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ادارة المخازن

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ادارة المخازن

  1. 1. ‫اﻟﻤﺨﺰون‬ ‫إدارة‬ ‫إﻋﺪاد‬:‫ﻣﺤﻤﺪ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﻣﺢ‬ ‫أﻋﻤﺎل‬ ‫إدارة‬ ‫ﻣﺎﺟﺴﺘﯿﺮ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻧﺸﺮھﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﻢ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻘﺎﻻت‬ ‫ھﺬه‬: ‫اﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﯿﺔ‬ ‫واﻟﮭﻨﺪﺳﺔ‬ ‫اﻹدارة‬ ‫ﻣﻮﻗﻊ‬ com.wordpress.samehar://http 2008 ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺆﻟﻒ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﻔﻮﻇﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﺸﺮ‬ ‫ﺣﻘﻮق‬
  2. 2. ‫اﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﯿﺔ‬ ‫واﻟﮭﻨﺪﺳﺔ‬ ‫اﻹدارة‬ ‫ﻣﻮﻗﻊ‬ 2 ‫اﻟﻤﺤﺘﻮﯾﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺨﺰون‬ ‫إدارة‬-‫ﻣﻘﺪﻣﺔ‬3 ‫اﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎدي‬ ‫اﻟﻄﻠﺒﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﺠﻢ‬8 ‫اﻟﻜﻤﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﺨﻔﯿﻀﺎت‬ ‫وﺟﻮد‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪ‬ ‫اﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎدي‬ ‫اﻟﻄﻠﺒﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﺠﻢ‬16 ‫اﻟﻤﺨﺰون‬ ‫إدارة‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺷﺎﺋﻌﺔ‬ ‫أﺧﻄﺎء‬23
  3. 3. ‫اﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﯿﺔ‬ ‫واﻟﮭﻨﺪﺳﺔ‬ ‫اﻹدارة‬ ‫ﻣﻮﻗﻊ‬ 3 ‫اﻟﻤﺨﺰون‬ ‫إدارة‬-‫ﻣﻘﺪﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺎﯾﻮ‬26,2007‫ﻓﻲ‬6:17‫م‬· ‫اﻟﻤﺨﺰون‬Inventory or Stock‫اﻷﺷﯿﺎء‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ھﻮ‬‫ﻋﻨﮭﺎ‬ ‫اﻻﺳﺘﻐﻨﺎء‬ ‫ﯾﻤﻜﻦ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻲ‬‫ﻣﻌﻈﻢ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺪﻣﯿﺔ‬ ‫واﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﺎت‬ ‫اﻹﻧﺘﺎج‬ ‫وﻣﺴﺘﻠﺰﻣﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺎم‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﻮاد‬ ‫ﺑﻤﺨﺰون‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺘﻔﻆ‬ ‫اﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻼﺑﺲ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺤﻼت‬ ‫واﻟﻤﻼﺑﺲ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﻄﺎﻋﻢ‬ ‫اﻷﻃﻌﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺜﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺪﻣﺎت‬ ‫ھﺬه‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻮاد‬ ‫ﻟﺒﻌﺾ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺘﺎج‬ ‫وھﻜﺬا‬.‫أداء‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ذﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﺗﺄﺛﯿﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺮﻏﻢ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻨﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫اﻻھﺘﻤﺎم‬ ‫ﯾﻠﻘﻰ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﻗﺪ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺨﺰون‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬ ‫وﻟﻜﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ‬.‫أﺧﺮى‬ ‫ﻣﺸﻜﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﯾﺸﻜﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺨﺰون‬ ‫ُﻘﺼﺎن‬‫ﻧ‬‫و‬ ‫ﻣﺸﻜﻠﺔ‬ ‫ُﺸﻜﻞ‬‫ﺗ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺨﺰون‬ ‫ﻓﺰﯾﺎدة‬.‫اﻟ‬ ‫ﻓﻨﻘﺼﺎن‬‫ﯾﺆدي‬ ‫ﻤﺨﺰون‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺔ‬ ‫واﺳﺘﻐﻼل‬ ‫اﻟﺰاﺋﺪ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺨﺰون‬ ‫ﻗﯿﻤﺔ‬ ‫اﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎر‬ ‫ﻋﺪم‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻨﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺨﺰون‬ ‫زﯾﺎدة‬ ‫ﺑﯿﻨﻤﺎ‬ ‫اﻹﻧﺘﺎج‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻄﻞ‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻓﺎﺋﺪة‬ ‫ﺑﺪون‬ ‫ﺗﺨﺰﯾﻨﯿﺔ‬.‫ﻹﺻﺪار‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻨﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫واﻟﻮﻗﺖ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺜﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺨﺰون‬ ‫ﻗﯿﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺪﯾﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﺸﻜﻠﺔ‬ ‫داﺋﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻧﻮاﺟﮫ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻧﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﺬﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﺗﻮرﯾﺪ‬ ‫أﻣﺮ‬ ‫ﻟﻜﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺜﻠﻰ‬ ‫واﻟﻜﻤﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﻮردﯾﻦ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻮرﯾﺪ‬ ‫أﻣﺮ‬ ‫ﻧﺤﺘﻔ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺎذا‬‫ﺑﺎﻟﻤﺨﺰون‬ ‫ﻆ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺘﺠﺎﺗﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺤﺘﻤﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﻄﻠﺐ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﻮاﺟﮭﺔ‬:‫اﻟﻤﻨﺘﺠﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﻜﻤﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺘﻔﻆ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻈﻢ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻤﻼء‬ ‫ﻃﻠﺒﺎت‬ ‫ﻟﻤﻮاﺟﮭﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﮭﺎﺋﯿﺔ‬.‫ﻟﻤﻮاﺟﮭﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﻤﺨﺰون‬ ‫ﯾﺤﺘﻔﻈﻮن‬ ‫واﻟﺘﺠﺰﺋﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺠﻤﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺋﻌﻲ‬ ‫ﻓﺈن‬ ‫ﻛﺬﻟﻚ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻤﻼء‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺘﻮﻗﻌﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻄﻠﺒﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻮﺳﻤﯿﺔ‬ ‫أو‬ ‫اﻟﻔﺠﺎﺋﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻄﻠﺒﺎت‬ ‫ﻟﻤﻮاﺟﮭﺔ‬:‫أن‬ ‫اﻟﺼﻌﺐ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﯾﻜﻮن‬ ‫ﻗﺪ‬‫ﺗﻨﺘﺞ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻮم‬ ‫اﻟﺼﯿﻒ‬ ‫ﺑﻤﻮﺳﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺗﺒﻄﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺘﺠﺎت‬-‫ﻣﺜﻼ‬-‫ﻓﻘﻂ‬ ‫اﻟﺼﯿﻒ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺑﺘﺼﻨﯿﻌﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻮم‬ ‫أن‬.‫اﻟﻤﻨﺘﺠﺎت‬ ‫ھﺬه‬ ‫ﺗﻠﺠﺄ‬ ‫ﻟﺬﻟﻚ‬ ‫اﻟﺸﺘﺎء‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺰوﻧﺎ‬ ‫ھﻨﺎك‬ ‫ﯾﻜﻮن‬ ‫وﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺎم‬ ‫ﻃﻮال‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺼﻨﯿﻊ‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬. ‫ﺑﺒﻌﻀﮭﺎ‬ ‫اﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺮاﺣﻞ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﺄﺛﺮ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﻟﻜﻲ‬:‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻛﺒﯿﺮا‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺰوﻧﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﺪﯾﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﯾﻜﻮن‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ‬‫اﻟﻤﻨﺘﺠﺎت‬ ‫ھﻨﺎك‬ ‫ﻷن‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺎﻟﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺮﺣﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﺆﺛﺮ‬ ‫ﻟﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ‬ ‫اﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺮﺣﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﺸﻜﻠﺔ‬ ‫أي‬ ‫ﻓﺈن‬ ‫ﻣﺼﻨﻌﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﺼﻒ‬ ‫ﻃﻮﯾﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻔﺘﺮة‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺎﻟﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺮﺣﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﺸﻐﯿﻞ‬ ‫ﯾﻜﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺰوﻧﺎ‬.‫اﻟﻔﺎﻗﺪ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻠﯿﻞ‬ ‫ﺳﯿﺎﺳﺔ‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ﻻﺣﻆ‬Just In Time ‫ﺑﻌﻀ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺮاﺣﻞ‬ ‫اﻋﺘﻤﺎد‬ ‫ﻟﺰﯾﺎدة‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺨﺰون‬ ‫ھﺬا‬ ‫ﺑﺘﻘﻠﯿﻞ‬ ‫ﺟﺪا‬ ‫ﺗﮭﺘﻢ‬‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠﯿﻦ‬ ‫ُﺤﻔﺰ‬‫ﯾ‬ ‫ﻣﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﮭﺎ‬ ‫اﻹﻧﺘﺎج‬ ‫ﻣﺸﺎﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﺣﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺠﻢ‬ ‫وﻓﻮرات‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻟﻼﺳﺘﻔﺎدة‬:‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻧﺘﻤﻜﻦ‬ ‫ﻓﻘﺪ‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺎم‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻮاد‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻛﺒﯿﺮة‬ ‫ﻛﻤﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻧﺸﺘﺮي‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻌﺮ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﺨﻔﯿﺾ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺼﻮل‬.‫ﻧﺘﻤﺘﻊ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻧﻨﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ‬ ‫ﻧﻔﺲ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻛﺒﯿﺮة‬ ‫ﻛﻤﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻧﻨﺘﺞ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺎل‬ ‫ﻛﺬﻟﻚ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺠﻢ‬ ‫ﺑﻮﻓﻮرات‬.‫ﻛﻤﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﺸﺮاء‬ ‫ﺗﻠﺠﺄ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﺎت‬ ‫ﻓﺈن‬ ‫ﻟﺬﻟﻚ‬‫ﻛﻤﯿﺎت‬ ‫وﺗﺼﻨﯿﻊ‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺎم‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻮاد‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻛﺒﯿﺮة‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ‬ ‫ﻧﻔﺲ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻛﺒﯿﺮة‬.‫ﻟﺰﯾﺎدة‬ ‫ﯾﺆدي‬ ‫ﻷﻧﮫ‬ ‫ﻣﻔﯿﺪ‬ ‫ﻏﯿﺮ‬ ‫ﺗﺼﺮﻓﺎ‬ ‫ھﺬا‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺘﺒﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﻔﺎﻗﺪ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻠﯿﻞ‬ ‫ﺳﯿﺎﺳﺔ‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ﻻﺣﻆ‬ ‫اﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺸﺎﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﻹھﻤﺎل‬ ‫ﺗﺆدي‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺨﺰون‬.
  4. 4. ‫اﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﯿﺔ‬ ‫واﻟﮭﻨﺪﺳﺔ‬ ‫اﻹدارة‬ ‫ﻣﻮﻗﻊ‬ 4 ‫ﻣﺘﻮﻗﻌﺔ‬ ‫أﻣﻮرا‬ ‫ﻟﻤﻮاﺟﮭﺔ‬:‫ﻓﺈﻧﮭﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺎم‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻮاد‬ ‫أﺳﻌﺎر‬ ‫زﯾﺎدة‬ ‫اﺣﺘﻤﺎﻟﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﺎت‬ ‫ﺗﺘﻮﻗﻊ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﻔﻀ‬‫اﻟﻤﻮاد‬ ‫ھﺬه‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺰوﻧﮭﺎ‬ ‫زﯾﺎدة‬ ‫ﻞ‬.‫اﻟﺨﺎم‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻮاد‬ ‫إﻣﺪاد‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻮﻗﻒ‬ ‫اﺣﺘﻤﺎﻟﯿﺔ‬ ‫ھﻨﺎك‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻮن‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﻛﺬﻟﻚ‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺎم‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻮاد‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﻗﺪر‬ ‫ﺗﺨﺰﯾﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺎول‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﺎت‬ ‫ﻓﺈن‬. ‫اﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻤﻠﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻄﺒﯿﻌﺔ‬:‫اﻷﺣﻮال‬ ‫ﺟﻤﯿﻊ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻧﮫ‬ ‫وﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ‬ ‫وﻗﺘﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﺘﻐﺮق‬ ‫اﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻤﻠﯿﺎت‬ ‫اﻟ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺼﻨﯿﻊ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺖ‬ ‫ﻣﻮاد‬ ‫ﻟﺪﯾﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﺳﺘﻜﻮن‬‫اﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻤﺮاﺣﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻘﻞ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﯿﺎت‬ ‫ﻟﻄﺒﯿﻌﺔ‬:‫وﻗﺘﺎ‬ ‫ﯾﺴﺘﻐﺮق‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻤﯿﻞ‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻮرد‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﮭﺎﺋﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ‬ ‫ﻧﻘﻞ‬ ‫ﻻن‬ ‫ﻧﻈﺮا‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﻠﯿﻢ‬ ‫اﺗﻔﺎﻗﯿﺎت‬ ‫ﺣﺴﺐ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻮرد‬ ‫أو‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻤﯿﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺰون‬ ‫ﺿﻤﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﯾﻜﻮن‬ ‫اﻟﻮﻗﺖ‬ ‫ھﺬا‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻧﮫ‬. ‫وﻗﺘﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﺘﻐﺮق‬ ‫اﻟﺸﺮاء‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻷن‬:‫اﻟﻮﻗﺖ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺾ‬ ‫ﻧﻨﺘﻈﺮ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻧﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﺧﺎم‬ ‫ﻣﻮاد‬ ‫ﺷﺮاء‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻧﺘﻤﻜﻦ‬ ‫ﻟﻜﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻮرﯾﺪ‬ ‫ﯾﺘﻢ‬ ‫ﺣﺘﻰ‬.‫اﻟﻤﻮاد‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫أﺧﺮى‬ ‫ﻛﻤﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺼﻠﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﺣﺘﻰ‬ ‫ﯾﻜﻔﯿﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﻤﺨﺰون‬ ‫ﻧﺤﺘﻔﻆ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻧﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﺬﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﻓﻘﻂ‬ ‫اﻟﻀﺮوري‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻤﺨﺰون‬ ‫ﻧﺤﺘﻔﻆ‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ﻓﻌﻠﯿﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻄﺒﻊ‬ ‫ھﺎﺋﻞ؟‬ ‫ﺑﻤﺨﺰون‬ ‫ﻧﺤﺘﻔﻆ‬ ‫ﺗﺠﻌﻠﻨﺎ‬ ‫اﻷﺳﺒﺎب‬ ‫ھﺬه‬ ‫ھﻞ‬.‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺨﺰون‬ ‫زﯾﺎدة‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﺄﺛﯿﺮھﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻠﯿﻞ‬ ‫ﯾﻤﻜﻨﻨﺎ‬ ‫اﻷﺳﺒﺎب‬ ‫ھﺬه‬ ‫ﻛﻞ‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ﻧﻼﺣﻆ‬ ‫أن‬ ‫اﻟﻤﮭﻢ‬.‫أﻣ‬ ‫ﻟﻮ‬ ‫ﻓﻤﺜﻼ‬‫دراﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﻜﻨﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﻘﻂ‬ ‫اﻟﻄﻠﺒﺎت‬ ‫ھﺬه‬ ‫ﯾﻜﻔﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺬي‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻤﺨﺰون‬ ‫اﻻﺣﺘﻔﺎظ‬ ‫ﻧﺴﺘﻄﯿﻊ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻧﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﺟﯿﺪ‬ ‫ﺑﺸﻜﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻤﻼء‬ ‫ﻃﻠﺒﺎت‬ ‫وﺗﻮﻗﻊ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻮق‬. ‫وﺑﻨﺎء‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎت‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﯿﺎ‬ ‫واﺳﺘﺨﺪام‬ ‫اﻟﺸﺮاء‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﯿﺴﯿﺮ‬ ‫ﻃﺮﯾﻖ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻮاد‬ ‫ﺗﻮرﯾﺪ‬ ‫ﻓﺘﺮة‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻠﯿﻞ‬ ‫أﻣﻜﻨﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﻮ‬ ‫ﻟﻼﺣﺘﻔﺎظ‬ ‫ﻣﻀﻄﺮﯾﻦ‬ ‫ﻧﻜﻮن‬ ‫ﻓﻠﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻮردﯾﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫اﻷﺟﻞ‬ ‫ﻃﻮﯾﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻼﻗﺎت‬‫ﻃﻮﯾﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻔﺘﺮات‬ ‫ﯾﻜﻔﯿﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﻤﺨﺰون‬.‫ﻗﻤﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﻮ‬ ‫ﻟﻌﺪة‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﺼﻨﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻧﺼﻒ‬ ‫ﺑﻤﻨﺘﺠﺎت‬ ‫ﻧﺤﺘﻔﻆ‬ ‫ﻓﻠﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺸﺎﻛﻠﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫واﻟﺘﻐﻠﺐ‬ ‫اﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻤﻠﯿﺎت‬ ‫أداء‬ ‫ﺑﺘﺤﺴﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﺴﯿﻂ‬ ‫ﻟﻮﻗﺖ‬ ‫ﯾﻜﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺰوﻧﺎ‬ ‫ﺳﯿﻜﻔﯿﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﻞ‬ ‫ﺷﮭﻮر‬.