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Electromagnetic Interference and Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMI/EMC

• Characterizing the threat
• Setting standards for emission and susceptibility levels
• Testing of Equipment on heavy Vibrations
• Testing for standards compliance

For queries,
Aishwarya
palsinghaishwarya@gmail.com

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Electromagnetic Interference and Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMI/EMC

  1. 1. OVERVIEW OF EMI/EMC
  2. 2. WHAT IS EMI/EMC  An Electromagnetic disturbance which may degrade the performance of an equipment or device or cause malfunction of the equipment is called electromagnetic interference.  Electromagnetic Compatibility is a near perfect state in which a receptor (device or system) functions are satisfactorily in common electromagnetic environment without introducing intolerable electromagnetic disturbance to any other device/ equipment/system in that environment.
  3. 3. IMPORTANCE OF EMC  EMC is becoming more important because there are so many opportunities today for EMC issues.  Increased use of electronic devices.  Automotive Application.  Personal computing/Entertainment/Communication.  Increased potential for Susceptibility/Emission.  Lower Supply Voltage.  Increasing Clock Frequencies.  Increasing Packaging Density.  Demand for smaller, lighter, cheaper, lower price shop.
  4. 4. BASIC ELEMENTS OF EMI SITUATIONS  Interference occurs if the received energy causes the receptor to function in unwanted manner.  Whether the receiver is functioning in wanted or unwanted manner, depends upon the coupling path as well as the source and victim.  The coupling path is to be made as inefficient as possible.
  5. 5. CAUSES OF EMI/EMC  SOURCES  Refrigerators, washing machine, electric motors.  Arc welding machine.  Electric shavers, AC, Computers.  Fast switching digital devices, ICs etc  Power chords of computers, UPS etc.  Aircraft navigation and Military equipments.  VICTIMS  Communication Receivers.  Microprocessors, Computers.  Industrial Controls.  Medical Devices.  Household Appliances.  Living Beings.
  6. 6. EFFECTS OF EMI  Momentary disturbances in T.V and Radio reception due to operation mixer-grinder, Electric shavers, Passing vehicles.  Reset of computers and loss of data.  Burn of sensitive cells an components.  Change of setting of status of control equipments.  Failure of Pace-maker implanted in a patient due to a “walkie-talkie”.  False initiation electro explosive detonators.  Malfunctioning of flight controlling system due to use of laptop by passengers.  Biological hazards.
  7. 7. PURPOSE AND METHODOLOGY FOR EMC SYSTEM  A SYSTEM IS SAID TO BE ELECTROMAGNETICALLY COMPATIBLE:  It doesn’t cause interference with other systems.  It is not susceptible to emissions from other system.  It doesn’t cause interference with itself.  THE METHODOLOGIES TO PREVENT EMI ARE:  Suppress the emission at the source point, best method to control EMI.  Make the coupling path as inefficient as possible.  Make the receiver less susceptible to emission.
  8. 8. STANDARDS SETTING INSTITUTIONS DOD- Department of Defence (USA)-Immunity and Emission MIL Standard.  IEC- International Electrotechnical Commission (EU)- Immunity Standard.  CISPR- International Special Committee On Radio Interference operating under IEC-Emission Standard.  FCC- Federal Communication Commission(EU)- Emission Standard.  BSI- British Standard Institution(UK)-Emission Standard.  VDE- Verband Deutscher Electrotechniker(Germany)-Emission Standard.
  9. 9. EMI/EMC SPECIFICATIONS  Commercial Specifications  Military Specifications
  10. 10. MIL-STDs  Planning and project management of EMC.  Test methods and specific test equipment  Specified limits which must be met  Specification for acceptable EMI measurement receivers
  11. 11. Emission Tests Test Type Frequency range Method CE 101 Conducted emissions on power leads 30Hz to 10kHz Differential mode, current probe and LISN CE 102 Conducted emissions on power leads 10kHz to 10MHz Voltage measurement on LISN port, each power lead CE 106 Conducted emissions, antenna terminal 10kHz to 40GHz depending on EUT operation Direct connection or via coupler, to antenna port RE 101 Magnetic field radiated emissions 30Hz to 100kHz Search coil 70mm from each EUT face and connector
  12. 12. Emission Tests RE 102 Electric field radiated emissions 10kHz to 18GHz Various antennas, 1m from EUT; screened room preferred RE103 Radiated emissions – antenna spurious and harmonic outputs 10kHz to 40GHz depending on EUT operation Alternative to CE 106 for transmitters with integral antennas
