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Solid waste management

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~Adib Ramli

Published in: Engineering
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Solid waste management

  1. 1. INTRODUCTION Waste management refers to the activities connected with the collection and disposal of wastes. Waste management comprises the following activities: a.) Waste collection b.) Waste transportation c.) Waste segregation d.) Waste recycling e.) Waste disposal f.) Waste minimization & control
  2. 2. Objective of study • The main of objective for our case study is to determine, to control, collect, process, dispose of solid wastes in an economical way consistent with the public health protection.
  3. 3. SOURCES OF WASTE Includes food, paper, cardboard, plastic, textiles, leather, glass, metal, ashes. Electronic waste etc.
  4. 4. Business and Industrial Waste Includes toxic chemical, oil, debris from construction site. packaging waste, ashes, etc.
  5. 5. AGRICULTURE WASTE Includes pesticides, crops, water coming from the fields also consists of small amount of toxic chemicals.
  6. 6. Waste management data 2011 Sources from: Waste Management Association of Malaysia, (http//www.wmam.org/main/com)
  7. 7. Municipal Solid Waste Household waste Construction and demolition debris Wastes from streets Hazardous Waste Paint Toxic Biomedical Waste Sharps Discarded medicines Soiled waste
  8. 8. COLLECTING I. In Malaysia, wastes are collected by the local authorities through regular waste collection or by special collection for recycling such as Alam Flora Sdn. Bhd. will manage at Kuala Lumpur, Putrajaya, Pahang, Kelantan and Terengganu. II. SWM Environment will be conducted at Johor, Malacca and Negeri Sembilan. III. Environment Idaman Sdn. Bhd. will be in charge at Selangor, Perak, Penang, Kedah and Perlis.
  9. 9. • The solid waste will be collected by truck. • After the collection is filled, the truck will be driven to the transfer station. • Transfer stations are used to collect the refuse at a central location and to reload the wastes into a vehicle where the cost per kilogram-kilometer ton-mile will be less for the movement of the ultimate waste to the disposal site. • The transfer station should be located at the center of the collection service area. Transfer Station
  10. 10. RECYCLING • Recycling is a activities includes using a waste material for another purpose, treating and reusing it in the same process. • Three types of recycling bins: 1) Blue color only used for paper 2) Brown color used for glass 3) Orange color used for aluminum tins and steel tins
  11. 11. TEMPORARY STORAGE 1. Residential and Public • An appropriate container should be selected according to the characteristics of the solid wastes. • The characteristic of scheduled wastes shall be compatible with the type of material used for the container to prevent any reaction which will deteriorate the container. • The quantity of the wastes should be taken into consideration to estimate the appropriate size and strength of container to avoid over spilling or container breakage. • Usually, all the wastes are deposited into garbage bins that have been provided or purchased. STANDARD OF RUBBISH BIN
  12. 12. 2. Hospital • To manage clinical wastes effectively, consideration needs to be identification and labeling before it store. • An appropriate label as shown in should be pasted onto the container. • The date when the scheduled wastes are first generated, name, address and telephone number of the waste generator shall be included in the label. • All bags and drum containers must be identified at the point of production and should be indelibly and clearly marked with biohazard symbol. Gallon Medical Waste Container Clinical Waste Bins For Sharps Biohazard Symbol
  13. 13. REFUSE RECEPTACLE CHAMBER •Refuse receptacle chamber is construct to kept or placed receptacles containing solid wastes. •Not be kept or placed upon the street, sidewalk, or other public place unless such location has been first approved by the Local Authority. •So there is convenient and safe access for collection service. •Provide safe access from any obstruction to the pick-up point.
  14. 14. •Improper management can give many negative effects to public also environment: 1) Displeasing to the public either visually or through odors. 2) Groundwater contamination and air pollution.
  15. 15. REFUSE DELIVERY SYSTEM
  16. 16. REFUSE DELIVERY SYSTEM 3 types of DELIVERY / OPERATING system 1.GRAVITY (refuse chute – residential) 2.WATER BORNE (waste water pipe network - grinded items) 3.AIR STREAMS (pneumatic refuse handling system – vacuum)
  17. 17. REFUSE DELIVERY SYSTEM GRAVITY system – System which use gravity to move refuse where the refuse movement from one point to the other is due to force of gravity REFUSE CHUTE (no longer being used) A refuse chute is carried vertically through the building, with an inlet hopper on each floor. The hopper must be designed to close the chute when they are opened to receive refuse. Chute are constructed of large domestic pipe usually 380mm but 450mm reduces the risk of blockage. Dwelling often arranged in handed pairs to make maximum use of chutes. Delivery points often arranged to discharge into 2 bins.