‫ﻓﺈﻧﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﺟﺪﯾﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺘﺞ‬ ‫ﻹﻧﺘﺎج‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺎﻛﯿﻨﺎت‬ ‫ﺗﻀﺒﯿﻂ‬ ‫وﻗﺖ‬ ‫ﺑﺘﻘﻠﯿﻞ‬ ‫ﻗﻤﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﻮ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺠﻢ‬ ‫وﻓﻮرات‬ ‫ﺑﺄﻣﺮ‬ ‫ﻛﺜﯿﺮا‬ ‫ﻧﮭﺘﻢ‬ ‫ﻟﻦ‬.‫ﻛ‬‫ﻃﺮﯾﻖ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﻮرﯾﺪ‬ ‫أﻣﺮ‬ ‫إﺻﺪار‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻠﯿﻞ‬ ‫اﺳﺘﻄﻌﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﻮ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺎل‬ ‫ﺬﻟﻚ‬ ‫اﻷﺟﻞ‬ ‫ﻃﻮﯾﻠﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻘﻮد‬.‫ھﺬه‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫اﻟﺠﯿﺪ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ‬ ‫ﻃﺮﯾﻖ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺨﺰون‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻠﯿﻞ‬ ‫ﻧﺴﺘﻄﯿﻊ‬ ‫ﺗﺠﻌﻠﻨﺎ‬ ‫اﻻﻣﻮر‬ ‫ھﺬه‬ ‫ﻛﻞ‬ ‫اﻷﺳﺒﺎب‬. ‫اﻟﻤﺨﺰون‬ ‫أﻧﻮاع‬ ‫إﻧﺘﺎج‬ ‫وﻣﺴﺘﻠﺰﻣﺎت‬ ‫ﺧﺎم‬ ‫ﻣﻮاد‬Raw Material ‫اﻟﺘﺸﻐﯿﻞ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺖ‬ ‫ﻣﻮاد‬ ‫أو‬ ‫ﻣﺼﻨﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻧﺼﻒ‬ ‫ﻣﻮاد‬Work in Process ‫اﻟﻨﮭﺎﺋﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻨﺘﺠﺎت‬ ‫أي‬ ‫ﻣﺼﻨﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺘﺠﺎت‬Finished Goods ‫ﻟﻠﻤﻌﺪات‬ ‫واﻹﺻﻼح‬ ‫اﻟﺼﯿﺎﻧﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻌﻤﻠﯿﺎت‬ ‫ﻏﯿﺎر‬ ‫ﻗﻄﻊ‬SpareParts ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻤﺨﺰون‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺗﺒﻄﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﺎﻟﯿﻒ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺨﺰون‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻗﺪر‬ ‫أﻛﺒﺮ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﻓﯿﺮ‬ ‫ﻓﯿﻨﺒﻐﻲ‬ ‫وﻟﺬﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﻟﻺﻧﺘﺎج‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪة‬ ‫وﺳﯿﻠﺔ‬ ‫ھﻮ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺨﺰون‬ ‫أن‬ ‫اﻟﺒﻌﺾ‬ ‫ﯾﺘﺼﻮر‬ ‫ﻗﺪ‬. ‫ﻓﮭ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﻘﯿﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﯾﻠﻤﺲ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻔﻜﯿﺮ‬ ‫ھﺬا‬‫ﺑﺎﻟﻤﺨﺰون‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺗﺒﻄﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﺜﯿﺮة‬ ‫ﺗﻜﺎﻟﯿﻒ‬ ‫ﻨﺎك‬.‫ﺣﻔﻆ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺸﻤﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻜﺎﻟﯿﻒ‬ ‫ھﺬه‬
  5. 5. ‫اﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﯿﺔ‬ ‫واﻟﮭﻨﺪﺳﺔ‬ ‫اﻹدارة‬ ‫ﻣﻮﻗﻊ‬ 5 ‫وﻏﯿﺮھﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺨﺰون‬ ‫ﻧﻘﺼﺎن‬ ‫وﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺎل‬ ‫رأس‬ ‫اﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎر‬ ‫ﻋﺪم‬ ‫وﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻮرﯾﺪ‬ ‫أواﻣﺮ‬ ‫وﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺨﺰون‬.‫ﻻﺑﺪ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻮرﯾﺪ‬ ‫ووﻗﺖ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻤﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﯿﺚ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺨﺰون‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ‬ ‫ﻛﯿﻔﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﻌﺮﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﻨﺎﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻜﺎﻟﯿﻒ‬ ‫ھﺬه‬ ‫دراﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺘ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫أوﻻ‬‫ﻮرﯾﺪ‬: ‫ﺗﻮرﯾﺪ‬ ‫أﻣﺮ‬ ‫إﺻﺪار‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬Orderign Cost:‫ﺑﻌﺾ‬ ‫ﻧﺘﺤﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻧﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﻮرﯾﺪ‬ ‫أﻣﺮ‬ ‫إﺻﺪار‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﻧﺸﺘﺮﯾﮭﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﻀﺎﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﺛﻤﻦ‬ ‫ﺧﻼف‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻮرﯾﺪ‬ ‫ﺑﺄﻣﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺎﺻﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻜﺎﻟﯿﻒ‬.‫ﺗﻜﺎﻟﯿﻒ‬ ‫ﺗﺸﻤﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻜﺎﻟﯿﻒ‬ ‫ھﺬه‬ ‫وﻣﺮاﺳﻠﺔ‬ ‫ودراﺳﺘﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺎﻗﺼﺔ‬ ‫وﻃﺮح‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻮاﺻﻔﺎت‬ ‫ﻟﺘﺤﺪﯾﺪ‬ ‫أﯾﺎم‬ ‫او‬ ‫ﺳﺎﻋﺎت‬ ‫ﻟﻌﺪة‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻤﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻮردﯾﻦ‬‫ذﻟﻚ‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫وﻣﺎ‬.‫اﻟﻔﺤﺺ‬ ‫وﺗﻜﺎﻟﯿﻒ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺄﻣﯿﻦ‬ ‫وﺗﻜﺎﻟﯿﻒ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻘﻞ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﺎﻟﯿﻒ‬ ‫ﻧﺘﺤﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﻗﺪ‬ ‫ﻛﺬﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﺛﺎﻧﯿﺎ‬:‫اﻟﻤﺨﺰون‬ ‫ﺣﻔﻆ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬CarryingCost: ‫اﻟﻤﺎل‬ ‫رأس‬ ‫ﺗﺠﻤﯿﺪ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬Capital Cost:‫ھﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺨﺰون‬ ‫ﺑﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﻧﺸﺘﺮي‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫اﻷﻣﻮال‬ ‫د‬ ‫آﻻف‬ ‫ﻋﺸﺮة‬ ‫ﺣﻮاﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﻗﯿﻤﺘﮫ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺰون‬ ‫ﻟﺪﯾﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﯾﻜﻮن‬ ‫ﻓﻌﻨﺪﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﺜﻤﺮة‬ ‫ﻏﯿﺮ‬ ‫أي‬ ‫ﻣﺘﺠﻤﺪة‬ ‫أﻣﻮال‬‫ھﺬا‬ ‫ﻓﺈن‬ ‫رھﻢ‬ ً‫ﺎ‬‫رﺑﺤ‬ ‫ﺗﺪر‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫أي‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﺜﻤﺮة‬ ‫ﻏﯿﺮ‬ ‫درھﻢ‬ ‫آﻻف‬ ‫ﻋﺸﺮة‬ ‫ﻟﺪﯾﻨﺎ‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ﯾﻌﻨﻲ‬.‫اﻟﻤﺨﺰون‬ ‫ھﺬا‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ذﻟﻚ‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫أﺿﻒ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺨﺰون‬ ‫ﻗﯿﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﯾﺴﺎوي‬ ‫ﺑﻤﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺘﺎح‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻘﺪ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻠﯿﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﺒﺐ‬ ‫ھﻮ‬.‫ﻗﯿﻤﺔ‬ ‫زﯾﺎدة‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﺗﺰﯾﺪ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ھﺬه‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺨﺰون‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺨﺰﯾﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬Storage Cost:‫اﻟﻤﻮاد‬ ‫أو‬ ‫اﻟﻐﯿﺎر‬ ‫ﻗﻄﻊ‬ ‫ﺑﺘﺨﺰﯾﻦ‬ ‫ﻧﻘﻮم‬ ‫ﻟﻜﻲ‬‫او‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺎم‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺨﺰﯾﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﻧﺘﻜﺒﺪ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻧﻨﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﮭﺎﺋﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻨﺘﺠﺎت‬.‫اﻟﻌﻤﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫وﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺨﺎزن‬ ‫إﯾﺠﺎر‬ ‫ﺗﺸﻤﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ھﺬه‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﻔﺎظ‬ ‫وﻣﺼﺎرﯾﻒ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺨﺎزن‬ ‫داﺧﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻘﻞ‬ ‫وووﺳﺎﺋﻞ‬ ‫اﻹﺿﺎءة‬ ‫وﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺨﺰﯾﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺸﺮﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﺷﺎﺑﮫ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ‬ ‫أو‬ ‫ﺗﺒﺮﯾﺪ‬ ‫أو‬ ‫ﺗﺪﻓﺌﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺟﯿﺪة‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺨﺰون‬.‫زﯾﺎد‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﺗﺰﯾﺪ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ھﺬه‬‫اﻟﻤﺨﺰون‬ ‫ة‬ ‫ﺗﻘﺎدﻣﮫ‬ ‫أو‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺨﺰون‬ ‫ھﻼك‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬Obselence andDeterioration Cost: ‫ﯾﺠﻌﻠﮫ‬ ‫ﺑﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻗﺪﯾﻤﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺨﺰون‬ ‫ﯾﺼﺒﺢ‬ ‫وﻗﺪ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺨﺰﯾﻦ‬ ‫ﺳﻮء‬ ‫أو‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺨﺰﯾﻦ‬ ‫ﻃﻮل‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻠﻒ‬ ‫ُﻌﺎﻧﻲ‬‫ﯾ‬ ‫ﻗﺪ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺨﺰون‬ ‫اﻟﻘﯿﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﺪﯾﻢ‬.‫اﻟﻨﺨﺎﻃﺮة‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫أﺣﯿﺎﻧﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﻤﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ھﺬه‬Risk Cost.‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻟﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻮن‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ھﺬه‬ ‫أﻧﻮ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺾ‬‫واﻟﻤﻨﺘﺠﺎت‬ ‫ﺳﺮﯾﻊ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻲ‬ ‫ﺑﺘﻄﻮر‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺮﺗﺒﻄﺔ‬ ‫واﻟﻤﻨﺘﺠﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﻐﺬاﺋﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻮاد‬ ‫ﻣﺜﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺨﺰون‬ ‫اع‬ ‫اﻷذواق‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺳﺮﯾﻊ‬ ‫ﺑﺘﻐﯿﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺮﺗﺒﻄﺔ‬ ‫ﺛﺎﻟﺜﺎ‬:‫اﻟﻤﺨﺰون‬ ‫ﻧﻔﺎد‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬Stockoutcost: ‫أو‬ ‫اﻟﻨﮭﺎﺋﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺰون‬ ‫ﻧﻔﺎد‬ ‫ﺑﺴﺒﺐ‬ ‫ﻃﻠﺒﮫ‬ ‫ﺗﻠﺒﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻧﺴﺘﻄﯿﻊ‬ ‫وﻻ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺘﺞ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻤﯿﻞ‬ ‫ﯾﻄﻠﺐ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻮاد‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺾ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺰون‬‫ﺗﺤﻘﯿﻘﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﯾﻤﻜﻨﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﻛﺎن‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫اﻷرﺑﺎح‬ ‫ﻧﺨﺴﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﻘﯿﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻧﻨﺎ‬ ‫م‬.‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻨﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ‬ ‫ُﻌﺎود‬‫ﯾ‬ ‫وﻻ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻨﺎﻓﺴﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻟﻐﯿﺮﻧﺎ‬ ‫ﯾﺘﺠﮫ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻤﯿﻞ‬ ‫ﯾﺠﻌﻞ‬ ‫ﻗﺪ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﻓﺮ‬ ‫ﻋﺪم‬ ‫ﻓﺈن‬ ‫ذﻟﻚ‬.‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻃﻠﺒﮫ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﻓﯿﺮ‬ ‫ﯾﺘﻢ‬ ‫رﯾﺜﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﻼﻧﺘﻈﺎر‬ ‫ﯾﻀﻄﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻤﯿﻞ‬ ‫وﻟﻜﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻤﯿﻞ‬ ‫ﻃﻠﺐ‬ ‫ﺗﻠﺒﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻧﺘﻤﻜﻦ‬ ‫ﻗﺪ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺎﻻت‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺾ‬ ‫ﯾ‬ ‫وھﺬا‬‫اﻟﻤﺒﯿﻌﺎت‬ ‫وﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺳﻤﻌﺘﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﯾﺆﺛﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ‬ ‫وھﻮ‬ ‫ﺧﺪﻣﺎﺗﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻤﯿﻞ‬ ‫رﺿﺎء‬ ‫ﻋﺪم‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺘﺴﺒﺐ‬
  6. 6. ‫اﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﯿﺔ‬ ‫واﻟﮭﻨﺪﺳﺔ‬ ‫اﻹدارة‬ ‫ﻣﻮﻗﻊ‬ 6 ‫اﻟﻤﺴﺘﻘﺒﻠﯿﺔ‬.‫اﻟﻤﻮاد‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺾ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻮرﯾﺪ‬ ‫ﻧﻠﺠﺄ‬ ‫وﻗﺪ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻌﻤﯿﻞ‬ ‫ﺗﺄﺧﯿﺮ‬ ‫ﻏﺮاﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﺪﻓﻊ‬ ‫ﻧﻀﻄﺮ‬ ‫ﻗﺪ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺎﻻت‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺾ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫أﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﻤﻠﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﯾﺘﺴﺒﺐ‬ ‫ﻣﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﺟﻞ‬ ‫ﺑﺸﻜﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺎم‬.‫اﻟﻌﻤﻼء‬ ‫ﻋﺪد‬ ‫زاد‬ ‫ﻛﻠﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﺰداد‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻜﺎﻟﯿﻒ‬ ‫ھﺬه‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫اﻟﺬﯾﻦ‬‫ﻃﻠﺒﺎﺗﮭﻢ‬ ‫ﺗﻠﺒﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻧﺘﺄﺧﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﺬﯾﻦ‬ ‫أو‬ ‫ﻃﻠﺒﺎﺗﮭﻢ‬ ‫ﺗﻠﺒﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻧﺴﺘﻄﯿﻊ‬ ‫راﺑﻌﺎ‬:‫اﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻤﻠﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﻔﺎءة‬ ‫ﻋﺪم‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬: ‫ﺗﺤﻠﯿﻞ‬ ‫وﻋﺪم‬ ‫اﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻤﻠﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻷﺧﻄﺎء‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻐﺎﺿﻲ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﯾﺘﺴﺒﺐ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺨﺰون‬ ‫ﺗﻮﻓﺮ‬ ‫ﺟﺬورھﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻘﻀﺎء‬ ‫ﺑﺠﺪﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺸﺎﻛﻞ‬.‫ھ‬ ‫ﻓﺈن‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻤﯿﻞ‬ ‫ﻃﻠﺒﺎت‬ ‫ﺗﻠﺒﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺄﺧﯿﺮ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻷﺧﻄﺎء‬ ‫ﺗﺘﺴﺒﺐ‬ ‫ﻓﻌﻨﺪﻣﺎ‬‫ﺬه‬ ‫ﻋﻠﯿﮭﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻘﻀﺎء‬ ‫وﻣﺤﺎوﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﮭﺎ‬ ‫اﻻھﺘﻤﺎم‬ ‫ﯾﺘﻢ‬ ‫اﻷﺧﻄﺎء‬.‫اﻟﻤﻮاد‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺰون‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﺜﯿﺮ‬ ‫ﻟﺪﯾﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﯾﻜﻮن‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ‬ ‫أﻣﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻄﺢ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﻈﮭﺮ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫اﻹﻧﺘﺎج‬ ‫ﻣﺸﻜﻼت‬ ‫ﻓﺈن‬ ‫اﻟﻨﮭﺎﺋﯿﺔ‬ ‫واﻟﻤﻨﺘﺠﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺼﻨﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻧﺼﻒ‬ ‫واﻟﻤﻨﺘﺠﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺎم‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻤﯿﻞ‬ ‫ﻃﻠﺒﺎت‬ ‫ﺗﻠﺒﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺄﺧﯿﺮ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﺴﺒﺐ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫وﻟﻜﻨﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﻮاﻗﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﺠﺮد‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻮن‬ ‫ﻷﻧﮭﺎ‬.‫ﯾ‬ ‫اﻻﻣﺮ‬ ‫ھﺬا‬‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻛﺬﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﺤﺪث‬ ‫ﻟﻤﻮاﺟﮭﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻐﯿﺎر‬ ‫ﻗﻄﻊ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻛﺒﯿﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺰون‬ ‫ﻟﺪﯾﻨﺎ‬ ‫وﯾﻜﻮن‬ ‫وﺗﺘﻜﺮر‬ ‫ﻣﺸﻜﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺪث‬ ‫ﻓﻌﻨﺪﻣﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﺼﯿﺎﻧﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺸﻜﻼت‬ ‫ﺗﺘﻮﻗﻒ‬ ‫ﻟﻢ‬ ‫اﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻤﻠﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻷن‬ ‫اﻟﻜﺎﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻻھﺘﻤﺎم‬ ‫ﺗﻠﻘﻰ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺸﻜﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﺈن‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺘﻜﺮرة‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺸﻜﻠﺔ‬ ‫ھﺬه‬.