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  1. 1. Use the outline given to you to create the Thinking Maps. Use the other notes on the Power Point to fill in your Vocab List Use your notebook to write down any other info you find significant on the Power Point.
  2. 2. Japan: Land of the Rising Sun
  3. 3. Kyushu Shikoku Honshu Hokkaido Sea of Japan East China Sea
  4. 4. <ul><li>Japan is located in the Pacific Ocean on an archipelago , or chain of islands. </li></ul><ul><li>Four-fifths of Japan is mountainous so most people settled in arable or farmable river valleys and along coastal plains. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Ring of Fire <ul><li>Japan lies in a Pacific region known as the Ring of Fire or Pacific Rim of Fire. This region is subject to frequent earthquakes and volcanoes. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Mt. Fuji
  7. 7. <ul><li>Tsunamis, or huge tidal waves, can sweep over land without warning. Typhoons are hurricanes in the Pacific Ocean. </li></ul>
  8. 8. What impact has geography had on Japanese life? Geography of Japan Mountainous terrain Island nation Close to China and Korea Farming is difficult Barrier to political unity Shintoism developed Sea used for food, transportation, isolation, protection Cultural diffusion
  9. 10. Shinto Polytheism Ancestor Worship Natural features Trees, rocks, and mountains The World of the kami Minimize sin & guilt Great Creator
  10. 11. How did Chinese culture influence Japan? <ul><ul><li>Writing </li></ul></ul>Japan adapted Chinese system to their own language and ideas. <ul><ul><li>Buddhism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Spread and flourished </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Zen Buddhism </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(a sect) spread </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Values peace, simple living, nature and beauty. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Confucianism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stresses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>proper behavior, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>loyalty, </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>honoring parents (filial piety) and </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>respect for learning </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 12. “ Harmony should be valued and quarrels (argument) should be avoided. Everyone has his bias (prejudice) and few men are far-sighted. Therefore some disobey their lords and fathers and keep up feuds (arguments) with their neighbors. But when superiors are in harmony with each other an inferiors are friendly, then affairs are discussed quietly and the right view of matters prevails (do well).” ~Prince Shotoku What philosophy does Prince Shotoku seem to be influenced by? Why?
  12. 13. <ul><li>The Japanese kept some Chinese ideas, and rejected others. </li></ul><ul><li>This is known as selective borrowing. </li></ul><ul><li>For example, there are Chinese symbols in written Japanese. </li></ul>
  13. 14. <ul><li>Japanese Feudalism </li></ul><ul><li>European Feudalism </li></ul>Emperor - Highest position but no political power Shogun - Actual ruler Daimyo - Powerful landowners Samurai - gave protection for land Code of Bushido - behavior code Seppuku - ritual suicide, rather than live without honor Peasants and artisans - provided food and weapons Merchants - gained status slowly King Lords and nobles Knights Code of Chivalry Pope Serfs Merchants - High Middle Ages Later
  14. 15. Feudalism Emerges <ul><li>While Japan had an emperor, rival clans battled for control of rural countryside. </li></ul><ul><li>Local warlords formed groups loyal to them, not the emperor. </li></ul>
  15. 16. <ul><li>Real power lay in the shogun , or supreme military commander. </li></ul><ul><li>The shogun gave land to vassal lords called daimyos . </li></ul>
  16. 17. <ul><li>Daimyos gave land to lesser warriors called samurai , or “those who serve.” </li></ul>
  17. 18. Like knights, samurai were heavily armed and trained in fighting. They also had a code of values, known as bushido , or “way of the warrior.” Bushido emphasized honor, bravery, and loyalty to the daimyo.
