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03 rhett-d-harrison-icraf-landscape restoration-tree-diversity-day-2014


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Trees, landscapes, restoration, Korea, South Africa, Ethiopia, Tree Diversity Day 2014, CBD, biodiversity, invasive species, seedlings, policy, indigenous people, livelihoods, Asia, China

Published in: Environment
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03 rhett-d-harrison-icraf-landscape restoration-tree-diversity-day-2014

  1. 1. Landscape restoration Rhett D Harrison World Agroforestry Centre
  2. 2. The big picture ➢ Globally over 60% of ecosystem services impaired ➢ More than 2 billion ha of degraded land globally ➢ Causes: ✔ Unsustainable agricultural practices ✔ Deforestation and (illegal) land clearing (fire) ✔ Alien-invasive species ✔ Pollution ✔ Mining / infrastructure ➢ Drivers: ✔ Population growth ✔ Economic pressures
  3. 3. What are our objectives? Restoration of Earth's life-support systems ✔Repair of Ecosystem Services ● Biodiversity ● Carbon ● Water supply / quality ● Soil fertility ● Erosion ✔Livelihood improvement ✔Climate change resilience/mitigation ✔Food security Suan County, North Korea
  4. 4. Diversity is important Chazdon (2014) Second Growth Tylianakis (2008) Plos Biology
  5. 5. Step 1 Address the causes and drivers
  6. 6. Step 2 Engage the stakeholders: Suan North Korea
  7. 7. Step 3 Develop your business model? How to go from current to target with greatest $ efficiency?
  8. 8. Ecosystem Restoration Concessions ➢Forest estate in Indonesia = 133 M ha ✔80 M ha logged over ✔25 M ha without management ✔2.5 M ha reserved for ERC ➢Protected forests in Indonesia ~25 M ha ➢BAU: forest → Oil Palm or Acacia
  9. 9. Harapan Rainforest ERC, Sumatra ➢ 100,000 ha of logged over forest ➢ >1000 species of tree ➢ 133 globally threatened bird and mammal species ➢ Densities of many species exceeds those found in PAs
  10. 10. Camera-trapping rate (days photo-1) Species IUCN status Harapan Rainforest Bukit Berisian Kerichi Siblat Taman Negara Elephant EN 5562 116 49 Pig-tailed Macaque VU 7 13 351 Bearded Pig VU 23 Sambar VU 118 182 44 Malayan Tapir EN 53 80 61 26 Tiger EN 67 345 230 Clouded Leopard VU 2225 878 Marbled Cat VU 1112 Banded Civet VU 117 Dhole EN 927 878 Sun Bear VU 71 47 62
  11. 11. Forest at Harapan is highly degraded Harapan Pasir Mayang
  12. 12. Need for viable business plan ➢ International donor funding is constraining and unreliable ➢ Need to realize short- and long-term income streams ➢ Need to provide livelihood opportunities for forest and forest margin communities
  13. 13. Realistic land-use management plan essential
  14. 14. Business plan Brancalion et al 2012 ➢ Timber ➢ NTFPs (Gaharu, rubber) ➢ Carbon (peat swamp forests) ➢ Water supply (HEP) ➢ Eco-toursim
  15. 15. Knowledge gaps ➢ Cost-benefit analyses of restoration treatments ➢ Yield models for timber and NTFPs ➢ Trade-offs among ESs ➢ Effects of distribution of ecosystem components on ESs ➢ Policy, governance and socio-economics of forest and forest margin communities
  16. 16. Harapan research Improved / economic survey methods
  17. 17. Adaptive management - Need to incorporate experimental design into interventions - Need to understand the cost/benefits - Need to understand trade-offs between objectives Pioneer thinning trials
  18. 18. Thank you