‫أﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﺸ‬ ‫أي‬ ‫ﻷن‬ ‫ﻛﺒﯿﺮا‬ ‫اھﺘﻤﺎﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﻠﻘﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﺸﻜﻠﺔ‬ ‫أي‬ ‫ﻓﺈن‬ ‫ﻗﻠﯿﻼ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺨﺰون‬ ‫ﯾﻜﻮن‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ‬‫ﺗﻮﻗﻒ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺳﺘﺴﺒﺐ‬ ‫ﻜﻠﺔ‬ ‫اﻹﻧﺘﺎج‬.‫ﻣﺤﺪودا‬ ‫ﻟﺪﯾﮭﻢ‬ ‫اﻟﺬي‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺨﺰون‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ﯾﻌﻠﻤﻮن‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ‬ ‫أﻛﺒﺮ‬ ‫ﺣﺮص‬ ‫ﻟﺪﯾﮭﻢ‬ ‫ﯾﻜﻮن‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﻓﺈن‬ ‫ﻛﺬﻟﻚ‬. ‫أرﻛﺎن‬ ‫أﺣﺪ‬ ‫ھﻮ‬ ‫اﻷﻣﺮ‬ ‫ھﺬا‬‫اﻟﻔﺎﻗﺪ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻠﯿﻞ‬ ‫ﺳﯿﺎﺳﺔ‬JustIn Time‫ﻣﻘﺎﻻت‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫أﻧﺎﻗﺸﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﺳﻮف‬ ‫واﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫اﷲ‬ ‫ﺷﺎء‬ ‫إن‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻔﺼﻠﺔ‬.‫اﻟﻀﺮوري‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺠﻢ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺨﺰون‬ ‫ﺣﺠﻢ‬ ‫زاد‬ ‫ﻛﻠﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﺰداد‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ھﺬه‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﺆدي‬ ‫وﻗﺪ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺨﺰون‬ ‫ﺣﻔﻆ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫زﯾﺎدة‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﺴﺒﺐ‬ ‫اﻟﻀﺮوري‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺪ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺨﺰون‬ ‫زﯾﺎدة‬ ‫ﻓﺈن‬ ‫ﺗﺮى‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ‬ ‫اﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻤﻠﯿﺎت‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻷﺧﻄﺎء‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺴﺎھﻞ‬.‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﯾﺆدي‬ ‫اﻟﻀﺮوري‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺪ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺨﺰون‬ ‫ﻧﻘﺼﺎن‬ ‫ﻓﺈن‬ ‫ﻛﺬﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﻓ‬‫اﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﺳﻤﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺳﻠﺒﺎ‬ ‫واﻟﺘﺄﺛﯿﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺒﯿﻌﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺟﺰء‬ ‫ﻘﺪ‬.‫ﻟﺰﯾﺎدة‬ ‫ﯾﺆدي‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻧﮫ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻮرﯾﺪ‬ ‫أواﻣﺮ‬ ‫ﻋﺪد‬ ‫زﯾﺎدة‬ ‫أﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻛﺒﯿﺮة‬ ‫ﻛﻤﯿﺎت‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻮرﯾﺪ‬ ‫ﻧﻈﺮا‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺨﺰون‬ ‫زﯾﺎدة‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﯾﺆدي‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻮرﯾﺪ‬ ‫أواﻣﺮ‬ ‫ﻋﺪد‬ ‫ﻗﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﯿﻨﻤﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻮرﯾﺪ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻮرﯾﺪ‬ ‫اﻣﺮ‬.‫اﻟﻤﺨﺰﻧﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﻨﻮد‬ ‫وﺣﺠﻢ‬ ‫ﻋﺪد‬ ‫زاد‬ ‫ﻛﻠﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻧﮫ‬ ‫اﻷﺣﻮال‬ ‫ﺟﻤﯿﻊ‬ ‫وﻓﻲ‬‫اﻟﺤﺎﺟﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ذﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﺒﺐ‬ ‫ﻟﻜﺎم‬ ‫ﻛﺒﯿﺮة‬ ‫ﺗﺨﺰﯾﻨﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺎت‬ ‫وإﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺘﺨﺰﯾﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻘﺪة‬ ‫ﻷﻧﻈﻤﺔ‬.‫ﺑﺤﺮص‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺨﺰون‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ‬ ‫ﯾﺘﻢ‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ﯾﺠﺐ‬ ‫ﻟﺬﻟﻚ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻨﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺪ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﯾﻘﻞ‬ ‫وﻻ‬ ‫ﯾﺰﯾﺪ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﻟﻜﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﺎﻓﺴﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﯿﺰة‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺨﺰون‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﺎﻓﺴﯿ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﯿﺰة‬ ‫ذﻟﻚ‬ ‫اﺳﺘﺨﺪﻣﺖ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﺎت‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺾ‬ ‫أن‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺨﺰون‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬ ‫أھﻤﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﻠﻎ‬ ‫ﻟﻘﺪ‬‫ﺔ‬.‫ﺗﻮﯾﻮﺗﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﺸﺮﻛﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﯿﺎﺑﺎﻧﯿﺔ‬TOYOTA‫اﻟﻔﻮاﻗﺪ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻠﯿﻞ‬ ‫ﺳﯿﺎﺳﺔ‬ ‫اﺧﺘﺮﻋﺖ‬ ‫واﻟﺘﻲ‬JIT‫أﻧﻮاﻋﮫ‬ ‫ﺑﻜﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺨﺰون‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻠﯿﻞ‬ ‫اﺳﺘﮭﺪﻓﺖ‬ ‫اﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎت‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺎول‬ ‫ﻣﺜﻼ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﯾﻮﺗﺎ‬ ‫وأﺻﺒﺤﺖ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺨﺰون‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫وﻗﻠﻞ‬ ‫اﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻤﻠﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺴﯿﻦ‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫أدى‬ ‫واﻟﺬي‬ ‫ﺑﮫ‬ ‫اﻻﻗﺘﺪاء‬ ‫واﻷوروﺑﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻷﻣﺮﯾﻜﯿﺔ‬.‫ﻟﻠﻜﻮﻣﺒ‬ ‫دﯾﻞ‬ ‫ﺷﺮﻛﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﺈن‬ ‫ﻛﺬﻟﻚ‬‫ﯿﻮﺗﺮ‬DELL‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬ ‫اﺳﺘﺨﺪﻣﺖ‬ ‫وﻋﺪم‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻤﯿﻞ‬ ‫رﻏﺒﺎت‬ ‫ﺣﺴﺐ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺎﺳﻮب‬ ‫ﺗﻔﺼﯿﻞ‬ ‫ﺳﯿﺎﺳﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻧﺘﮭﺠﺖ‬ ‫ﺑﺄﻧﮭﺎ‬ ‫وذﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﺎﻓﺴﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﯿﺰة‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺨﺰون‬ ‫وﺗﺨﺰﯾﻨﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﺣﻮاﺳﯿﺐ‬ ‫ﺗﺼﻨﯿﻊ‬‫ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻌﺎﻗﺪ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻤﯿﻞ‬ ‫ﯾﻘﻮم‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺎﺳﻮب‬ ‫ﺑﺘﺠﻤﯿﻊ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻮم‬ ‫وإﻧﻤﺎ‬.‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫أدى‬ ‫اﻷﻣﺮ‬ ‫ھﺬا‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻮ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫اﻷﺧﺮى‬ ‫اﻟﺸﺮﻛﺎت‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺎﺳﻮب‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫اﻧﺨﻔﺎض‬‫اﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﻮاﺳﯿﺐ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻛﺒﯿﺮة‬ ‫ﻛﻤﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺘﺨﺰﯾﻦ‬ ‫م‬ ‫ﺗﻨﺘﺠﮭﺎ‬.‫ﺣﺠﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﯾﻘﻠﻞ‬ ‫ھﺬا‬ ‫ﻷن‬ ‫ﺗﻘﺪﻣﮭﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫اﻷﺻﻨﺎف‬ ‫ﻋﺪد‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻘﻠﯿﻞ‬ ‫ﺗﻠﺠﺄ‬ ‫ﻗﺪ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻄﺎﻋﻢ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺾ‬ ‫ﻓﺈن‬ ‫ﻛﺬﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺘﻠﻒ‬ ‫ﯾﺘﻌﺮض‬ ‫اﻟﺬي‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺨﺰون‬.‫اﻷﻃﻌﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻛﺜﯿﺮة‬ ‫أﻧﻮاع‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻮﻓﯿﺮ‬ ‫اﺧﺮى‬ ‫ﻣﻄﺎﻋﻢ‬ ‫ﺗﻠﺠﺄ‬ ‫اﻵﺧﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﺠﺎﻧﺐ‬ ‫وﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺼ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎﺑﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺨﺰون‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻔﺎﻗﺪ‬ ‫واﻟﺘﻀﺤﯿﺔ‬‫اﻟﻌﻤﻼء‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫أﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎﺑﻞ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻮل‬.‫ﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺿﺢ‬ ‫اﻷﻣﺜﻠﺔ‬ ‫ھﺬه‬
  7. 7. ‫اﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﯿﺔ‬ ‫واﻟﮭﻨﺪﺳﺔ‬ ‫اﻹدارة‬ ‫ﻣﻮﻗﻊ‬ 7 ‫وﻟﮫ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ‬ ‫أداء‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫واﺿﺢ‬ ‫ﺑﺸﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﯾﺆﺛﺮ‬ ‫أﻣﺮ‬ ‫ھﻮ‬ ‫ﺑﻞ‬ ‫ھﺎﻣﺸﯿﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﯿﺲ‬ ‫اﻷﻣﺮ‬ ‫وأن‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺨﺰون‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬ ‫أھﻤﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﺎﻓﺴﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﯿﺰات‬ ‫ﺑﺨﻠﻖ‬ ‫ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮة‬ ‫ﻋﻼﻗﺔ‬. ‫اﻟﺤﺴﺎﺑﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻤﻠﯿﺎت‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺾ‬ ‫وإﺟﺮاء‬ ‫وﺗﺤﻠﯿﻠﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﯿﺎﻧﺎت‬ ‫ﺗﺠﻤﯿﻊ‬ ‫ﯾﺘﻄﻠﺐ‬ ‫ﺟﯿﺪ‬ ‫ﺑﺸﻜﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺨﺰون‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬‫وﺑﻨﺎء‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎت‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﯿﺎ‬ ‫واﺳﺘﺨﺪام‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻮردﯾﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻤﯿﺰة‬ ‫ﻋﻼﻗﺎت‬.‫ﺗﻮﻓﻊ‬ ‫وﺟﻮد‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻻﺑﺪ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺨﺰون‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻓﻠﻠﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻮرﯾﺪ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﺤﺪﯾﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺒﺔ‬ ‫رﯾﺎﺿﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻧﻤﺎذج‬ ‫اﺳﺘﺨﺪام‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫وﻻﺑﺪ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻘﺒﻠﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻔﺘﺮة‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻮق‬ ‫ﻻﺣﺘﯿﺎﺟﺎت‬ ‫ﺟﯿﺪ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻮرﯾﺪ‬ ‫ووﻗﺖ‬.‫ﺣﺮ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺘﺎﺑﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎت‬ ‫ﻧﻈﺎم‬ ‫وﺟﻮد‬ ‫اﻷﻣﺮ‬ ‫ﯾﺴﺘﻠﺰم‬ ‫ﻛﺬﻟﻚ‬‫اﻻﺣﺘﯿﺎﺟﺎت‬ ‫وﺗﺤﺪﯾﺪ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺨﺰون‬ ‫ﻛﺔ‬. ‫وﺗﻘﯿﯿﻤﮭﻢ‬ ‫واﺧﺘﯿﺎرھﻢ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻮردﯾﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻼﻗﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺨﺰون‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬ ‫ﺷﺪﯾﺪا‬ ‫ارﺗﺒﺎﻃﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺮﺗﺒﻄﺔ‬ ‫اﻷﻣﻮر‬ ‫وﻣﻦ‬.‫ھﺬه‬ ‫ﻗﺎدﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎﻻت‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﷲ‬ ‫ﺷﺎء‬ ‫إن‬ ‫ﻧﻨﺎﻗﺸﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﺳﻮف‬ ‫اﻷﻣﻮر‬. ‫اﻟﻤﻮﺿﻮع‬ ‫ﻣﺮاﺟﻊ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬: Operations Management for MBAs, Meredith adn Shafer, Wiley,2001 Production and Operations Analysis, Nahmias, McGraw-Hill, FifthEdition, 2005 Operations Management, Slack et al, Finanacial Times, SecondEdition, 1998 Production and Operations Management, Stevenson, IRWIN, FifthEdition, 1996 Service Management, Fitzsimmons and Fitzsimmons, McGraw-Hill,Third Edition, 2000 Operations Management, Russel and Taylor III, Prentice Hall, Third Edition, 2000
  8. 8. ‫اﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﯿﺔ‬ ‫واﻟﮭﻨﺪﺳﺔ‬ ‫اﻹدارة‬ ‫ﻣﻮﻗﻊ‬ 8 ‫اﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎدي‬ ‫اﻟﻄﻠﺒﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﺠﻢ‬Economic Order Quantity ‫ﯾﻮﻧﯿﻮ‬2,2007‫ﻓﻲ‬11:12‫ص‬· ‫اﻟﺤ‬ ‫أھﻤﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﺑﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ُ‫ﺖ‬‫ﻧﺎﻗﺸ‬‫اﻟﺤﺪ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻞ‬ ‫وﻻ‬ ‫اﻟﻼزم‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﺰﯾﺪ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﺑﺤﯿﺚ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺨﺰون‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮى‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻔﺎظ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺨﺰون‬ ‫وﻟﺤﻔﻆ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺘﻮرﯾﺪ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﺎﻟﯿﻒ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ذﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﯾﺼﺎﺣﺐ‬ ‫وﻣﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻀﺮوري‬.‫ﻓﺈﻧﻨﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻨﺎﺳﺒﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺨﺰون‬ ‫ﻗﯿﻤﺔ‬ ‫وﻟﺘﺤﺪﯾﺪ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺨﺰون‬ ‫أﻧﻮاع‬ ‫ﻟﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﺗﺼﻠﺢ‬ ‫اﻟﻄﺮق‬ ‫ﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﻠﯿﺴﺖ‬ ‫ﻟﺬﻟﻚ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻨﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫اﻷﺳﻠﻮب‬ ‫ﻻﺧﺘﯿﺎر‬ ‫ﺑﺤﺎﺟﺔ‬.‫اﻟﻄﺮﯾﻘﺔ‬ ‫اﺧﺘﯿﺎر‬ ‫ﯾﺘﻮﻗﻒ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻨﺎﺳﺒﺔ‬‫ﻣﺜﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫وﻃﺒﯿﻌﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺨﺰون‬ ‫ﻟﻄﺒﯿﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺧﺼﺎﺋﺺ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫أوﻻ‬:‫ﻣﺤﺪد‬ ‫وﻏﯿﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻐﯿﺮ‬ ‫أﻧﮫ‬ ‫ام‬ ‫ﺳﻨﻮﯾﺎ‬ ‫أو‬ ‫ﺷﮭﺮﯾﺎ‬ ‫وﺛﺎﺑﺖ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺪد‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺨﺰون‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻄﻠﺐ‬ ‫ھﻞ‬.‫أو‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻮاد‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺾ‬ ‫ﺑﯿﻨﻤﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﺼﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﯾﻘﺘﺮب‬ ‫ﺑﺸﻜﻞ‬ ‫وﺗﺤﺪﯾﺪه‬ ‫ﺗﻮﻗﻌﮫ‬ ‫وﯾﻤﻜﻦ‬ ‫وﺳﻨﻮﯾﺎ‬ ‫ﺷﮭﺮﯾﺎ‬ ‫ﺛﺎﺑﺖ‬ ‫ﻃﻠﺒﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﯾﻜﻮن‬ ‫ﻗﺪ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻨﺘﺠﺎت‬ ‫ﺛ‬ ‫ﻏﯿﺮ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﯿﮫ‬ ‫اﻟﻄﻠﺐ‬ ‫ﯾﻜﻮن‬ ‫ﻗﺪ‬ ‫اﻵﺧﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﻌﺾ‬‫ﺑﺪﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺪﯾﺪه‬ ‫وﯾﺼﻌﺐ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺳﻤﻲ‬ ‫أو‬ ‫ﺎﺑﺖ‬.‫وﻧﻤﺎذج‬ ‫ﻃﺮق‬ ‫ھﻨﺎك‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺎﻻت‬ ‫ھﺬه‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻛﻼ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫رﯾﺎﺿﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺛﺎﻧﯿﺎ‬:‫اﻟﻨﮭﺎﺋﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ‬ ‫ﻋﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻄﻠﺐ‬ ‫ﺣﺠﻢ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﯾﻌﺘﻤﺪ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺨﺰون‬ ‫ھﻞ‬ ‫أي‬ ‫ﺗﺎﺑﻊ‬ ‫ام‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺨﺰون‬ ‫ھﻞ‬.