesis of relevant concepts Application of a theory as a whole or in part Underlining process Inductive Deductive
  25. 25. How to draw a conceptual framework? • If you drew a picture of your statistical model, this would be a conceptual framework because it visualizes the variables and how they are related. • Generally Framework may include one outcome and multiple hypothesized associated factors • If you drew a picture of your statistical model, this would be a conceptual framework because it visualizes the variables and how they are related. • Generally Framework may include one outcome and multiple hypothesized associated factors
  26. 26. Steps in developing conceptual framework 1. Identifying the relevant concepts. 2. Defining those concepts. 3. Operationalising the concepts. 4. Identifying any moderating or intervening variables. 5. Identifying the relationship between variables. 1. Identifying the relevant concepts. 2. Defining those concepts. 3. Operationalising the concepts. 4. Identifying any moderating or intervening variables. 5. Identifying the relationship between variables.
  27. 27. How does it look? It can take the form of Equation or a diagram or may simply description of how the variables are related. Diagram may take the form of • Overlapping domains framework • Sequential framework • Ecological framework It can take the form of Equation or a diagram or may simply description of how the variables are related. Diagram may take the form of • Overlapping domains framework • Sequential framework • Ecological framework
  28. 28. Conceptual framework as an equation A B C Diarrhea= ß1(Age)+ ß2(Sex)+ß3(Toilet)+ ß4(Water)
  29. 29. Conceptual framework as Overlapping domains Domain A Domain C Domain B
  30. 30. Conceptual framework as Overlapping domains Genetic factor Environmental Factors Pollution Temperature Individual Factors Age, Sex, bathing habits Hair fall
  31. 31. Conceptual framework as sequential diagram Distal Determinants Proximate Determinants Outcome Sub- domain Condition Domain A Sub- domain Sub- domain Domain B Sub- domain
  32. 32. Figure 1. Conceptual framework on the relationship between malnutrition, infections and poverty. Rytter MJH, Kolte L, Briend A, Friis H, Christensen VB (2014) The Immune System in Children with Malnutrition—A Systematic Review. PLoS ONE 9(8): e105017. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0105017 http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0105017
  33. 33. Conceptual framework as ecological model • Dahlberg LL, Krug EG. Violence-a global public health problem. In: Krug E, Dahlberg LL, Mercy JA, Zwi AB, Lozano R, eds. World Report on Violence and Health. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization; 2002:1–56 • Dahlberg LL, Krug EG. Violence-a global public health problem. In: Krug E, Dahlberg LL, Mercy JA, Zwi AB, Lozano R, eds. World Report on Violence and Health. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization; 2002:1–56 Ref: Dahlberg LL, Krug EG. Violence-a global public health problem. In: Krug E, Dahlberg LL, Mercy JA, Zwi AB, Lozano R, eds. World Report on Violence and Health. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization; 2002:1–56
  34. 34. Example: Conceptual framework as ecological model Violence against women
  35. 35. Development of conceptual framework is an iterative process, develop once and keep revising as you move on Development of conceptual framework is an iterative process, develop once and keep revising as you move on
  36. 36. Thank YouThank You

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