  13. 13. MIL-STD-461E Susceptibility tests Test Description To test immunity Method CS 101 Power leads, 30 Hz to 150kHz Ripple on power supply Coupling transformer in series with power line CS 103 Antenna port, inter modulation, 15kHz to 10GHz Presence of inter modulation products Determined on a case-by- case basis CS 104 Antenna port, undesired signal rejection, 30Hz to 20GHz Presence of spurious responses Determined on a case-by- case basis CS 105 Antenna port, cross modulation, 30Hz to 20GHz Presence of cross- modulation products Determined on a case-by- case basis CS 109 Structure current, 60Hz to 100kHz Currents flowing in the EUT structure Currents injected by transformer at diagonal extremes across surfaces
  14. 14. MIL-STD-461E Susceptibility tests CS 114 Bulk cable injection, 10kHz to 200MHz RF signals coupled onto EUT associated cabling Pre-calibrated current injected by current probe onto each cable bundle, including power leads with returns and grounds exclude CS 115 Bulk cable injection, impulse excitation Impulse signals coupled onto EUT associated cabling As CS 114, but with impulse generator giving 30ns pulses at 30Hz repetition rate CS 116 Damped sinusoidal transients, cables and power leads, 10kHz to 100MHz Damped sinusoidal transients due to excitation of wiring, coupled onto cables and power leads As CS 114, but with damped sinewave generator giving pulses at least once per second at a minimum of 0.01, 0.1.1, 10, 30, and 100MHz30ns pulses at 30Hz repetition rate RS 101 Magnetic field 30Hz to 100kHz Magnetic field from e.g. transformers and power cables Calibrated radiating loop, 5cm from EUT face, or place EUT within calibrated Helmholtz coils RS 103 Electric Field 2MHz to 40GHz Transmitted fields Anechoic screened room, E-field sensor monitoring field during test, transmit antenna 1m from boundary of EUT, or alternative method using mode stirred reverberation chamber RS 105 Transient electromagnetic field Unidirectional pulsed radiated field 2.3/23ns 50kV/m Transient pulse generator feeding TEM cell, parallel plate transmission line or similar
  15. 15. Commercial Specifications  International Specifications ISO IEC  National Specifications BIS,EN,BSI,FCC etc  User Specifications PGCIL, RDSO,TEC
  16. 16. Basis of Existing Specifications  RFI: intended to protect a radio spectrum from specific interference sources, such as information technology equipment, motor vehicle ignition, household appliances or fluorescent lights.  Mains emissions : specifically harmonic currents and short term variations, to protect a low voltage power distribution network.  Product and Industry specific : To ensure the immunity from interference of particular types of product, such as process instrumentation or legal metrology, or to regulate emissions from equipment that will be used in a specific environment, such as marine equipments.
  17. 17. Types of Specifications  Basic Standards - Basis for performing the test - IEC & CISPR  Generic Standards - Developed for industry use for products which does not have product std -IEC 61000-6-1,2,3,4  Product Family Standards -Developed for specific product/family certification - CISPR 22,24
  18. 18. IEC Publications IEC 61000-1 Part 1 General General consideration (introduction, fundamental principles, functional safety) Definitions, terminology. IEC 61000-2 Part 2: Environment Description of the environment Classification of the environment Compatibility levels. IEC 61000-3 Part 3: Limits Emission limits Immunity limits IEC 61000-4 Part 4: Testing and measurement techniques Measurement techniques Testing techniques IEC 61000-5 Part 5: Installation and mitigation guidelines Installation guidelines Mitigation methods and devices IEC 61000-6 Part 6: Generic standards
  19. 19. Basic Specifications IEC 61000-4-2 Electrostatic discharge IEC 61000-4-3 Radiated radio frequency electromagnetic field test IEC 61000-4-4 Electrical fast transient/ burst immunity test IEC 61000-4-5 Surge immunity test IEC 61000-4-6 Immunity to conducted disturbances induced by radio frequency fields IEC 61000-4-7 General guide on harmonics and measurements and instrumentation, for power supply systems and equipment connected thereto IEC 61000-4-8 Power frequency magnetic immunity field test IEC 61000-4-9 Pulse magnetic immunity test IEC 61000-4-10 Damped oscillatory magnetic field immunity test
  20. 20. Basic Specifications IEC61000-4-11 Voltage dip, short interruptions and voltage variations immunity test IEC61000-4-12 Oscillatory waves immunity test (to become Ring wave immunity, with damped oscillatory wave test to part 18) IEC61000-4-13 Harmonics, inter harmonics including main signaling at AC port, low frequency immunity test IEC61000-4-14 Voltage fluctuation immunity test IEC61000-4-15 Flicker meter functional and design specifications IEC61000-4-16 Test for immunity to conducted, common mode disturbances in the frequency range 0 Hz to 150kHz IEC61000-4-17 Ripple on DC input power port immunity test IEC61000-4-18 Oscillatory waves immunity test (new edition) IEC61000-4-19 Emission and immunity testing in transverse electromagnetic (TEM) wave guides IEC61000-4-20 Reverberation chamber test methods