‫اﻟﻄﻠﺐ‬ ‫اﻟﺒ‬ ‫ﺑﯿﻨﻤﺎ‬ ،‫اﻟﻨﮭﺎﺋﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ‬ ‫ﻣﺜﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻮق‬ ‫اﺣﺘﯿﺎﺟﺎت‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮة‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺘﻤﺪة‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻮن‬ ‫ﻗﺪ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻮاد‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺾ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬‫ﻌﺾ‬ ‫ﻟﮭﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻄﻠﺐ‬ ‫ﯾﻜﻮن‬ ‫اﻷﺟﮭﺰة‬ ‫ﻣﻜﻮﻧﺎت‬ ‫ﻓﻤﺜﻼ‬ ‫أﺧﺮى‬ ‫أﺟﺰاء‬ ‫ﻟﺘﺼﻨﯿﻊ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺎﺟﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ً‫ﺎ‬‫ﻧﺎﺑﻌ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﯿﮫ‬ ‫اﻟﻄﻠﺐ‬ ‫ﯾﻜﻮن‬ ‫اﻵﺧﺮﻗﺪ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﻨﺘﺞ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺎﺟﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﻨﺎء‬ ‫ﺗﺼﻨﯿﻌﮭﺎ‬ ‫او‬ ‫ﺷﺮاﺋﮭﺎ‬ ‫أوﻗﺎت‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺪﯾﺪ‬ ‫ﯾﺘﻢ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻧﮫ‬ ‫وﻟﺬﻟﻚ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﮭﺎﺋﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ‬ ‫ﻃﻠﺐ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻧﺎﺑﻌﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﮭﺎﺋﻲ‬. ‫وﻣﺪ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻮرﯾﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﺪة‬ ‫ﻗﺼﺮ‬ ‫أو‬ ‫ﻃﻮل‬ ‫ﻣﺜﻞ‬ ‫ﻛﺜﯿﺮة‬ ‫أﺧﺮى‬ ‫أﻣﻮرا‬ ‫وھﻨﺎك‬‫اﻟﺴﻤﺎح‬ ‫إﻣﻜﺎﻧﯿﺔ‬ ‫وﻣﺪى‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻮرﯾﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﺪة‬ ‫ﺛﺒﺎت‬ ‫ى‬ ‫ﻛﺒﯿﺮة‬ ‫ﻛﻤﯿﺎت‬ ‫ﺷﺮاء‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﺗﺨﻔﯿﻀﺎت‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺼﻮل‬ ‫وإﻣﻜﺎﻧﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻷوﻗﺎت‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺾ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺨﺰون‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻧﻘﺺ‬ ‫ﺑﻮﺟﻮد‬. ‫واﻟﺴﯿﺎﺳﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﺮﯾﺎﺿﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻤﺎذج‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺪﯾﺪ‬ ‫ھﻨﺎك‬‫اﻟﻤﺨﺰون‬ ‫اﻧﻮاع‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻧﻮع‬ ‫ﻟﻜﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻨﺎﺳﺒﺔ‬.‫ﺑﺄول‬ ‫ﻧﺒﺪأ‬ ‫دﻋﻨﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻤﺎذج‬ ‫ھﺬه‬ ‫وأﺷﮭﺮ‬ ‫أوﻻ‬:‫اﻟ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻄﻠﺐ‬ ‫ھﻞ‬‫ﻣﺤﺪد‬ ‫وﻏﯿﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻐﯿﺮ‬ ‫أﻧﮫ‬ ‫ام‬ ‫ﺳﻨﻮﯾﺎ‬ ‫أو‬ ‫ﺷﮭﺮﯾﺎ‬ ‫وﺛﺎﺑﺖ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺪد‬ ‫ﻤﺨﺰون‬.‫أو‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻮاد‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺾ‬ ‫ﺑﯿﻨﻤﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﺼﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﯾﻘﺘﺮب‬ ‫ﺑﺸﻜﻞ‬ ‫وﺗﺤﺪﯾﺪه‬ ‫ﺗﻮﻗﻌﮫ‬ ‫وﯾﻤﻜﻦ‬ ‫وﺳﻨﻮﯾﺎ‬ ‫ﺷﮭﺮﯾﺎ‬ ‫ﺛﺎﺑﺖ‬ ‫ﻃﻠﺒﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﯾﻜﻮن‬ ‫ﻗﺪ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻨﺘﺠﺎت‬ ‫ﺑﺪﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺪﯾﺪه‬ ‫وﯾﺼﻌﺐ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺳﻤﻲ‬ ‫أو‬ ‫ﺛﺎﺑﺖ‬ ‫ﻏﯿﺮ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﯿﮫ‬ ‫اﻟﻄﻠﺐ‬ ‫ﯾﻜﻮن‬ ‫ﻗﺪ‬ ‫اﻵﺧﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﻌﺾ‬.‫وﻧﻤﺎذج‬ ‫ﻃﺮق‬ ‫ھﻨﺎك‬ ‫ﻛﻼ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫رﯾﺎﺿﯿﺔ‬‫اﻟﺤﺎﻻت‬ ‫ھﺬه‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺛﺎﻧﯿﺎ‬:‫اﻟﻨﮭﺎﺋﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ‬ ‫ﻋﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻄﻠﺐ‬ ‫ﺣﺠﻢ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﯾﻌﺘﻤﺪ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺨﺰون‬ ‫ھﻞ‬ ‫أي‬ ‫ﺗﺎﺑﻊ‬ ‫ام‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺨﺰون‬ ‫ھﻞ‬.‫اﻟﻄﻠﺐ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﻌﺾ‬ ‫ﺑﯿﻨﻤﺎ‬ ،‫اﻟﻨﮭﺎﺋﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ‬ ‫ﻣﺜﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻮق‬ ‫اﺣﺘﯿﺎﺟﺎت‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮة‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺘﻤﺪة‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻮن‬ ‫ﻗﺪ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻮاد‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺾ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻓ‬ ‫أﺧﺮى‬ ‫أﺟﺰاء‬ ‫ﻟﺘﺼﻨﯿﻊ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺎﺟﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ً‫ﺎ‬‫ﻧﺎﺑﻌ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﯿﮫ‬ ‫اﻟﻄﻠﺐ‬ ‫ﯾﻜﻮن‬ ‫اﻵﺧﺮﻗﺪ‬‫ﻟﮭﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻄﻠﺐ‬ ‫ﯾﻜﻮن‬ ‫اﻷﺟﮭﺰة‬ ‫ﻣﻜﻮﻧﺎت‬ ‫ﻤﺜﻼ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﻨﺘﺞ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺎﺟﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﻨﺎء‬ ‫ﺗﺼﻨﯿﻌﮭﺎ‬ ‫او‬ ‫ﺷﺮاﺋﮭﺎ‬ ‫أوﻗﺎت‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺪﯾﺪ‬ ‫ﯾﺘﻢ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻧﮫ‬ ‫وﻟﺬﻟﻚ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﮭﺎﺋﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ‬ ‫ﻃﻠﺐ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻧﺎﺑﻌﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﮭﺎﺋﻲ‬. ‫اﻟﺴﻤﺎح‬ ‫إﻣﻜﺎﻧﯿﺔ‬ ‫وﻣﺪى‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻮرﯾﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﺪة‬ ‫ﺛﺒﺎت‬ ‫وﻣﺪى‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻮرﯾﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﺪة‬ ‫ﻗﺼﺮ‬ ‫أو‬ ‫ﻃﻮل‬ ‫ﻣﺜﻞ‬ ‫ﻛﺜﯿﺮة‬ ‫أﺧﺮى‬ ‫أﻣﻮرا‬ ‫وھﻨﺎك‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺨﺰون‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻧﻘﺺ‬ ‫ﺑﻮﺟﻮد‬‫ﻛﺒﯿﺮة‬ ‫ﻛﻤﯿﺎت‬ ‫ﺷﺮاء‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﺗﺨﻔﯿﻀﺎت‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺼﻮل‬ ‫وإﻣﻜﺎﻧﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻷوﻗﺎت‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺾ‬. ‫واﻟﺴﯿﺎﺳﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﺮﯾﺎﺿﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻤﺎذج‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺪﯾﺪ‬ ‫ھﻨﺎك‬‫اﻟﻤﺨﺰون‬ ‫اﻧﻮاع‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻧﻮع‬ ‫ﻟﻜﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻨﺎﺳﺒﺔ‬.‫ﺑﺄول‬ ‫ﻧﺒﺪأ‬ ‫دﻋﻨﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻤﺎذج‬ ‫ھﺬه‬ ‫وأﺷﮭﺮ‬
  9. 9. ‫اﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﯿﺔ‬ ‫واﻟﮭﻨﺪﺳﺔ‬ ‫اﻹدارة‬ ‫ﻣﻮﻗﻊ‬ 9 ‫اﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎدي‬ ‫اﻟﻄﻠﺒﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﺠﻢ‬EOQ ‫اﻟﻄﻠﺒﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﺠﻢ‬ ‫ﻧﻤﻮذج‬ ‫ﯾﻌﺘﺒﺮ‬‫اﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎدي‬‫اﻻﻗﺘ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻮرﯾﺪ‬ ‫ﺣﺠﻢ‬ ‫أو‬‫ﺼﺎدي‬Economic Order Quantity‫ﻟﻠﺘﻮرﯾﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﺮة‬ ‫ﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﻮرﯾﺪھﺎ‬ ‫ﯾﻨﺒﻐﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻤﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺪﯾﺪ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻤﺎذج‬ ‫أﺷﮭﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻠﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻞ‬ ‫ﺑﺤﯿﺚ‬.‫وھﻲ‬ ‫اﻷﺳﺎﺳﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻻﻓﺘﺮاﺿﺎت‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺾ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﯾﻨﺒﻨﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻤﻮذج‬ ‫ھﺬا‬ ‫وﻟﻜﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻄﻠﺐ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺪل‬Demand‫ﻣﺜﻞ‬ ‫وﻣﺤﺪد‬ ‫ﺛﺎﺑﺖ‬55‫أو‬ ‫اﻟﺸﮭﺮ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫وﺣﺪة‬200‫اﻟﺒﻮ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻛﺠﻢ‬‫م‬ ‫أو‬340‫اﻷﺳﺒﻮع‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻘﺪم‬ ‫زﻣﻦ‬Lead Time)‫اﻟﻤﻮاد‬ ‫وﺻﻮل‬ ‫ﺣﯿﻦ‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻄﻠﺐ‬ ‫وﻗﺖ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺰﻣﻦ‬ ‫وھﻮ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻄﻠﻮﺑﺔ‬(‫اﻟﺒﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﻟﮭﺬا‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻘﺪم‬ ‫زﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﯾﻜﻮن‬ ‫ان‬ ‫ﻣﺜﻞ‬ ‫وﺛﺎﺑﺖ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺪد‬10‫أو‬ ‫أﯾﺎم‬25‫او‬ ‫ﯾﻮﻣﺎ‬70‫ﯾﻮﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﻮرﯾﺪھﺎ‬ ‫ﯾﺘﻢ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻤﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺘﻐﯿﺮ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﻐﯿﺮ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺨﺰﯾﻦ‬ ‫وﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻄﻠﻮﺑﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻮاد‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻮﺣﺪة‬ ‫ﺳﻌﺮ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﺎﻟﯿﻒ‬ ‫ﻓﺈن‬ ‫وﻛﺬﻟﻚ‬ ‫أﻛﺒﺮ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺷﺮاء‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻌﺮ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﺨﻔﯿﺾ‬ ‫ﯾﻤﻨﺤﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻮرد‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ﺑﻤﻌﻨﻰ‬ ‫ﻛﺒﯿﺮة‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺨﺰﻧﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻤﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻧﺖ‬ ‫إذا‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻞ‬ ‫ﻟﻦ‬ ‫وﺣﺪة‬ ‫ﻟﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﻟﺪﯾﻨﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺨﺰﯾﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺎدة‬ ‫ھﺬه‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺰون‬ ‫ﻧﻔﺎد‬Shortage‫ﻻ‬ ‫أﻧﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﻤﻌﻨﻰ‬ ‫اﻷﺣﻮال‬ ‫ﺟﻤﯿﻊ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺒﻮل‬ ‫ﻏﯿﺮ‬ ‫اﻣﺮ‬ ‫ھﻮ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺎد‬ ‫ھﺬه‬ ‫ﺗﻮﻓﺮ‬ ‫ﻋﺪم‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻧﻌﺎﻧﻲ‬ ‫ان‬ ‫ﻧﺘﻘﺒﻞ‬‫اﻟﻤﺆﺳﺴﺔ‬ ‫أداء‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﺄﺛﯿﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻟﺬﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺎ‬ ‫اﻷوﻗﺎت‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺾ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ة‬ ‫وﺳﻤﻌﺘﮭﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺨﺰون؟‬ ‫أﻧﻮاع‬ ‫ﻟﺠﻤﯿﻊ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫اﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎدي‬ ‫اﻟﻄﻠﺒﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﺠﻢ‬ ‫ﻧﻤﻮذج‬ ‫ھﻞ‬‫اﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﻮاد‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻤﻮذج‬ ‫ھﺬا‬ ‫أﻋﻼه‬ ‫اﻻﻓﺘﺮاﺿﺎت‬ ‫ﻓﯿﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﺤﻘﻖ‬.‫ﯾﺼﻠﺢ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻤﻮذج‬ ‫ھﺬا‬ ‫ﻓﺈن‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻠﻮم‬ ‫ﻏﯿﺮ‬ ‫أو‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻐﯿﺮا‬ ‫اﻟﻄﻠﺐ‬ ‫ﺣﺠﻢ‬ ‫ﻛﺎن‬ ‫ﻓﺈذا‬. ‫ز‬ ‫ﻛﺎن‬ ‫إذا‬ ‫ﻛﺬﻟﻚ‬‫اﻟﻨﻤﻮذج‬ ‫ھﺬا‬ ‫اﺳﺘﺨﺪام‬ ‫ﻧﺴﺘﻄﯿﻊ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻧﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﻷﺧﺮى‬ ‫ﻣﺮة‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻛﺒﯿﺮ‬ ‫ﺑﺸﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﯾﺘﻐﯿﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻘﺪم‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬.‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫آﺧﺮ‬ ‫رﯾﺎﺿﻲ‬ ‫ﻧﻤﻮذج‬ ‫اﺳﺘﺨﺪام‬ ‫ﻓﯿﻤﻜﻨﻨﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻤﯿﺔ‬ ‫زﯾﺎدة‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎﺑﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻌﺮ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﺨﻔﯿﺾ‬ ‫وﺟﻮد‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻟﺔ‬.‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻻﺣﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﺬﻟﻚ‬ ‫اﻷوﻗﺎت‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺾ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺨﺰون‬ ‫ﯾﻨﻔﺪ‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ﻗﺒﻮل‬ ‫ﺟﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ھﺬا‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ذﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﯾﻌﻨﻲ‬ ‫أﻻ‬‫اﻟﺘﻄﺒﯿﻖ؟‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺪود‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻤﻮذج‬‫ﻻ‬.‫ﯾﻜﻮن‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻮاد‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻤﻮذج‬ ‫ھﺬا‬ ‫اﺳﺘﺨﺪام‬ ‫ﯾﻤﻜﻨﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﻃﻔﯿﻔﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﻐﯿﺮا‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻐﯿﺮا‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻘﺪم‬ ‫زﻣﻦ‬ ‫وﯾﻜﻮن‬ ‫ﻛﺒﯿﺮ‬ ‫ﺑﺸﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻐﯿﺮ‬ ‫وﻏﯿﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮا‬ ‫ﻋﻠﯿﮭﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻄﻠﺐ‬.‫اﻟﺤﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ھﺬه‬ ‫ﻓﻔﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺘﻮﺳﻂ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻘﺪم‬ ‫وزﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺘﻮﺳﻂ‬ ‫اﻟﻄﻠﺐ‬ ‫ﺣﺠﻢ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺪﯾﺪ‬ ‫ﯾﻤﻜﻨﻨﺎ‬.‫اﻟﻤﺜﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻄﻠﺒﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻧﺤﺼﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﻄﺮﯾﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﮭﺬه‬ ‫اﻟ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻌﻠﻮﻣﺎت‬ ‫ﺣﺪود‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﻟﺪﯾﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﻤﺘﺎﺣﺔ‬.‫اﻟﻜﻤﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﺤﺪﯾﺪ‬ ‫رﯾﺎﺿﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻃﺮﯾﻘﺔ‬ ‫اﺳﺘﺨﺪام‬ ‫أن‬ ‫داﺋﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻧﺘﺬﻛﺮ‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ﯾﺠﺐ‬ ‫اﻟﺨﻄﺄ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺾ‬ ‫ھﻨﺎك‬ ‫ﻛﺎن‬ ‫وﻟﻮ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻄﻠﻮﺑﺔ‬‫َﺤﺾ‬‫ﻤ‬‫اﻟ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺨﻤﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻻﻋﺘﻤﺎد‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫أﻓﻀﻞ‬. ‫أﺧﺮى‬ ‫أوﻗﺎت‬ ‫وﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻟﯿﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻄﻠﺐ‬ ‫ﯾﻜﻮن‬ ‫اﻷﺣﯿﺎن‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺾ‬ ‫ﻓﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺟﺪا‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻐﯿﺮا‬ ‫ﻋﻠﯿﮭﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻄﻠﺐ‬ ‫ﯾﻜﻮن‬ ‫ﻣﻮاد‬ ‫ھﻨﺎك‬‫ﯾﻘﻞ‬ ‫ﻛﺜﯿﺮا‬‫ھﺬا‬ ‫ﻟﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﯾﺼﻠﺢ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫ﻓﮭﺬه‬‫اﻟﻨﻤﻮذج‬.‫وإن‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮا‬ ‫ﻋﻠﯿﮭﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻄﻠﺐ‬ ‫ﯾﻜﻮن‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻮاد‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﺜﯿﺮ‬ ‫ھﻨﺎك‬ ‫وﻟﻜﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﯿﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺸﮭﺮي‬ ‫اﻟﻄﻠﺐ‬ ‫ﯾﻜﻮن‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ﻣﺜﻞ‬ ‫ﻃﻔﯿﻔﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﻐﯿﺮا‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻐﯿﺮا‬ ‫ﻛﺎن‬1000‫و‬1200‫ﻟﮫ‬ ‫ﯾﺼﻠﺢ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻮع‬ ‫ﻓﮭﺬا‬ ‫ﻗﻄﻌﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻤﻮذج‬ ‫ھﺬا‬.‫ﻛﺒﯿﺮا‬ ‫ﺗﻐﯿﺮه‬ ‫ﯾﻜﻮن‬ ‫وأﻻ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮا‬ ‫ﯾﻜﻮن‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ﯾﻨﺒﻐﻲ‬ ‫وﻟﻜﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﻤﺎﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﺛﺎﺑﺘﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻄﻠﺐ‬ ‫ﯾﻜﻮن‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ﯾﺸﺘﺮط‬ ‫ﻓﻼ‬.