  18. 19. <ul><li>A samurai who betrayed the code of bushido was expected to commit seppuku , or ritual suicide, rather than live without honor. </li></ul><ul><li>The samurai would impale himself on his sword. </li></ul>
  19. 20. Everybody Else <ul><li>Far below the samurai were the peasants, artisans, and merchants. </li></ul><ul><li>Peasants, who made up 75% of Japan, formed the backbone of feudal society. </li></ul>
  20. 21. <ul><li>Peasant families cultivated rice and other crops on estates of samurai. </li></ul><ul><li>Some peasants served as soldiers; rarely, some even became samurai. </li></ul>
  21. 22. Noblewomen <ul><li>Some noblewomen trained in the military and became warriors. </li></ul><ul><li>There was no chivalry; warriors’ wives endured hardships and also owed loyalty to the lords. </li></ul>
  22. 23. Failure to Conquer Japan <ul><li>In 1274 and again in 1281, Kublai sent huge fleets against Japan. </li></ul><ul><li>Both times, the Japanese turned them back. </li></ul><ul><li>A typhoon ( kamikaze) even destroyed one Mongol fleet. </li></ul>
  23. 24. C A S T L E S
  24. 25. <ul><li>Unlike the solid steel plates used by European knights, Japanese armor consisted of thin strips of steel held together by brightly colored silk cords. </li></ul>
  25. 27. <ul><li>The true samurai was supposed to have no fear of death. </li></ul><ul><li>“ If you think of saving your life,” it was said, “you had better not go to war at all.” </li></ul><ul><li>Samurai prepared for hardship by going hungry or walking barefoot in the snow. </li></ul><ul><li>It was said, “When a samurai’s stomach is empty, it is a disgrace to feel hungry.” </li></ul>
  26. 28. <ul><li>Similarities between a samurai and a knight are… </li></ul><ul><li>Differences between them are… </li></ul>
  27. 29. Feudalism A political, economic, and social system based on loyalty, the holding of land, and military service. Japan: Shogun Daimyo Daimyo Samurai Samurai Samurai Peasant Peasant Peasant Peasant Land - Shoen Land - Shoen Protection Loyalty Loyalty Food
  28. 30. <ul><li>Let’s compare European Feudalism to Japanese Feudalism! </li></ul>
  29. 31. Japanese Culture: Past and Present
  30. 35. Title : The Great Wave Off Kanagawa Artist : Katsushika Hokusai Date : Edo period, c. 1828 Museum/ Source: Honolulu Academy of Arts, Hawaii Medium : Polychrome woodblock print on paper Size : 9 7/8&quot; X 14 5/8&quot; (25 X 37.1 cm) Japanese Art
  31. 36. <ul><li>Japanese artists recreated historical events on scrolls. </li></ul>
  32. 37. <ul><li>Colorful woodblock prints became popular. </li></ul>
  33. 38. Torii Gate, Miyajima Island
  34. 39. Torii Gate in Winter
  35. 40. Torii Gate
  36. 41. Japanese Theater <ul><li>Kabuki plays often portrayed family or historical events. </li></ul><ul><li>Dressed in colorful costumes, actors used exaggerated movements to convey action. </li></ul>
  37. 45. Kabuki Theater An interior of a Kabuki theater.
  38. 46. Chanoyu : Tea Ceremony
  39. 47. A Japanese Tea Master
  40. 48. A Japanese Tea House
  41. 49. Origami : The Art of Japanese Paper Folding
  42. 50. Origami : Modern Adaptations
  43. 51. Calligraphy
  44. 52. Literature <ul><li>Japanese poets adapted Chinese models, creating miniature poems called haiku . </li></ul><ul><li>In only 3 lines and 17 syllables, a feeling is expressed. </li></ul>
  45. 53. Haiku : 17-syllable poem Matsuo Basho , Master of Haiku Spring departs. Birds cry Fishes' eyes are filled with tears.
  46. 54. Zen Buddhism <ul><li>During Japan’s feudal age, Zen Buddhism emphasized meditation and duty. </li></ul><ul><li>Zen stressed compassion for all yet samurai fought to kill. </li></ul>
  47. 55. <ul><li>At Zen monasteries, upper-class men learned to express devotion to nature in such activities as landscape gardening. </li></ul>
  48. 56. <ul><li>Zen monks were the leading scholars and artisans of feudal Japan. The temple served as a Zen monastery and a peaceful retreat for visiting shoguns seeking advice. </li></ul>
  49. 57. <ul><li>The elaborate rituals of the tea ceremony reflected Zen values of peace, simplicity, and love of beauty. </li></ul>
  50. 58. Bonzai : A Unique Method of Meditation
  51. 59. Japanese Garden for Meditation
  52. 60. Japanese Zen Garden
  53. 61. Japanese Sand Garden
  54. 62. Miniature Rock/Sand Garden
  55. 64. ARIGATO!