  21. 21. Basic Specifications IEC 61000-4-21 Radiated emissions and immunity measurements in fully anechoic rooms (FARs) IEC 61000-4-22 Test methods for protective devices for HEMP and other radiated disturbances IEC 61000-4-23 Test methods for proactive devices for hemp conducted disturbance IEC 61000-4-24 HEMP immunity test methods for equipment and systems IEC 61000-4-25 Unbalance immunity test IEC 61000-4-26 Variation of power frequency immunity test IEC 61000-4-27 Voltage dips, short interruptions and voltage variations on DC input power port immunity tests IEC 61000-4-28 Power quality measurement methods IEC 61000-4-29 Measurements in the frequency range 2kHz to 9kHz IEC 61000-4-30 High-altitude electromagnetic pulse (HEMP) simulator compendium IEC 61000-4-31 Measurement methods for high-power transient parameters IEC 61000-4-32 Voltage dips, short interruptions and voltage variation immunity test for equipment with input current more than 16A per phase IEC 61000-4-33 Intentional Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) Simulator Compendium
  22. 22. Product Family Standards SpecificationSpecification TitleTitle CISPR 11CISPR 11 Limits & Methods of measurements of Radio Dist.Limits & Methods of measurements of Radio Dist. Of ISMOf ISM CISPR 12CISPR 12 Limit & methods of Measurement of vehiclesLimit & methods of Measurement of vehicles CISPR 13CISPR 13 Limit & methods of Measurement of Broad cast &Limit & methods of Measurement of Broad cast & TV receiverTV receiver CISPR 14-1CISPR 14-1 Limit & methods of Measurement of DomesticLimit & methods of Measurement of Domestic AppliancesAppliances CISPR 14-2CISPR 14-2 Immunity requirement of Domestic AppliancesImmunity requirement of Domestic Appliances CISPR 15CISPR 15 Limit & methods of Measurement of LuminariesLimit & methods of Measurement of Luminaries & Lighting Eqpt& Lighting Eqpt CISPR 22CISPR 22 Limit & methods of Measurement of ITELimit & methods of Measurement of ITE EquipmentEquipment CISPR 24CISPR 24 Immunity requirement of ITE ProductsImmunity requirement of ITE Products
  23. 23. Product Family Standards SpecificationSpecification TitleTitle CISPR 20CISPR 20 Immunity Requirement of Broadcast & TVImmunity Requirement of Broadcast & TV receiversreceivers CISPR 25CISPR 25 Limits & method of Measurement ofLimits & method of Measurement of automotiveautomotive IEC 61000-3-2IEC 61000-3-2 Limit & methods of Harmonic CurrentLimit & methods of Harmonic Current EmissionsEmissions IEC 61000-3-3IEC 61000-3-3 Limit & methods of Voltage Fluctuations &Limit & methods of Voltage Fluctuations & Flicker in low voltage supply systemFlicker in low voltage supply system
  24. 24. Product Application Environment  Class A Limit  Industrial, Scientific & Medical Environment • Class B Limit  Domestic application  Portable Equipment  Telecom Terminal equipment  Personal Computer
  25. 25. Conducted Emission Limit Class A LimitClass A Limit Class B LimitClass B Limit FreqFreq Emission LimitEmission Limit Freq.Freq. Emission LimitEmission Limit MHzMHz dBuVdBuV (QP)(QP) dBuVdBuV (Avg)(Avg) MHzMHz dBuVdBuV (QP)(QP) dBuVdBuV (Avg)(Avg) 0.150-0.50.150-0.5 7979 6666 0.150-0.50.150-0.5 66-5666-56 56-4656-46 0.5-50.5-5 7373 6060 0.5-50.5-5 5656 4646 5-305-30 7373 6060 5-305-30 6060 5050
  26. 26. Radiated Emission Limit Class A LimitClass A Limit Class B LimitClass B Limit Measurement Distance : 30 mMeasurement Distance : 30 m Measurement Distance : 10 mMeasurement Distance : 10 m FreqFreq Emission LimitEmission Limit FreqFreq Emission LimitEmission Limit MHzMHz dBuV/m (Q.P)dBuV/m (Q.P) MHzMHz dBuV/m (Q.P)dBuV/m (Q.P) 30-23030-230 3030 30-23030-230 3030 230-1000230-1000 3737 230-1000230-1000 3737
  27. 27. Radiated Emission Limits
  28. 28. EQUIPMENT & EMC ENVIRONMENT
  29. 29. EMISSION PARAMETERS  Conducted Emission  Power Line Emission  Signal line Emission  Radiated Emission  E & H, EM Radiation  Current Harmonic Emission  Flicker
  30. 30. CONDUCTED EMISSION TEST SETUP
  31. 31. OPEN AREA TEST SITE
  32. 32. RADIATED EMISSION AND SUSCEPTIBILITY
  33. 33. Radiated Emission In Anechoic Chamber
  34. 34. Radiated Immunity Test Set up
  35. 35. RADIATED IMMUNITY TESTING OF AN EQUIPMENT
  36. 36. G-TEM CELL
  37. 37. RF Conducted Immunity Test
  38. 38. Bulk Current Method
  39. 39. Harmonic & Flicker Measurement
  40. 40. ESD Current Wave
  41. 41. Electrostatic Discharge Test
  42. 42. Electric Fast Transient Test
  43. 43. Surge Waveforms
  44. 44. Power Frequency Mag. Field Test
  45. 45. Damped oscillatory magnetic field immunity test
  46. 46. Voltage Dip & Interruption Test
  47. 47. SOME EMI SUPRESSION COMPONENTS
  48. 48. THANK YOU
  49. 49. PANKAJ RANGRA B.TECH (E.C.E) 80506108026

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