  10. 10. ‫اﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﯿﺔ‬ ‫واﻟﮭﻨﺪﺳﺔ‬ ‫اﻹدارة‬ ‫ﻣﻮﻗﻊ‬ 10 ‫ا‬‫اﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫واﻷﺷﯿﺎء‬ ‫واﻟﻤﻮاد‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻤﺮار‬ ‫اﺳﺘﺨﺪاﻣﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﯾﺘﻢ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺎم‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻮاد‬ ‫ﺗﺸﻤﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻤﻮذج‬ ‫ھﺬا‬ ‫ﯾﻨﺎﺳﯿﮭﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﻮاد‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻮاد‬ ‫وﻛﺬﻟﻚ‬ ،‫ذﻟﻚ‬ ‫وﻏﯿﺮ‬ ‫واﻷﻟﺒﺎن‬ ‫واﻟﻔﻮاﻛﮫ‬ ‫اﻟﺨﻀﺮوات‬ ‫ﻣﺜﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺠﺰﺋﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﺠﺎر‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺳﺘﻤﺮار‬ ‫ﺗﺒﺎع‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻨﻈﯿﻒ‬ ‫وأدوات‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺼﻮﯾﺮ‬ ‫أوراق‬ ‫ﻣﺜﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﺆﺳﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻤﺮ‬ ‫ﺑﺸﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪم‬،‫اﻹﻧﺘﺎج‬ ‫وﻣﺴﺘﻠﺰﻣﺎت‬ ‫ﺷﮭﺮﯾﺎ‬ ‫ﺛﺎﺑﺖ‬ ‫ﺑﻤﻌﺪل‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻐﯿﺎر‬ ‫ﻗﻄﻊ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺾ‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ‬. ‫اﻟﺘﺨﺰﯾﻦ‬ ‫وﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻮرﯾﺪ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫وھﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻠﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻠﯿﻞ‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﯾﮭﺪف‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻤﻮذج‬ ‫ھﺬا‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻨﻮﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺨﺰﯾﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ھﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ‬Annual Holding Cost‫؟‬‫أ‬ ‫ﻧﺮى‬ ‫أدﻧﺎه‬ ‫اﻟﺮﺳﻢ‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻈﺮ‬‫ن‬ ‫وﻋﻨﺪه‬ ‫اﻟﺼﻔﺮ‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫وﺻﻮﻻ‬ ‫ﺗﺪرﯾﺠﯿﺎ‬ ‫ﯾﺘﻨﺎﻗﺺ‬ ‫ﺛﻢ‬ ‫اﻟﻮاﺣﺪة‬ ‫اﻟﻄﻠﺒﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﺠﻢ‬ ‫وھﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻘﺼﻮى‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻘﯿﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﯾﺒﺪأ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺨﺰون‬ ‫وھﻜﺬا‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻤﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﻨﻔﺲ‬ ‫اﻷﺧﺮى‬ ‫اﻟﻄﻠﺒﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺼﻞ‬.‫ﺣﺠﻢ‬ ‫ﻧﺼﻒ‬ ‫ھﻮ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺘﻮﺳﻂ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺨﺰون‬ ‫ﺣﺠﻢ‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ﻧﺪرك‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ﯾﻤﻜﻨﻨﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻮا‬ ‫اﻟﻄﻠﺒﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﺠﻢ‬ ‫ﻧﺼﻒ‬ ‫ھﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻨﻮﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺨﺰﯾﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻮن‬ ‫وﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻮاﺣﺪة‬ ‫اﻟﻄﻠﺒﯿﺔ‬‫ﺗﺨﺰﯾﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺣﺪة‬ ‫ﺳﻨﻮﯾﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻮﺣﺪة‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻨﻮﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺨﺰﯾﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬=‫اﻟﻮاﺣﺪة‬ ‫اﻟﻄﻠﺒﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﺠﻢ‬*‫ﻟﻠﻮﺣﺪة‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻨﻮﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺨﺰﯾﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬2 ‫اﻟﺴﻨﻮﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻮرﯾﺪ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ھﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ‬Annual Odering Cost‫؟‬‫اﻟﺴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻮرﯾﺪ‬ ‫أواﻣﺮ‬ ‫ﻋﺪد‬ ‫ھﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻮاﺣﺪ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻮرﯾﺪ‬ ‫أﻣﺮ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﻀﺮوﺑﺔ‬.‫ا‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻮرﯾﺪ‬ ‫أواﻣﺮ‬ ‫ﻋﺪد‬ ‫ھﻮ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ‬ ‫وﻟﻜﻦ‬‫اﻟﺘﻮرﯾﺪ‬ ‫أواﻣﺮ‬ ‫ﻋﺪد‬ ‫ﻟﺴﻨﻮﯾﺔ؟‬ ‫اﻟﻮاﺣﺪة‬ ‫اﻟﻄﻠﺒﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﺠﻢ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺴﻮﻣﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻨﻮي‬ ‫اﻟﻄﻠﺐ‬ ‫ﺣﺠﻢ‬ ‫ﯾﺴﺎوي‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻨﻮﯾﺔ‬.‫اﻟﺴﻨﻮﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻮرﯾﺪ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﺘﻜﻮن‬ ‫اﻟﻮاﺣﺪ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻮرﯾﺪ‬ ‫أﻣﺮ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﻀﺮوﺑﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻮاﺣﺪة‬ ‫اﻟﻄﻠﺒﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﺠﻢ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺴﻮﻣﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻨﻮي‬ ‫اﻟﻄﻠﺐ‬ ‫ﻟﺤﺠﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺎوﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻨﻮﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻮرﯾﺪ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬=‫اﻟﺴﻨﻮي‬ ‫اﻟﻄﻠﺐ‬ ‫ﺣﺠﻢ‬*‫ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬‫اﻟﺘﻮرﯾﺪ‬ ‫اﻣﺮ‬‫اﻟﻮاﺣﺪة‬ ‫اﻟﻄﻠﺒﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﺠﻢ‬
  11. 11. ‫اﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﯿﺔ‬ ‫واﻟﮭﻨﺪﺳﺔ‬ ‫اﻹدارة‬ ‫ﻣﻮﻗﻊ‬ 11 ‫اﻟﻜﻠﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻮرﯾﺪ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬‫اﻟﺴﻨﻮﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺨﺰﯾﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬+‫اﻟﺴﻨﻮﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻮرﯾﺪ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻮاﺣﺪة‬ ‫اﻟﻄﻠﺒﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﺠﻢ‬ * ‫ﻟﻠﻮﺣﺪة‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻨﻮﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺨﺰﯾﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬ 2 ‫اﻟﺴﻨﻮﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺨﺰﯾﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬= ‫اﻟﺴﻨﻮي‬ ‫اﻟﻄﻠﺐ‬ ‫ﺣﺠﻢ‬*‫اﻣﺮ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻮرﯾﺪ‬ ‫اﻟﻮاﺣﺪة‬ ‫اﻟﻄﻠﺒﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﺠﻢ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻨﻮﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻮرﯾﺪ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬= ‫اﻟﺴﻨﻮﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺨﺰﯾﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬+‫اﻟﺴﻨﻮﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻮرﯾﺪ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻠﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻨﻮﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬= ‫أدﻧﺎه‬ ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻨﻈﺮ‬‫زادت‬ ‫ﻛﻠﻤﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻮاﺣﺪة‬ ‫اﻟﻄﻠﺒﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﺠﻢ‬ ‫زاد‬ ‫ﻛﻠﻤﺎ‬ ‫أﻧﮫ‬ ‫ﻧﺠﺪ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻌﺎدﻻت‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫وﺑﺎﻟﺘﺄﻣﻞ‬ ‫ﺻﺤﯿﺢ‬ ‫واﻟﻌﻜﺲ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻮرﯾﺪ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫وﻗﻠﺖ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺨﺰﯾﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬.‫ﻃﻠﺒﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﺣﺠﻢ‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ﺗﺼﻮرﻧﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﻮ‬ ‫ﻷﻧﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻮﻗﻊ‬ ‫أﻣﺮ‬ ‫وھﺬا‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻮرﯾﺪ‬ ‫وأواﻣﺮ‬ ‫ﻗﻠﯿﻼ‬ ‫ﺳﯿﻜﻮن‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺨﺰون‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ذﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﻓﻤﻌﻨﻰ‬ ‫ﺟﺪا‬ ‫ﺻﻐﯿﺮا‬‫ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻞ‬ ‫وﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﻛﺜﯿﺮة‬ ‫ﺳﺘﻜﻮن‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻮرﯾﺪ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫وﺗﺰداد‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺨﺰﯾﻦ‬.‫اﻟﺘﻮرﯾﺪ‬ ‫أواﻣﺮ‬ ‫ﻋﺪد‬ ‫ﻓﺈن‬ ‫ﻛﺒﯿﺮا‬ ‫اﻟﻄﻠﺒﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﺠﻢ‬ ‫ﯾﻜﻮن‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ‬ ‫وﻟﻜﻦ‬)‫أو‬ ‫اﻟﻄﻠﺒﯿﺎت‬(‫ﻛﺒﯿﺮا‬ ‫ﺳﯿﻜﻮن‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺨﺰون‬ ‫ﻷن‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺨﺰﯾﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫وﺗﺰداد‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻮرﯾﺪ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻞ‬ ‫وﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﻗﻠﯿﻼ‬ ‫ﺳﯿﻜﻮن‬.
  12. 12. ‫اﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﯿﺔ‬ ‫واﻟﮭﻨﺪﺳﺔ‬ ‫اﻹدارة‬ ‫ﻣﻮﻗﻊ‬ 12 ‫زﯾﺎدة‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻞ‬ ‫ﺛﻢ‬ ‫ﺟﺪا‬ ‫ﺻﻐﯿﺮا‬ ‫اﻟﻄﻠﺒﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﺠﻢ‬ ‫ﯾﻜﻮن‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﻛﺒﯿﺮة‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻮن‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻠﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ﯾﻮﺿﺢ‬ ‫أﻋﻼه‬ ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﺣﺠﻢ‬‫ﻣﻌﯿﻦ‬ ٍ‫ﺪ‬‫ﺣ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻄﻠﺒﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﺠﻢ‬ ‫زﯾﺎدة‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﺗﺰداد‬ ‫ﺛﻢ‬ ‫اﻟﻄﻠﺒﯿﺔ‬.‫ﺗﺤﺪث‬ ‫ﻛﻠﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫أﻗﻞ‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺔ‬ ‫وﯾﻤﻜﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻮرﯾﺪ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺎوﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺨﺰﯾﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻮن‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ‬.‫وﺑﺒﻌﺾ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻮرﯾﺪ‬ ‫ﺑﺘﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺨﺰﯾﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﺒﻤﺴﺎواة‬ ‫ﻟﺬﻟﻚ‬ ‫وھﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻄﻠﺒﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﺤﺠﻢ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺜﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻘﯿﻤﺔ‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻧﺼﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺴﯿﻄﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺮﯾﺎﺿﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻤﻠﯿﺎت‬: ‫ﻣﺜﺎل‬:‫ﻣ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫أﺳﺎﺳﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎدة‬ ‫ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﻛﯿﻤﺎوﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺎدة‬ ‫ﺗﺴﺘﺨﺪم‬ ‫ﺻﻨﺎﻋﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺷﺮﻛﺔ‬‫ﻨﺘﺠﮭﺎ‬.‫إﻋﺪاد‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻤﺖ‬ ‫إذا‬ ‫ھﻮ‬ ‫ﻟﻮاﺣﺪة‬ ‫اﻟﻄﻠﺒﯿﺔ‬ ‫وﺗﻮرﯾﺪ‬100‫ھﻮ‬ ‫ﻋﺎم‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺪة‬ ‫اﻟﻮاﺣﺪ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﯿﻠﻮﺟﺮام‬ ‫ﺗﺨﺰﯾﻦ‬ ‫وﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬ ،‫رﯾﺎل‬20‫وأن‬ ‫ﺟﻨﯿﮫ‬ ‫ھﻮ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻨﻮي‬ ‫اﻟﻄﻠﺐ‬ ‫ﺣﺠﻢ‬15000‫اﻷﻣﺜﻞ؟‬ ‫اﻟﻄﻠﺒﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﺠﻢ‬ ‫ھﻮ‬ ‫ﻓﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻛﺠﻢ‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ﻧﺠﺪ‬ ‫اﻋﻼه‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻌﺎدﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪام‬ ‫اﻷﻣﺜﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﻄﻠﺒﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﺠﻢ‬=387‫ﻛﺠﻢ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻨﻮي‬ ‫اﻟﻄﻠﺐ‬ ‫ﺑﻘﺴﻤﺔ‬‫ل‬ ‫ﺑﺤﺎﺟﺔ‬ ‫أﻧﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﻧﻌﺮف‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ﯾﻤﻜﻨﻨﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻮاﺣﺪة‬ ‫اﻟﻄﻠﺒﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﺠﻢ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬39‫ﺳﻨﻮﯾﺎ‬ ‫ﻃﻠﺒﯿﺔ‬.‫ﯾﻤﻜﻨﻨﺎ‬ ‫أي‬ ‫اﻟﻮاﺣﺪة‬ ‫اﻟﻄﻠﺒﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﯿﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻧﺼﻒ‬ ‫وھﻮ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺎم‬ ‫ﺧﻼل‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺨﺰون‬ ‫ﺣﺠﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﺪﯾﺮ‬ ‫ﻛﺬﻟﻚ‬194‫ﻛﺠﻢ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻮرﯾﺪ؟‬ ‫أﻣﺮ‬ ‫ﺑﺈﺻﺪار‬ ‫ﻧﻘﻮم‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻰ‬ ‫ﯾ‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ﯾﺠﺐ‬ ‫اﻟﺬي‬ ‫اﻟﻮﻗﺖ‬ ‫ھﻮ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ‬ ‫وﻟﻜﻦ‬ ‫اﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎدي‬ ‫أو‬ ‫اﻷﻣﺜﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﻄﻠﺒﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﺠﻢ‬ ‫ﺣﺪدﻧﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﻘﺪ‬‫اﻟﺘﻮرﯾﺪ‬ ‫أﻣﺮ‬ ‫ﻓﯿﮫ‬ ‫ﺼﺪر‬. ‫ﻧﻔﺲ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻜﻮﻧﺎت‬ ‫أو‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻮاد‬ ‫ﺑﻮﺻﻮل‬ ‫ﯾﺴﻤﺢ‬ ‫اﻟﺬي‬ ‫اﻟﻮﻗﺖ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﺮة‬ ‫ﻛﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻮرﯾﺪ‬ ‫أﻣﺮ‬ ‫ﻹﺻﺪار‬ ‫ﺑﺤﺎﺟﺔ‬ ‫إﻧﻨﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﺼﻔﺮ‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺨﺰون‬ ‫ﻓﯿﮫ‬ ‫ﯾﺼﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﺬي‬ ‫اﻟﻮﻗﺖ‬.‫ﻟﻠﺼﻔﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺨﺰون‬ ‫وﺻﻮل‬ ‫ﻗﺒﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻮرﯾﺪ‬ ‫أﻣﺮ‬ ‫ﻧﺼﺪر‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻧﻨﺎ‬ ‫وﻟﺬﻟﻚ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻘﺪم‬ ‫زﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﺎوي‬ ‫ﺑﻔﺘﺮة‬.‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻧﻌﺘﻤﺪ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻧﻨﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻮﻗﺖ‬ ‫ذﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﺤﺪﯾﺪ‬‫ﻧﻘﻄﺔ‬ ‫ﯾﺴﻤﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﻟﺤﺠﻢ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺨﺰون‬ ‫وﺻﻮل‬ ‫أو‬ ‫اﻟﻄﻠﺐ‬ ‫إﻋﺎدة‬Reorder Point ‫اﻟﻄﻠﺐ‬ ‫إﻋﺎدة‬ ‫ﻧﻘﻄﺔ‬=‫اﻟﻄﻠﺐ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺪل‬*‫اﻟﺘﻘﺪم‬ ‫زﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻓﺈن‬ ‫أﯾﺎم‬ ‫ﺳﺒﻌﺔ‬ ‫ھﻮ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻘﺪم‬ ‫زﻣﻦ‬ ‫أن‬ ‫اﻓﺘﺮﺿﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﻮ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﺎﺑﻖ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺜﺎل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻓﻤﺜﻼ‬ ‫اﻟﻄﻠﺐ‬ ‫إﻋﺎدة‬ ‫ﻧﻘﻄﺔ‬=7*‫اﻟﯿﻮﻣﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻄﻠﺐ‬ ‫ﺣﺠﻢ‬ ‫اﻟﯿﻮﻣﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻄﻠﺐ‬ ‫ﺣﺠﻢ‬=15000/365=41‫ﻛﺠﻢ‬ ‫إﻋﺎد‬ ‫ﻧﻘﻄﺔ‬‫اﻟﻄﻠﺐ‬ ‫ة‬=7*41=287‫ﻛﺠﻢ‬