  18. 18. REFUSE CHUTE with INCINERATOR at its base • A flue to discharge the incinerated gaseous products of combustion above roof level. Waste gaseous are washed and cleaned before discharge. • A fan ensures negative pressure in the discharge chute to prevent smoke and fumes being misdirected. • A large combustion chamber receives and stores the refuse. • Ignited by automatic burner, burning duration thermostatically and time control. • No restriction in the process of wet and dry materials. REFUSE DELIVERY SYSTEM REFUSE CHUTE with INCINERATOR at its base
  19. 19. WATER BORNE system – system which use water as means of transporting the refuse. Refuse is deposited into the system and then through a waste pipe network to a central collection point or waster disposal facility. SEWER system – food waste is disposed of via the public or private sewer system as cold water is run into the sink. The food disposal unit is switched on and food waste is fed into the unit. The waste falls onto an impeller which revolves at high speed. The food waste is thrown off the impeller by centrifugal force onto a cutting ring. The waste is shredded into particles and is carried by the water into the sewer. The components of the system are:- a. Food disposal unit b. Sink or feed hopper with water supply c. Sewer pipe system REFUSE DELIVERY SYSTEM
  20. 20. FOOD DISPOSAL UNIT – SINK GRINDER•Waste grinders / ‘garberators’ comprised with an electric-powered shredder •Fitted in the waste pipe of kitchen sink and can break down food waste so that it can be flushed into the discharge drain (40mm waste pipe) •Not suitable for tins, papers, bottles and metal waste. •Care must be taken when sitting and mounting the grinder to minimize the risk of noise and for safety reasons. REFUSE DELIVERY SYSTEM
  21. 21. AIR STREAM system – system that use air streams to move refuse (pneumatic refuse), which use the blower method involves the use of compressed air (positive air pressure) to blow the refuses or vacuum (negative air pressure) to suck waste through pipe. REFUSE DELIVERY SYSTEM
  22. 22. REFUSE DELIVERY SYSTEM – pneumatic refuse With a "Pneumatic waste collection system", waste is carried through a vacuum-type underground pipe system from each household to incineration plants or a waste transfer station. This system was adopted for the first time in Japan in Osaka, as a waste collection system for high-rise apartments. REFUSE DELIVERY SYSTEM
  23. 23. PULVERISING • Grinding (shredder, grinder, crusher, pulveriser) • To reduce volume • Neater COMPACTION • rolled, broken up • either in the truck or on the ground • reduce size remain volume SCAVENGING • separators (magnetic, cyclone, vibrator) • in house required high cost • encourage recycling INCINERATION • Sorting • combustible material
  24. 24. Scraped motor vehicle and metal items are compressed and recycled. Paper and cardboard can be shredded for security, separated material is recycled. Lubrication oils must not be discharged into drains. Radioactive waste requires long term storage under carefully controlled conditions.
  25. 25. • Engineered process of Combustion – a flue discharge the incinerated gaseous products of combustion above roof level • Fan ensures negative pressure in the discharge chute to prevent smokes and fumes being misdirected • Combustion chamber (Oxygen + waste) – ignited by automatic burner – receive and store refuses • No restriction on wet and dry materials and glass, metal or plastics may be processed. • Duration of burning is thermostatically and time controlled • Waste gases are washed and cleaned before discharging into the flue - Anti- pollution devices - smoke separator: scrubber, cyclone cleaner, electrostatic filter • Hospital, factories application • Reduce volume, weight • High cost, explosion possibility uneconomic for wet waste
  26. 26. INCINERATOR within the building
  27. 27. INCINERATION process by using rotary-kiln type
  28. 28. VIDEO
  29. 29. SANITARY LANDFILL Sanitary landfills are dedicated disposal areas which adopt a scientific approach to effectively and safely manage and treat waste, thereby protecting the environment. The Sanitary Landfill is an engineered waste disposal facility with specific pollution control technologies designed to minimize potential environmental impacts. New scientific techniques to treat waste in an environment-friendly way are implemented, guaranteeing protection of the natural surroundings. The risk of pollution is also minimized through a strict and permanent monitoring system. Waste disposal at the Sanitary Landfill is contained and isolated in a dedicated area, where it is subsequently compacted and covered with inert materials. After its operating life, the sanitary landfill will be rehabilitated and reintegrated into its surrounding environment.
  30. 30. SURROUNDING OF SANITARY LANDFILL
  31. 31. LAYER IN SANITARY LANDFILL
  32. 32. Sanitary landfill – How It Works. Spreading the waste in thin layers. Compacting the waste layers to reduce its volume. Providing a layer of earth cover to protect the environment.
  33. 33. CONSTRUCTION LAYER IN SANITARY LANDFILL
  34. 34. VIDEO
  35. 35. CONCLUSION WE MUST concern about the side-effects of using each method such as pollution of groundwater and the air. Anti-pollution measures are now considered an important part of any solid waste disposal system. The major challenge for the future is how to reduce the amount of solid waste that need to be disposed of and how to have economic solid waste disposal without polluting the environment.
  36. 36. THANK YOU

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