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Hrm Quality Circles Tqm


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Hrm Quality Circles Tqm

  1. 1. HRM Quality Circles &TQM
  2. 2. Quality Circles <ul><li>Quality circles which have been popularized by Japanese firms are being used all over the world because of the benefits that accrue to the firm </li></ul><ul><li>A quality circle involves participation from a small group of employees doing the same type of work </li></ul><ul><li>They meet regularly to identify, analyze and solve the problems that arise during the course of their work and their association with the organization. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Quality Circles <ul><li>The basic objectives of quality circles are to develop and utilize human resources effectively, to develop quality products, improve the quality of work life and sharpen and utilize an individual’s creative abilities </li></ul><ul><li>There are different steps involved in the development of quality circles from getting started to problem-solving </li></ul><ul><li>Communicating the importance of quality circles to the employees is of prime importance. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Quality Circles <ul><li>The next step is the composition of a quality circle </li></ul><ul><li>Then the stage of initial problem solving through which employee suggestions are presented, follows </li></ul><ul><li>The suggestions are then evaluated and the best one, chosen by consensus, is implemented </li></ul><ul><li>Various techniques like brainstorming sessions, fish bone diagram and sampling and charting methods, are used in quality circles. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Quality Circles <ul><li>Problems arise in the implementation of quality circles because of lack of understanding regarding the concepts, low education levels and training, delays in execution and operational problems. Most of these problems can be resolved through effective training of employees and management support. </li></ul><ul><li>Source </li></ul>
  6. 6. TQM <ul><li>Total Quality Management (TQM) is a set of principles and practices whose core ideas include understanding customer needs, doing right things right the first time and striving for continuous improvement- Wayne F. Cascio </li></ul><ul><li>TQM as a revolution started in the 1980’s, based on the principles of statistical quality control for manufacturing processes developed by W. Edwards Deming </li></ul><ul><li>It is also considered as the follower of Total Productive Management (TPM) at Toyota, Japan (from 1965) </li></ul><ul><li>Motorola, Xerox and Ford pioneered its application in the United States </li></ul>
  7. 7. TQM-more definitions <ul><li>“ Total Quality Management may be defined as creating an organizational culture committed to the continuous improvement of skills, teamwork, processes, product & service quality and customer satisfaction” - Sashkin and Riser </li></ul><ul><li>“ TQM is a management approach of an organization, centered on quality, based on the participation of all its members and aiming at long-term success through customer satisfaction, and benefits to all members of the organization and to society.&quot; International Organization for Standardization (ISO) </li></ul>
  8. 8. TQM <ul><li>TQM focuses on group problem-solving which encourages employee empowerment by using job-related expertise and ingenuity of the workforce </li></ul><ul><li>Cross-functional teams develop solutions to complex problems, often shortening the time taken to design, develop or produce products and services </li></ul><ul><li>Since workers themselves begin to solve organizational problems, the division between labor and management gets blurred </li></ul>
  9. 9. TQM <ul><li>Adoption of TQM generally requires cultural change within the organization as management re-examines its past methods and practices in the light of the demands of the new philosophy </li></ul>
  10. 10. TQM <ul><li>TQM programs have not delivered on customer satisfaction and productivity improvement </li></ul><ul><li>Managers mostly view quality as a quick fix and are disillusioned when results prove difficult to achieve - It generally takes 3 to 5 years before TQM principles become institutionalized and some managers are unwilling to make such a commitment </li></ul>
  11. 11. TQM <ul><li>TQM initiatives seem to be effective when managers make major changes to their philosophies and HR programs </li></ul><ul><li>Organizations known for the quality of their products and services strongly believe that employees are key to those results </li></ul>
  12. 12. Components of TQM <ul><li>1.Customer Orientation- In TQM the term customer means every user of a product or service and not only the end-user. The producer has the continuous goal of meeting the changed requirements of the customers </li></ul>
  13. 13. Components of TQM <ul><li>2. Continuous improvement –Through new processes or new product design-The production process has to be attuned and accelerated to meet the changing requirements- the requirements may even arise due to activities of competitors </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. Xerox Corporation did away with the old photocopier machines which were bulky, slow and delivered very poor quality </li></ul>
  14. 14. Components of TQM <ul><li>3. Employees’ involvement- TQM requires improvement in the quality of work of employees through training and development. Through this, in addition to improving the quality of products, the cost of products will be reduced through efficient use of machines and materials and reduction of wastages </li></ul>
  15. 15. Elements of TQM <ul><li>Leadership for quality should be a basic strategic goal </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership commitment-Top management should be totally committed to implementation of TQM </li></ul><ul><li>Recognition and rewards </li></ul><ul><li>Education and training </li></ul><ul><li>Customer orientation </li></ul><ul><li>Team work and employee empowerment </li></ul>
  16. 16. Elements of TQM <ul><li>Feedback mechanisms-for both internal and external customers </li></ul><ul><li>Statistical process control: Variation is the law of nature-Understanding the nature of variations and estimating the capability of the process, help the organization to reduce the number of inspections and improve quality </li></ul>
  17. 17. Top Mgt Vision, commitment, strategic change, role models, organization learning Middle Mgt Mission, teams and function, learning Operational Mgt Implementation, process and function improvement Problem solving, learning Input Transformation Process Output Supplier Commitment to quality On time Delivery Partners Certification V E R T I C A L T Q M Customers Who are they? What do they need? Quality Responsiveness Flexibility Cost Horizontal TQM