  13. 13. ‫اﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﯿﺔ‬ ‫واﻟﮭﻨﺪﺳﺔ‬ ‫اﻹدارة‬ ‫ﻣﻮﻗﻊ‬ 13 ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺨﺰون‬ ‫وﺻﻞ‬ ‫ﻛﻠﻤﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻮرﯾﺪ‬ ‫أﻣﺮ‬ ‫ُﺼﺪر‬‫ﻨ‬‫ﺳ‬ ‫ﻓﻨﺤﻦ‬ ‫إذن‬287‫ھﻮ‬ ‫اﻟﻄﻠﺒﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﺠﻢ‬ ‫وﺳﯿﻜﻮن‬ ‫ﻛﺠﻢ‬387 ‫ﻛﺠﻢ‬ ‫ﻛﺬﻟﻚ‬ ‫اﻟﻄﻠﺒﯿﺔ‬ ‫ووﻗﺖ‬ ‫اﻷﻣﺜﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﻄﻠﺒﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﺠﻢ‬ ‫ﻟﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﯾﺤﺪد‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻤﻮذج‬ ‫ھﺬا‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ﺗﺮى‬ ‫ﻓﮭﻜﺬا‬. ‫ھﻲ‬ ‫واﻟﺘﻮرﯾﺪ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺘﺨﺰﯾﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻠﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻨﻮﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻮن‬ ‫اﻟﻄﺮﯾﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﮭﺬه‬7746‫رﯾﺎل‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻮرﯾﺪ‬ ‫ﻗﻤﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﻮ‬ ‫ﻣﺎذا‬‫ﻃﻠﺒﯿﺘﯿﻦ‬‫ﺳﻨﻮﯾﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﻘﻂ‬.‫ﺳﺘﻜﻮن‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ھﺬه‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻠﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫إن‬75200‫رﯾﺎل‬. ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﯾﺰﯾﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ‬ ‫وﻓﺮﻧﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻤﻮذج‬ ‫ھﺬا‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪام‬ ‫أﻧﻨﺎ‬ ‫أي‬65000ً‫ﺎ‬‫ﺳﻨﻮﯾ‬ ‫رﯾﺎل‬.‫ﻣﻔﯿﺪا‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻤﻮذج‬ ‫ھﺬا‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ﺗﺮى‬ ‫أﻻ‬ ‫وﺑﺴﯿﻄﺎ‬ ‫ﺟﺪا‬‫ﺟﺪا‬.‫ﻓﻔﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺨﺰﯾﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﺎرق‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻔﺎرق؟؟؟‬ ‫ھﺬا‬ ‫أﺗﻰ‬ ‫أﯾﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬‫ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ‬ ‫ﻓﺈن‬ ‫اﻷوﻟﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ھﻮ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺨﺰون‬194‫ھﻮ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺨﺰون‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻮﺳﻂ‬ ‫ﻓﺈن‬ ‫اﻟﺜﺎﻧﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫وﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻛﺠﻢ‬3750‫ﻛﺠﻢ‬. ‫اﻷﻣﺜﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﻄﻠﺒﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﺠﻢ‬ ‫ﻧﻤﻮذج‬ ‫ﺣﻮل‬ ‫ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺎت‬EOQ: ‫أوﻻ‬:‫اﻟﻨﻤﻮذج‬ ‫ھﺬا‬ ‫اﺳﺘﺨﺪام‬ ‫ﻓﻌﻨﺪ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻮاد‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺾ‬ ‫ﺗﺨﺰﯾﻦ‬ ‫ﺻﻌﻮﺑﺔ‬ ‫اﻻﻋﺘﺒﺎر‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﯾﺄﺧﺬ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻤﻮذج‬ ‫ھﺬا‬ ‫ان‬ ‫ﻻﺣﻆ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺜﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻄﻠﺒﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﺠﻢ‬ ‫ﻟﺤﺴﺎب‬‫ﺗﻔﺴﺪ‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ﯾﻤﻜﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﺤﯿﺚ‬ ‫ﻛﺒﯿﺮا‬ ‫اﻟﻄﻠﺒﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﺠﻢ‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ﺗﺠﺪ‬ ‫ﻓﻘﺪ‬‫ﺑﯿﻌﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﻗﺒﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺎدة‬.‫ﻓﮭﺬا‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻤﻮذج‬ ‫ھﺬا‬ ‫اﺳﺘﺨﺪام‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪ‬ ‫اﻻﻋﺘﺒﺎر‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫أﻧﺖ‬ ‫ﺗﺄﺧﺬه‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ﯾﺠﺐ‬ ‫اﻻﻣﺮ‬. ً‫ﺎ‬‫ﺛﺎﻧﯿ‬:‫اﻟﻨﻤﻮذج‬ ‫ھﺬا‬ ‫دﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺘﻤﺪ‬‫ﻏﯿﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺪﺧﻼت‬ ‫ھﺬه‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻧﺖ‬ ‫ﻓﺈذا‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺴﺎﺑﺎت‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺪﺧﻼت‬ ‫دﻗﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻓﻤﻦ‬ ‫ﺻﺤﯿﺤﺔ‬‫اﻟﻨﺘ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻮن‬ ‫أن‬ ‫اﻟﻄﺒﯿﻌﻲ‬‫ﺻﺤﯿﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﻏﯿﺮ‬ ‫ﺎﺋﺞ‬.‫اﻟﻤﺪﺧﻼت‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻘﺪﯾﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺠﮭﻮد‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺾ‬ ‫ﺑﺬل‬ ‫ﯾﻨﺒﻐﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﺬﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺪﻗﺔ‬. ً‫ﺎ‬‫ﺛﺎﻟﺜ‬:‫اﻟﻔﺎﻗﺪ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻠﯿﻞ‬ ‫ﺳﯿﺎﺳﺔ‬‫اﻟﻨﻤﻮذج‬ ‫ھﺬا‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻌﺎرﺿﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺒﺪو‬ ‫ﻗﺪ‬EOQ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺘﻤﺪ‬ ‫اﻟﻔﺎﻗﺪ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻠﯿﻞ‬ ‫ﺳﯿﺎﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﻷن‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻠﯿﻞ‬‫ﺗﻘ‬ ‫وﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺨﺰون‬‫اﻟﻨﻤﻮذج‬ ‫ھﺬا‬ ‫ﻧﺘﯿﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﯾﺘﻌﺎرض‬ ‫ﻗﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ‬ ‫وھﻮ‬ ‫اﻟﻄﻠﺒﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﺠﻢ‬ ‫ﻠﯿﻞ‬.‫وﻟﻜﻨﻨﻲ‬‫أن‬ ‫أﻇﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫أﺳﺎﺳﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺘﻤﺪ‬ ‫اﻟﻔﺎﻗﺪ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻠﯿﻞ‬ ‫ﺳﯿﺎﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﻷن‬ ‫اﻟﻨﺎﺣﯿﺔ‬ ‫ھﺬه‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻛﺒﯿﺮا‬ ‫ﻟﯿﺲ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻌﺎرض‬‫اﻟﻮاﺣﺪة‬ ‫اﻟﻄﻠﺒﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻠﯿﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎﻻت‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫إﻟﯿﮭﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻄﺮق‬ ‫ﯾﺘﻢ‬ ‫ﺳﻮف‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻌﺪدة‬ ‫ﻃﺮق‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺨﺪام‬‫اﷲ‬ ‫ﺷﺎء‬ ‫إن‬ ‫أﺧﺮى‬.‫اﻟﻄ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﻠﺖ‬ ‫ﻓﺈذا‬‫ﻠﺒﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺻﻐﯿﺮا‬ ‫ﺣﺠﻢ‬ ‫ﺳﯿﻌﻄﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻤﻮذج‬ ‫ھﺬا‬ ‫ﻓﺈن‬ ‫اﻟﻮاﺣﺪة‬‫اﻟﻨﺎﺣﯿﺔ‬ ‫ھﺬه‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺎرض‬ ‫ﻓﻼ‬ ‫وﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﻃﻠﺒﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻜﻞ‬.‫ھﺬا‬ ‫وﻟﻜﻦ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﯾﺄﺧﺬ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻤﻮذج‬‫أداء‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺨﺰون‬ ‫زﯾﺎدة‬ ‫ﺗﺄﺛﯿﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﺜﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﻔﺎﻗﺪ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻠﯿﻞ‬ ‫ﺳﯿﺎﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﯿﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﺮﺗﻜﺰ‬ ‫أﻣﻮرا‬ ‫اﻻﻋﺘﺒﺎر‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻹ‬ ‫وﻏﯿﺮھﺎ‬ ‫واﻟﻤﻌﺪات‬ ‫اﻟﺠﻮدة‬ ‫ﻣﺸﺎﻛﻞ‬ ‫وﻣﻌﺎﻟﺠﺔ‬ ‫اﻹﻧﺘﺎﺟﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻤﻠﯿﺔ‬‫ﺣﺠﻢ‬ ‫زﯾﺎدة‬ ‫أن‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺿﺎﻓﺔ‬‫ﯾﺆدي‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺨﺰون‬ ‫ﻓﯿﮫ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻘﺪة‬ ‫أﻧﻈﻤﺔ‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫اﻻﺣﺘﯿﺎج‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬.‫ﻗﺪ‬ ‫اﻟﻔﺎﻗﺪ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻠﯿﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﺴﯿﺎﺳﺔ‬‫اﻟﺬي‬ ‫ذﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫أﻗﻞ‬ ‫ﻃﻠﺒﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﺠﻢ‬ ‫ًﻀﻞ‬‫ﻔ‬ُ‫ﺗ‬ ‫ﺳﻠﻔﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺬﻛﻮرة‬ ‫ﻟﻸﺳﺒﺎب‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻤﻮذج‬ ‫ھﺬا‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﯿﮫ‬ ‫ﻧﺤﺼﻞ‬‫اﻟﻨﻤﻮذج‬ ‫ھﺬا‬ ‫ﺣﺴﺎﺑﺎت‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﺪﺧﻞ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫واﻟﺘﻲ‬ ً‫ﺎ‬‫راﺑﻌ‬:‫ا‬ ‫ھﺬا‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻌﺪﻟﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻤﺎذج‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺾ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺟﺪ‬‫ﺷﺮاء‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻌﺮ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﺨﻔﯿﻀﺎت‬ ‫وﺟﻮد‬ ‫ﺗﻨﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫واﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻨﻤﻮذج‬ ‫اﷲ‬ ‫ﺷﺎء‬ ‫إن‬ ً‫ﺎ‬‫ﻻﺣﻘ‬ ‫ﺳﻨﻨﺎﻗﺸﮫ‬ ‫ﻣﻤﺎ‬ ‫وﻏﯿﺮھﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺪرﯾﺠﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻮرﯾﺪ‬ ‫وﻋﻤﻠﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﺒﯿﺮة‬ ‫ﻛﻤﯿﺎت‬ ‫ﺧﺎﻣﺴﺎ‬:‫ﯾﺴﯿﺮا‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺨﺰون‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫واﻟﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬ ‫ﺑﺴﯿﻄﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺴﺎﺑﺎت‬ ‫ﯾﺠﻌﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻘﺪ‬ ‫زﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺛﯿﺎت‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ﺗﻼﺣﻆ‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ﯾﻤﻜﻨﻚ‬.‫ﻗﺪ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻮ‬ ‫زﻣﻦ‬ ‫أو‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻘﺪم‬ ‫زﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺛﺒﺎت‬ ‫أن‬ ‫اﻟﺒﻌﺾ‬ ‫ﯾﺘﺼﻮر‬‫ان‬ ‫اﻷﻣﻮر‬ ‫ﻃﺒﯿﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫وأﻧﮫ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺴﺘﺤﯿﻠﺔ‬ ‫اﻷﻣﻮر‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ھﻮ‬ ‫رﯾﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻐﯿﺮا‬ ‫ﯾﻜﻮن‬.‫اﺧﺘﯿﺎر‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺠﮭﻮد‬ ‫ﺑﺒﻌﺾ‬ ‫وﺗﻘﻠﯿﻠﮫ‬ ‫ﺑﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻘﺪم‬ ‫زﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﺜﺒﯿﺖ‬ ‫ﯾﻤﻜﻨﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻧﮫ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﻘﯿﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫وﻟﻜﻦ‬
  14. 14. ‫اﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﯿﺔ‬ ‫واﻟﮭﻨﺪﺳﺔ‬ ‫اﻹدارة‬ ‫ﻣﻮﻗﻊ‬ 14 ‫اﻟﻤﻄﻠﺐ‬ ‫ھﺬا‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫واﻟﺘﺮﻛﯿﺰ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﮭﻢ‬ ‫اﻷﻣﺪ‬ ‫ﻃﻮﯾﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻼﻗﺎت‬ ‫وﺑﻨﺎء‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻮردﯾﻦ‬.‫زﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺛﺒﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻨﻰ‬ ‫ﻟﯿﺲ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻄﺒﻊ‬ ‫وﻟ‬ ‫أﺑﺪا‬ ‫ﯾﺨﺘﻠﻒ‬ ‫أﻻ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻘﺪم‬‫ﻣﺜﻞ‬ ‫ﺑﺴﯿﻂ‬ ‫ﺑﻤﻘﺪار‬ ‫ﯾﺘﻐﯿﺮ‬ ‫ﻗﺪ‬ ‫ﻜﻨﮫ‬5%‫أو‬10%‫ﻓﻘﻂ‬. ‫واﻟﺘﻮرﯾﺪ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺨﺰﯾﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﺪﯾﺮ‬ ‫ﺗﻮرﯾﺪ‬ ‫أﻣﺮ‬ ‫ﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫وﻛﺬﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻮﺣﺪة‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻨﻮﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺨﺰﯾﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﺘﻘﺪﯾﺮ‬ ‫ﻧﺤﺘﺎج‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻧﻨﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻤﻮذج‬ ‫ھﺬا‬ ‫ﻧﺴﺘﺨﺪم‬ ‫ﻟﻜﻲ‬ )‫ﻃﻠﺒﯿﺔ‬.(‫أﺧﺮى‬ ‫ﻣﺮة‬ ‫ھﻨﺎ‬ ‫أوﺟﺰھﺎ‬ ‫وﻟﻜﻨﻨﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻜﺎﻟﯿﻒ‬ ‫ھﺬه‬ ‫ﻟﺸﺮح‬ ‫اﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻘﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺮﺿﺖ‬ ‫اﻟ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬‫ﺑﺎﻟﻤﺨﺰون‬ ‫اﻻﺣﺘﻔﺎظ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫أو‬ ‫ﺘﺨﺰﯾﻦ‬Annual HoldingCost‫رأس‬ ‫ﺗﺠﻤﯿﺪ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺸﻤﻞ‬ ‫واﻷرض‬ ‫واﻟﻌﻤﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫اﻷﻧﻈﻤﺔ‬ ‫وﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺨﺰون‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻧﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ھﻼك‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫وﻛﺬﻟﻚ‬ ‫اﺳﺘﺜﻤﺎره‬ ‫ﻋﺪم‬ ‫ﺑﻤﻌﻨﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺎل‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺨﺰون‬ ‫ﻟﺤﻔﻆ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺴﺘﺨﺪﻣﺔ‬ ‫واﻟﻤﻌﺪات‬.‫اﺳﺘﺜﻤﺮﻧﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﻮ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺘﻮﻗﻊ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺎﺋﺪ‬ ‫ﻧﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﺎوي‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺎل‬ ‫رأس‬ ‫ﺗﺠﻤﯿﺪ‬ ‫ﻓﺘﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻮن‬ ‫ﻓﻘﺪ‬ ‫ﻓﯿﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﻧﺴﺘﺜﻤﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺸﺎرﯾﻊ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻧﺘﻮﻗﻌﮫ‬ ‫اﻟﺬي‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺎﺋﺪ‬ ‫ﺣﺴﺐ‬ ‫ﺗﺨﺘﻠﻒ‬ ‫وھﺬه‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺨﺰون‬ ‫ھﺬا‬ ‫ﺛﻤﻦ‬15 %‫أو‬20%‫ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ﺑﻤﻌﻨﻰ‬1000‫ﺗﺴﺎوي‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺎل‬ ‫رأس‬ ‫ﺗﺠﻤﯿﺪ‬ ‫ﻧﺎﺣﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺨﺰون‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺟﻨﯿﮫ‬150‫أو‬ 200‫ﺟﻨﯿﮫ‬.‫أن‬ ‫ﺗﺠﺪ‬ ‫ﻓﻘﺪ‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺒﺮة‬ ‫ﺳﺎﺑﻖ‬ ‫ﺣﺴﺐ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﺪﯾﺮھﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﯿﻤﻜﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺨﺰون‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻧﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ھﻼك‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫أﻣﺎ‬‫ﻧﺴﺒﺔ‬1% ‫او‬5%‫اﻟﺘﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ھﺬه‬ ‫ﻧﻀﯿﻒ‬ ‫وﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﺳﻨﻮﯾﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻘﯿﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﺪﯾﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺼﺒﺢ‬ ‫أو‬ ‫ﺗﮭﻠﻚ‬.‫اﻟﻌﻤﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﺎﻟﯿﻒ‬ ‫ﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﺣﺴﺎب‬ ‫ﯾﻤﻜﻨﻨﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺨﺰون‬ ‫ﻗﯿﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫وﺗﺤﻮﯾﻠﮭﺎ‬ ‫وﺧﻼﻓﮫ‬ ‫واﻹﯾﺠﺎر‬ ‫واﻟﻤﻌﺪات‬.‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻧﺤﺼﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻜﺎﻟﯿﻒ‬ ‫ھﺬه‬ ‫ﻛﻞ‬ ‫وﺑﺘﺠﻤﯿﻊ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺨﺰﯾﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬.‫ﺛﻤ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻛﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ھﺬه‬ ‫ﻧﺤﺪد‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ﯾﻤﻜﻨﻨﺎ‬ ‫وﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ‬‫أن‬ ‫ﻣﺜﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺨﺰﻧﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺎدة‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻮﺣﺪة‬ ‫ﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻮن‬20%‫أو‬25%‫أو‬30.% ‫ﺑﺘﺤﻤﯿﻞ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻢ‬ ‫ﻓﻼ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻮاد‬ ‫ھﺬه‬ ‫ﺑﺘﺨﺰﯾﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺮﺗﺒﻄﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻤﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﮭﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻘﺼﻮد‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻤﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫أن‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫اﻻﻧﺘﺒﺎه‬ ‫ﯾﺠﺐ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺎدة‬ ‫ھﺬه‬ ‫ﻧﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﯾﺘﻨﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﺟﺰء‬ ‫ﺗﺤﻤﯿﻞ‬ ‫ﯾﺘﻢ‬ ‫وإﻧﻤﺎ‬ ‫واﺣﺪة‬ ‫ﻣﺎدة‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺨﺎزن‬ ‫ﻋﻤﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺗﺒﺎت‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﻮاد‬‫اﻷﺧﺮى‬.‫ﻛﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺟﻮدة‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻤﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻧﺘﺠﺎدل‬ ‫وﻗﺪ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻘﺮﯾﺐ‬ ‫أو‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻘﺪﯾﺮ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺾ‬ ‫ﯾﻮﺟﺪ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻄﺒﻊ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻤﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫اﻻﺳﺘﻐﻨﺎء‬ ‫ﯾﺘﻢ‬ ‫ﻓﻠﻦ‬ ‫ﻗﻞ‬ ‫ﻟﻮ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺎدة‬ ‫ھﺬه‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺰون‬ ‫وأن‬ ‫اﻻﺣﻮال‬.‫اﻟﻤﺮﺗﺒﻄﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻤﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﺈن‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻮﻣﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻜﺎﻟﯿﻒ‬ ‫ﻟﺒﺎﻗﻲ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﻠﯿﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻮن‬ ‫وﺣﺪھﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺨﺰﻧﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻤﺎدة‬.‫ﺗﻨﺎﻗ‬ ‫ﻗﺪ‬ ‫اﻷﻣﺮ‬ ‫ﻧﻔﺲ‬‫اﻷرض‬ ‫إﯾﺠﺎر‬ ‫ﺗﻘﺪﯾﺮ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﺸﮫ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﻐﯿﺮ‬ ‫ﻟﻦ‬ ‫ﻷﻧﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﺆﺛﺮة‬ ‫ﻏﯿﺮ‬ ‫أﻧﮭﺎ‬ ‫اﻋﺘﺒﺎر‬ ‫ﻓﯿﻤﻜﻦ‬ ‫اﻷﺣﻮال‬ ‫ﺟﻤﯿﻊ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺳﻨﺪﻓﻌﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﻛﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﺈن‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺨﺎزن‬ ‫أو‬.‫ﯾﻤﻜﻦ‬ ‫وﻟﻜﻦ‬ ‫وﻓﻲ‬ ‫آﺧﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺰن‬ ‫اﺳﺘﺌﺠﺎر‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻧﻔﻜﺮ‬ ‫ﻓﻘﺪ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻮاد‬ ‫ﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺨﺰون‬ ‫ﺑﺘﻘﻠﺴﻞ‬ ‫ﻗﻤﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﻮ‬ ‫ﺑﺄﻧﻨﺎ‬ ‫أﯾﻀﺎ‬ ‫ﻧﺠﺎدل‬ ‫أن‬ ‫آﺧﺮ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺰاﺋﺪة‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻤﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫اﺳﺘﻐﻼل‬. ‫ﻋﺎﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺼﻔﺔ‬‫ﻓﺈن‬‫ﺑﺎﻟﻤﺨﺰون‬ ‫اﻻﺣﺘﻔﺎظ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬‫ﺑﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﺎدة‬ ‫ﺗﺘﺮاوح‬15%‫و‬25%‫اﻟﺮﺋﯿﺴﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻜﻮن‬ ‫ﻷن‬ ‫وذﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻧﺴﺘﺜﻤﺮ‬ ‫ﻟﻦ‬ ‫ﻷﻧﻨﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﻨﻮك‬ ‫ﻋﺎﺋﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﻘﻠﯿﻞ‬ ‫أﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻮن‬ ‫ﻋﺎدة‬ ‫وھﺬه‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺎل‬ ‫رأس‬ ‫ﺗﺠﻤﯿﺪ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ھﻮ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﮭﺬه‬ ‫اﻟﺒﻨﻮك‬ ‫ﻋﺎﺋﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫أﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﺋﺪه‬ ‫ﻛﺎن‬ ‫إذا‬ ‫إﻻ‬ ‫ﻣﺸﺮوع‬.‫اﻟ‬ ‫ﻧﻮﻋﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﺴﺐ‬ ‫ﺗﺨﺘﻠﻒ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺨﺰون‬ ‫ھﻼك‬ ‫ﻧﺴﺒﺔ‬‫ﻤﺨﺰون‬ ‫ﻣﺜﻞ‬ ‫ﻗﻠﯿﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻮن‬ ‫ﻓﮭﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﺨﺰﯾﻨﮫ‬ ‫ﻣﺪة‬ ‫وﺣﺴﺐ‬1%‫ﺳﺮﯾﻌﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﻔﺴﺪ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻮاد‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺾ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺳﻮى‬ ‫اﻷﺣﯿﺎن‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻈﻢ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺑﺴﺮﻋﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺘﻘﺎدم‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻨﺘﺠﺎت‬ ‫أو‬.‫ﻣﺜﻞ‬ ‫ﺑﺴﯿﻄﺔ‬ ‫ﻧﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﺎدة‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻮن‬ ‫واﻟﻌﻤﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺨﺎزن‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬3%‫أو‬5%‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺨﺰﻧﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻮاد‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬.‫ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﺎدة‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻮن‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻤﺨﺰون‬ ‫اﻻﺣﺘﻔﺎظ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﺈن‬ ‫وﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ‬‫ﺑﯿﻦ‬15%‫إﻟﻰ‬25%‫وﻟﻜﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺎﻻت‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺾ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫أﻗﻞ‬ ‫أو‬ ‫أﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻮن‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ھﺬا‬ ‫ﯾﻤﻨﻊ‬ ‫ﻻ‬
  15. 15. ‫اﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﯿﺔ‬ ‫واﻟﮭﻨﺪﺳﺔ‬ ‫اﻹدارة‬ ‫ﻣﻮﻗﻊ‬ 15 ‫اﻟﻮاﺣﺪ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻮرﯾﺪ‬ ‫أﻣﺮ‬ ‫أو‬ ‫اﻟﻄﻠﺒﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬Order cost‫واﻟﻤﺼﺎرﯾﻒ‬ ‫واﻟﺘﺄﻣﯿﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻘﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﺼﺎرﯾﻒ‬ ‫ﺗﺸﻤﻞ‬ ‫وﻏﯿﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﻔﺤﺺ‬ ‫وﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫اﻋﺘﻤﺎد‬ ‫ﻓﺘﺢ‬ ‫وﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻮردﯾﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫واﻟﺘﻨﺎﻗﺶ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻮرﯾﺪ‬ ‫وأﻣﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻮاﺻﻔﺎت‬ ‫ﻹﻋﺪاد‬ ‫اﻹدارﯾﺔ‬ ‫ذﻟﻚ‬.‫ھﺬ‬‫اﻟﺤﻘﯿﻘﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﯿﻤﺘﮭﺎ‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻮﺻﻮل‬ ‫ﺗﻘﺪﯾﺮھﺎ‬ ‫ﯾﺠﺐ‬ ‫ه‬. ‫اﻟﺪاﺧﻠﻲ؟‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺼﻨﯿﻊ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺎذا‬ ‫ﻧﻘﻮم‬ ‫ﻛﻨﺎ‬ ‫إذا‬ ‫ﻣﺎذا‬ ‫وﻟﻜﻦ‬ ‫ﺧﺎرﺟﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﻮرد‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ‬ ‫او‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺎدة‬ ‫ھﺬه‬ ‫ﺳﻨﺸﺘﺮي‬ ‫أﻧﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻋﺘﻤﺪﻧﺎ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﺑﻘﺎ‬ ‫ﺷﺮﺣﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫أن‬ ‫اﻻﻋﺘﺒﺎر‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻷﺧﺬ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﯾﺴﺘﺨﺪم‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻤﻮذج‬ ‫ھﺬا‬ ‫ﻧﻔﺲ‬ ‫إن‬ ‫ﺑﺄﻧﻔﺴﻨﺎ؟‬ ‫اﻟﺠﺰء‬ ‫او‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺎدة‬ ‫ھﺬه‬ ‫ﺑﺘﺼﻨﯿﻊ‬‫اﻟﻄﻠﺒﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫أي‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻨﺘﺞ‬ ‫أو‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺎدة‬ ‫ھﺬه‬ ‫ﻹﻧﺘﺎج‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺎﻛﯿﻨﺎت‬ ‫ﺗﻀﺒﯿﻂ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺳﺘﺸﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﻷﻧﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﺳﺘﺨﺘﻠﻒ‬ ‫اﻟﻮاﺣﺪة‬ ‫ﺷﺎﺑﮫ‬ ‫وﻣﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﺸﻐﻞ‬ ‫أﻣﺮ‬ ‫ﻹﻋﺪاد‬ ‫أﺧﺮى‬ ‫إدارة‬.‫اﻟﺪاﺧﻠﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺼﻨﯿﻊ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﯾﻨﻄﺒﻖ‬ ‫ﻣﺎذﻛﺮ‬ ‫ﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﺈن‬ ‫ذﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﻓﯿﻤﺎﻋﺪا‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻮﺿﻮع‬ ‫ﻣﺮاﺟﻊ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬: Operations Management for MBAs, Meredith adn Shafer, Wiley, 2001 Production and Operations Analysis, Nahmias, McGraw-Hill, Fifth Edition, 2005 Operations Management, Slack et al, Finanacial Times, Second Edition, 1998 Operations Management, Russel and Taylor III, Prentice Hall, Third Edition, 2000
  16. 16. ‫اﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﯿﺔ‬ ‫واﻟﮭﻨﺪﺳﺔ‬ ‫اﻹدارة‬ ‫ﻣﻮﻗﻊ‬ 16 ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﺨﻔﯿﻀﺎت‬ ‫وﺟﻮد‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪ‬ ‫اﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎدي‬ ‫اﻟﻄﻠﺒﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﺠﻢ‬‫اﻟﻜﻤﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﯾﻮﻟﯿﻮ‬14,2007‫ﻓﻲ‬7:12‫ص‬ ‫ﻧﺎﻗﺸﺖ‬‫اﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎدي‬ ‫اﻟﻄﻠﺒﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﺠﻢ‬ ‫ﻧﻤﻮذج‬‫أو‬EOQ‫اﻷﻛﺜﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺎﻻت‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺾ‬ ‫أﺿﯿﻒ‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ُﺣﺐ‬‫أ‬‫و‬ ‫ﺳﺎﺑﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻘﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ھﺬه‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻘﯿﺪا‬.‫ﻓﻤﺜﻼ‬ ‫ﻛﺒﯿﺮة‬ ‫ﻛﻤﯿﺎت‬ ‫ﺷﺮاء‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﺗﺨﻔﯿﻀﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻮرد‬ ‫ﻋﻠﯿﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﯾﻌﺮض‬ ‫اﻷﺣﯿﺎن‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ٍ‫ﺮ‬‫ﻛﺜﯿ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺷﺮاء‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫رﯾﺎﻟﯿﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻘﻄﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺳﻌﺮ‬ ‫ﯾﻜﻮن‬1000‫ﻗﻄﻌ‬‫ﺷﺮاء‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫وﻧﺼﻒ‬ ‫رﯾﺎل‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻌﺮ‬ ‫وﯾﻜﻮن‬ ‫ﺔ‬ 3000‫ﻗﻄﻌﺔ‬.‫ﻗﺪ‬ ‫وذﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﻛﺒﯿﺮة‬ ‫ﻛﻤﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺷﺮاء‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻮرد‬ ‫ﯾﺘﺤﻤﻠﮭﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ھﻮ‬ ‫ذﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﺒﺐ‬ ‫وﻗﺖ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﺈن‬ ‫وﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻄﻠﻮﺑﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻘﻄﻊ‬ ‫ﻹﻧﺘﺎج‬ ‫ﺧﺼﯿﺼﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﻀﺒﯿﻄﮫ‬ ‫ﯾﺘﻢ‬ ‫اﻹﻧﺘﺎج‬ ‫ﺧﻂ‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ﺑﺴﺒﺐ‬ ‫ﯾﻜﻮن‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻨﺘﺠﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻘﻄﻊ‬ ‫ﻋﺪد‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﻤﯿﻠﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﯾﺘﻢ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻀﺒﯿﻂ‬‫وﯾﺮﯾﺪ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻮرد‬ ‫ﻟﺪى‬ ‫ﻛﺒﯿﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺰون‬ ‫ﺗﻮﻓﺮ‬ ‫ﺑﺴﺒﺐ‬ ‫ﯾﻜﻮن‬ ‫ﻗﺪ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﺒﯿﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺠﻢ‬ ‫وﻓﻮرات‬ ‫ﻓﻮاﺋﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ذﻟﻚ‬ ‫وﻏﯿﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﮫ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺨﻠﺺ‬.‫اﻟﻄﻠﺒﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﺠﻢ‬ ‫ﻧﺤﺪد‬ ‫ﻛﯿﻒ‬ ‫ھﻮ‬ ‫ھﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﯾﻌﻨﯿﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺸﺘﺮﯾﻦ‬ ‫ﻟﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫اﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎدي‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺎﻟﺔ؟‬ ‫ھﺬه‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻷﻣﺜﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﻄﻠﺒﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﺠﻢ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺪﯾﺪ‬ ‫ﻛﯿﻔﯿﺔ‬ ‫أوﻻ‬:‫ﺳﻌ‬ ‫ﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫اﻷﻣﺜﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﻄﻠﺒﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﺠﻢ‬ ‫ﻧﻤﻮذج‬ ‫ﻧﺴﺘﺨﺪم‬‫اﻟﻤﻌﺮوﺿﺔ‬ ‫اﻷﺳﻌﺎر‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺮ‬.‫ﺳﯿﺆﺛﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻌﺮ‬ ‫اﺧﺘﻼف‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻧﺴﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻮن‬ ‫ﻋﺎدة‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻮﺣﺪة‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻨﻮﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺨﺰﯾﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﻷن‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺎذا؟‬ ،‫اﻟﺴﻨﻮﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺨﺰﯾﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫وھﻮ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻘﺎم‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻗﯿﻤﺔ‬‫اﻟﻤﺨﺰون‬ ‫وﺣﺪة‬)‫او‬ ‫ﺟﺮام‬ ‫اﻟﻜﯿﻠﻮ‬ ‫أو‬ ‫اﻟﻘﻄﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﯿﻤﺔ‬ ‫أي‬‫اﻟﻤﺘﺮ‬(..‫ﺗﺴﺎوي‬ ‫ﻓﻤﺜﻼ‬20%‫وﺣﺪة‬ ‫ﻗﯿﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺨﺰون‬ ‫ﺛﺎﻧﯿﺎ‬:‫ﺣ‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬‫ﻋﻠﯿﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﯾﻨﻄﺒﻖ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻤﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺪى‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﯾﻘﻊ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﯿﮫ‬ ‫ﻧﺤﺼﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﺬي‬ ‫اﻟﻄﻠﺒﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺠﻢ‬ ‫اﻻﻋﺘﺒﺎر‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻘﯿﻤﺔ‬ ‫ھﺬه‬ ‫ﻧﺎﺧﺬ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻧﻨﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻌﺮ‬.‫اﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻤﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺪى‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫أﻗﻞ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻮن‬ ‫اﻟﻘﯿﻢ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺾ‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ﺳﻨﻼﺣﻆ‬ ‫وﻟﻜﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻌﺮ‬ ‫ھﺬا‬ ‫ﻋﻠﯿﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﯾﻨﻄﺒﻖ‬.‫اﻟﻮﺣﺪة‬ ‫ﺳﻌﺮ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪ‬ ‫اﻟﻄﻠﺒﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﺠﻢ‬ ‫ﻧﺤﺴﺐ‬ ‫أﻧﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﻤﻌﻨﻰ‬5‫اﻟﺴﻌﺮ‬ ‫وھﻮ‬ ‫ﻣﺜﻼ‬ ‫ﺟﻨﯿﮭﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﺪد‬ ‫ﺷﺮاء‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻮرد‬ ‫ﺳﯿﺘﻘﺎﺿﺎه‬ ‫اﻟﺬي‬700‫إﻟﻰ‬1200‫ھﻮ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻤﻮذج‬ ‫ﻧﺎﺗﺞ‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ﻓﻨﺠﺪ‬ ،‫ﻗﻄﻌﺔ‬ 540‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫أﻗﻞ‬ ‫وھﻮ‬ ‫ﻗﻄﻌﺔ‬700‫ﻣﺮﻓﻮض‬ ‫ﺣﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﮭﻮ‬ ‫وﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ‬.‫اﻟﻜﻤﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺠﻌﻞ‬ ‫ﻗﯿﻤﺔ‬ ‫أﻗﺮب‬ ‫ﻧﺄﺧﺬ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ھﺬه‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻌﺮ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﯿﮫ‬ ‫ﯾﻨﻄﺒﻖ‬ ‫اﻟﺬي‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺪى‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻊ‬‫اﻟﻤﺜﺎل‬ ‫ھﺬا‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫وھﻮ‬700‫ﻗﻄﻌﺔ‬.‫اﻟﻨﻤﻮ‬ ‫ﻧﺎﺗﺞ‬ ‫ﻛﺎن‬ ‫ﻟﻮ‬ ‫أﻣﺎ‬‫ھﻮ‬ ‫ذج‬ 830-‫ﻣﺜﻼ‬-‫اﻟﺼﺤﯿﺢ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺪى‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻷﻧﮫ‬ ‫ھﻮ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻧﻘﺒﻠﮫ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻧﻨﺎ‬.‫ﺗﻜﻮن‬ ‫ﻟﻜﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺷﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﻧﻘﺎط‬ ‫ﻋﺪة‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻧﺤﺼﻞ‬ ‫ﺑﺬﻟﻚ‬ ‫اﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎدي‬ ‫اﻟﻄﻠﺒﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﺠﻢ‬ ‫ﺛﺎﻟﺜﺎ‬:‫ﻓﺈﻧﻨﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺨﻄﻮة‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﯿﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﺣﺼﻠﻨﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻤﯿﺎت‬ ‫ھﺬه‬ ‫ﺑﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﻟﻼﺧﺘﯿﺎر‬‫ﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻠﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﻧﺤﺴﺐ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻤﯿﺎت‬ ‫ھﺬه‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬.‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻨﻮع‬ ‫ھﺬا‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫وﻟﻜﻦ‬‫ﻓﺈﻧﻨﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺴﺎﺋﻞ‬‫اﻟﺸﺮاء‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﻧﻀﯿﻒ‬‫ان‬ ‫ﺑﻤﻌﻨﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻠﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫ھﻜﺬا‬ ‫ﺣﺴﺎﺑﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﯾﺘﻢ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻠﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻠﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻨﻮﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬‫اﻟﺸﺮاء‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬+‫اﻟﺴﻨﻮﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺨﺰﯾﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬+‫اﻟﺴﻨﻮﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻮرﯾﺪ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻜ‬ ‫ﺑﺈﺿﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﻧﮭﺘﻢ‬ ‫ﻟﻢ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻧﻨﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻤﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﺨﻔﯿﺾ‬ ‫ﻓﯿﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﯾﻮﺟﺪ‬ ‫ﻻ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺎدﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬‫اﻟﺘﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺸﺮاء‬ ‫ﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺛﺎﺑﺖ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻌﺮ‬ ‫ﻷن‬ ‫ﺛﺎﺑﺘﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺸﺮاء‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﻷن‬ ‫اﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎدي‬ ‫اﻟﻄﻠﺒﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﺠﻢ‬ ‫ﻗﺮار‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﺆﺛﺮ‬ ‫ﻟﻦ‬ ‫ﻷﻧﮭﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻠﯿﺔ‬.‫ﻛﺎن‬ ‫وإن‬ ‫إﺿﺎﻓﺘﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﯾﻤﻨﻊ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ھﻨﺎك‬ ‫ﻟﯿﺲ‬.‫اﻟﺬي‬ ‫اﻟﺸﺮاء‬ ‫ﺳﻌﺮ‬ ‫ﺣﺴﺐ‬ ‫ﺳﺘﺨﺘﻠﻒ‬ ‫اﻟﺸﺮاء‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﺈن‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ھﺬه‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫وﻟﻜﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻄﻠﺒﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﺠﻢ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﻨﺎء‬ ‫ﺳﯿﺘﺤﺪد‬.‫ﻧﺄﺧ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻧﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﺬﻟﻚ‬‫اﻟﻜﻠﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﺴﺎب‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪ‬ ‫اﻟﺸﺮاء‬ ‫ﺛﻤﻦ‬ ‫اﻋﺘﺒﺎرﻧﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺬ‬.
  17. 17. ‫اﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﯿﺔ‬ ‫واﻟﮭﻨﺪﺳﺔ‬ ‫اﻹدارة‬ ‫ﻣﻮﻗﻊ‬ 17 ‫اﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺨﻄﻮة‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻘﺘﺮﺣﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻤﯿﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻠﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻧﺤﺼﻞ‬ ‫وﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ‬‫اﻟﻜﻤﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﺧﺘﯿﺎر‬ ‫وﻋﻠﯿﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﻛﻠﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫أﻗﻞ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻄﯿﻨﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﺒﺪو‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻧﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺪد‬ ‫ﻣﺜﺎل‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﻄﺒﯿﻘﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪ‬ ‫وﻟﻜﻦ‬ ‫ﻗﺮاءﺗﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻘﺪة‬ ‫ﺗﺒﺪو‬ ‫ﻗﺪ‬ ‫اﻟﻄﺮﯾﻘﺔ‬ ‫ھﺬه‬‫ﻏﻤﻮﺿﺎ‬ ‫أﻗﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﺜﺎل‬: ‫ھﻮ‬ ‫اﻟﺨﺎم‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻮاد‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺎدة‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻨﻮي‬ ‫اﻟﻄﻠﺐ‬ ‫ﺣﺠﻢ‬ ‫أن‬ ‫اﻓﺘﺮض‬800‫اﻟﺴﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻛﯿﻠﻮﺟﺮام‬‫ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫وأن‬ ‫اﻟﻄﻠﺒﯿﺔ‬)‫اﻟﺘﻮرﯾﺪ‬ ‫أﻣﺮ‬(‫ھﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻮاﺣﺪة‬50‫ﺗﺴﺎوي‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻨﻮﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺨﺰﯾﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫وأن‬ ‫ﺟﻨﯿﮫ‬22%‫ﻗﯿﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺨﺰون‬.‫ﻛﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻄﻠﺒﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺤﺠﻢ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺮﺗﺒﻄﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻷﺳﻌﺎر‬ ‫ﺟﺪوﻻ‬ ‫أﻋﻄﺎﻧﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻮرد‬ ‫ﺳﻌﺮاﻟﻜﯿﻠﻮ‬‫ﺟﺮام‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻤﯿﺔ‬ 5.0 1‫إﻟﻰ‬600 4.8 601‫إﻟﻰ‬1500 4.5 1501‫ﻓﺄﻛﺜﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺴﺄﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﯿﺎﻧﺎت‬ ‫ﺑﺘﻠﺨﯿﺺ‬ ‫ﻟﻨﻘﻢ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻨﻮي‬ ‫اﻟﻄﻠﺐ‬ ‫ﺣﺠﻢ‬:800‫ﻛﯿﻠﻮﺟﺮام‬ ‫اﻟﻮاﺣﺪة‬ ‫اﻟﻄﻠﺒﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬:50‫ﺟﻨﯿﮭﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻨﻮﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺨﺰﯾﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬:22%‫اﻟﻤﺨﺰون‬ ‫ﻗﯿﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫أوﻻ‬:‫ﻛﻤﺎ‬ ‫اﻷﻣﺜﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﻄﻠﺒﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﺠﻢ‬ ‫ﻧﻤﻮذج‬ ‫ﻟﻨﺴﺘﺨﺪم‬‫اﻟﺜﻼث‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺎﻻت‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ھﻮ‬ ‫اﻷول‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺠﻢ‬=‫اﻟﺘﺮﺑﯿﻌ‬ ‫اﻟﺠﺬر‬‫ﻟـ‬ ‫ﻲ‬) )2*800*50) / (0.22*5.0((=270‫ﺟﺮام‬ ‫ﻛﯿﻠﻮ‬ ‫اﻟﺜﺎﻧﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺠﻢ‬=‫ﻟـ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺮﺑﯿﻌﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺠﺬر‬) )2*800*50) / (0.22*4.8((=275‫ﺟﺮام‬ ‫ﻛﯿﻠﻮ‬
  18. 18. ‫اﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﯿﺔ‬ ‫واﻟﮭﻨﺪﺳﺔ‬ ‫اﻹدارة‬ ‫ﻣﻮﻗﻊ‬ 18 ‫اﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺠﻢ‬=‫ﻟـ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺮﺑﯿﻌﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺠﺬر‬) )2*800*50) / (0.22*4.5((=284‫ﺟﺮام‬ ‫ﻛﯿﻠﻮ‬ ‫ﺛﺎﻧﯿﺎ‬:‫اﻟﻤﺪى‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻊ‬ ‫اﻟﺜﻼﺛﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺠﻮم‬ ‫ھﻞ‬‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫أﻗﻞ‬ ‫اﻷول‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺠﻢ‬ ‫ﻟﮭﺎ؟‬ ‫اﻟﺼﺤﯿﺢ‬600‫اﻟﺼﺤﯿﺢ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺪى‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻓﮭﻮ‬. ‫ﺑﯿﻦ‬ ‫ﯾﻜﻮن‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ﻓﯿﺠﺐ‬ ‫اﻟﺜﺎﻧﻲ‬ ‫أﻣﺎ‬601‫و‬1500‫وﻟﻜﻨﮫ‬275‫ﺻﺤﯿﺢ‬ ‫ﺣﺠﻢ‬ ‫ﺑﺄﻗﺮب‬ ‫ﻓﻨﺴﺘﺒﺪﻟﮫ‬ ‫وﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﻓﻘﻂ‬ ‫وھﻮ‬ ‫ﻟﮫ‬601.‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫أﻗﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺠﻢ‬1501‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻟﮫ‬ ‫ﺣﺠﻢ‬ ‫أﻗﺮب‬ ‫ﻧﺄﺧﺬ‬ ‫وﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﺻﺤﯿﺢ‬ ‫ﻏﯿﺮ‬ ‫ﻓﮭﻮ‬ ‫وﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ‬ ‫وھﻮ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺤﺪد‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺪى‬1501 ‫ﺗ‬ ‫ﻗﺪ‬‫ﻧﻤﻮذج‬ ‫أن‬ ‫ھﻮ‬ ‫اﻟﺠﻮاب‬ ‫أﺣﯿﺎﻧﺎ؟‬ ‫اﻟﺼﺤﯿﺢ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺪى‬ ‫ﺧﺎرج‬ ‫اﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎدي‬ ‫اﻟﻄﻠﺒﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﺠﻢ‬ ‫ﻧﺘﯿﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻊ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﺎذا‬ ‫ﺘﺴﺎءل‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺪﯾﺪ‬ ‫وﯾﺤﺎول‬ ‫ﻻﻧﮭﺎﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ‬ ‫إﻟﻰ‬ ‫واﺣﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ھﻮ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺪى‬ ‫ﻛﺎن‬ ‫ﻟﻮ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ‬ ‫اﻷﻣﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﯾﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ‬ ‫اﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎدي‬ ‫اﻟﻄﻠﺒﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﺠﻢ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺪى‬ ‫ھﺬا‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻛﻠﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫اﻗﻞ‬. ‫ﺛﺎﻟﺜﺎ‬:‫اﻟ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺠﻮم‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻟﻜﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻠﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻨﺤﺴﺐ‬‫وھﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻘﺘﺮﺣﺔ‬ ‫ﺜﻼﺛﺔ‬270،601،1501 ‫اﻟﻜﻠﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻨﻮﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬‫اﻟﺸﺮاء‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬+‫اﻟﺴﻨﻮﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺨﺰﯾﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬+‫اﻟﺴﻨﻮﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻮرﯾﺪ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻠﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻨﻮﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬‫اﻟﺴﻨﻮي‬ ‫اﻟﻄﻠﺐ‬ ‫ﺣﺠﻢ‬*‫اﻟﻮﺣﺪة‬ ‫ﺛﻤﻦ‬+‫اﻟﺴﻨﻮي‬ ‫اﻟﻄﻠﺐ‬ ‫ﺣﺠﻢ‬*‫اﻟﻄﻠﺒﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻮاﺣﺪة‬/‫اﻟﻄﻠﺒﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﺠﻢ‬+‫اﻟﻮﺣﺪة‬ ‫ﺗﺨﺰﯾﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬‫ﺳﻨﻮﯾﺎ‬*‫اﻟﻄﻠﺒﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﺠﻢ‬/2 ‫ﻟﺤﺠﻢ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻠﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬270=800*5.0+800*50/270+0.22*5.0*270/2= 4297‫ﺟﻨﯿﮫ‬ ‫ﻟﺤﺠﻢ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻠﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬601=800*4.8+800*50/601+0.22*5.0*601/2= 4224‫ﺟﻨﯿﮫ‬ ‫ﻟﺤﺠﻢ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻠﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬1501=800*4.5+800*50/1501+0.22*5.0*1501/ 2=4370‫ﺟﻨﯿﮫ‬ ‫ﺣﺠﻢ‬ ‫ان‬ ‫اﻟﻮاﺿﺢ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬601‫وھﻲ‬ ‫ﻛﻠﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫أﻗﻞ‬ ‫ﯾﻌﻄﯿﻨﺎ‬4224‫ھﻮ‬ ‫اﻷﻣﺜﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﻄﻠﺒﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﺠﻢ‬ ‫ﻓﺈن‬ ‫وﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ‬ 601‫ﻛﯿﻠﻮﺟﺮام‬ ‫اﻟﻄﻠﺒﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﺠﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻠﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻤﻨﺤﻨﻰ‬ ‫رﺳﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﯾﻈﮭﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺸﻜﻞ‬.‫ﻋﻨﺪ‬ ‫ھﻲ‬ ‫ﻛﻠﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫أﻗﻞ‬ ‫ﻓﺈن‬ ‫ﺗﺮى‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻃﻠﺒﯿ‬ ‫ﺣﺠﻢ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪ‬ ‫أي‬ ‫اﻟﺜﺎﻧﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻨﺤﻨﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﺪاﯾﺔ‬‫ﯾﺴﺎوي‬ ‫ﺔ‬601‫ﻛﯿﻠﻮﺟﺮام‬.‫اﻟﺘﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﻞ‬ ‫ﻧﺘﯿﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﯾﺘﻄﺎﺑﻖ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ‬ ‫وھﻮ‬ ‫إﻟﯿﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺻﻠﻨﺎ‬.‫ﻟﻠﺘﻮﺿﯿﺢ‬ ‫ھﻨﺎ‬ ‫رﺳﻤﺘﮫ‬ ‫وﻟﻜﻨﻨﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻨﺤﻨﻰ‬ ‫ﻟﺮﺳﻢ‬ ‫ﺑﺤﺎﺟﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﺴﻨﺎ‬ ‫أﻧﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﻼﺣﻈﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺟﺎء‬
  19. 19. ‫اﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﯿﺔ‬ ‫واﻟﮭﻨﺪﺳﺔ‬ ‫اﻹدارة‬ ‫ﻣﻮﻗﻊ‬ 19 ‫ﻣﺮﺗﺒﻄﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﺨﺼﻮﻣﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻮرد‬ ‫ﺗﻘﺪﯾﻢ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻄﻠﺒﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎدي‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺠﻢ‬ ‫ﺣﺴﺎب‬ ‫ﻛﯿﻔﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻨﺎ‬ ‫أوﺿﺢ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺜﺎل‬ ‫ھﺬا‬ ‫اﻟﻄﻠﺒﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺤﺠﻢ‬ ‫ﺑﯿﺴﻚ‬ ‫ﻓﯿﺠﻮال‬ ‫اﺳﺘﺨﺪام‬VisualBasic‫اﻟﻤﺴﺄﻟﺔ‬ ‫ھﺬه‬ ‫ﻟﺤﻞ‬: ‫رﺳﻢ‬ ‫ﻃﺮﺑﻖ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺴﺄﻟﺔ‬ ‫ھﺬه‬ ‫ﺣﻞ‬ ‫ﯾﻤﻜﻨﻨﺎ‬‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻤﻜﻨﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺠﻮم‬ ‫ﻟﻜﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﻠﯿﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺤﻨﻰ‬1‫إﻟﻰ‬3000‫ﻣﺜﻼ‬ ‫ﻛﻠﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫أﻗﻞ‬ ‫ﻧﻘﻄﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺪﯾﺪ‬ ‫ﺛﻢ‬.‫وﻣﺪى‬ ‫ﺳﻌﺮ‬ ‫ﯾﻤﺜﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺤﻨﻰ‬ ‫وﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺤﻨﯿﺎت‬ ‫ﺛﻼﺛﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻧﺤﺼﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺎﻟﺔ‬ ‫ھﺬه‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻄﻠﺒﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﺤﺠﻢ‬.‫إﻛﺴﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﺜﻞ‬ ‫ﺑﺴﯿﻂ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ‬ ‫أي‬ ‫اﺳﺘﺨﺪام‬ ‫ﯾﻤﻜﻨﻨﺎ‬ ‫وﻟﻜﻦ‬ ‫ﯾﺪوﯾﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﮫ‬ ‫ﻗﻤﻨﺎ‬ ‫إذا‬ ‫ﺷﺎق‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻞ‬ ‫ھﺬا‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻄﺒﻊ‬ MSExcel‫وذﻟ‬‫ﺧﻠﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﻞ‬ ‫ﺗﺄﺧﺬ‬ ‫ﯾﺤﯿﺚ‬ ‫اﻟﺨﻼﯾﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻗﻲ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻧﺴﺨﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﺛﻢ‬ ‫ﺧﻠﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻌﺎدﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﻃﺮﯾﻖ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﻚ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻔﻘﺮة‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻮﺿﺢ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻨﺤﻨﻰ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻧﺤﺼﻞ‬ ‫وﺑﮭﺬا‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺠﻢ‬ ‫ﻟﮭﺬا‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻨﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫واﻟﺴﻌﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻔﺎ‬ ‫ﺣﺠﻤﺎ‬.‫ﺑﻌﺪ‬ ‫ﻛﻠﯿﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻠﻔﺔ‬ ‫أﻗﻞ‬ ‫ﻧﻘﻄﺔ‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‬ ‫ﻧﺒﺤﺚ‬ ‫ذﻟﻚ‬.‫ﻃﻮﯾﻼ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻼ‬ ‫ﯾﺒﺪو‬ ‫أﯾﻀﺎ‬ ‫ھﺬا‬ ‫وﻟﻜﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﻨﻔﺴﻚ‬ ‫ذﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﻓﻌﻞ‬ ‫ﯾﻤﻜﻨﻚ‬ ‫ﻗﺪ‬ ‫ﯾﻤﻜ‬‫وﺳﺮﯾﻊ‬ ‫ﻣﺒﺎﺷﺮ‬ ‫ﺑﺸﻜﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺴﺄﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﺤﻞ‬ ‫إﻛﺴﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﯿﺴﻚ‬ ‫ﻓﯿﺠﻮال‬ ‫اﺳﺘﺨﺪام‬ ‫ﻨﻨﺎ‬.‫ﻓﻌﺎﻻ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ‬ ‫ﯾﻜﻮن‬ ‫وﻟﻜﻲ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻵﺗﻲ‬ ‫إﻛﺴﻞ‬ ‫ﺻﻔﺤﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺴﺄﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﯿﺎﻧﺎت‬ ‫ﻛﺘﺎﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﯿﻔﻀﻞ‬
  20. 20. ‫اﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﯿﺔ‬ ‫واﻟﮭﻨﺪﺳﺔ‬ ‫اﻹدارة‬ ‫ﻣﻮﻗﻊ‬ 20 ‫وﻗﺪ‬‫إﻛﺴﻞ‬ ‫ﺧﻼل‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻟﯿﻌﻤﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﺼﻐﯿﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﺒﺮﻧﺎﻣﺞ‬ ‫ھﺬا‬ ُ‫ﺖ‬‫ﻛﺘﺒ‬ Sub EOQDis() Dim TC(100000) ‘Reading the Problem parameters Ademand = Worksheets(”sheet1”).Cells(2, 2) OCost = Worksheets(”sheet1”).Cells(3, 2) Hcost = Worksheets(”sheet1”).Cells(4, 2) P1 = Worksheets(”sheet1”).Cells(7, 2) P2 = Worksheets(”sheet1”).Cells(8, 2) P3 = Worksheets(”sheet1”).Cells(9, 2) Q1min = Worksheets(”sheet1”).Cells(7, 3) Q2min = Worksheets(”sheet1”).Cells(8, 3) Q3min = Worksheets(”sheet1”).Cells(9, 3) Q1max = Worksheets(”sheet1”).Cells(7, 4) Q1max = Worksheets(”sheet1”).Cells(7, 4) Q2max = Worksheets(”sheet1”).Cells(8, 4) Q3max = Worksheets(”sheet1”).Cells(9, 4) ‘Calculating Total Cost for each quantity for all price ranges For i = Q1min To Q1max TC(i) = Ademand * P1 + Ademand * (OCost / i) + Hcost * P1 * (i / 2) Next i For i = Q2min To Q2max TC(i) = Ademand * P2 + Ademand * (OCost / i) + Hcost * P2 * (i / 2) Next i For i = Q3min To Q3max TC(i) = Ademand * P3 + Ademand * (OCost / i) + Hcost * P3 * (i / 2) Next i

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