Role of GIS inTelecommunication Akhil Gupta 11043020
Geo-InformaticsGeo-Informatics is the combination of three branches:• Remote Sensing• Geographic Information System (GIS)• Global Positioning System (GPS)It is powerful tool to create maps, integrateinformation, visualize scenarios, solve complicatedproblems, present powerful ideas & develop effectivesolutions.
Today GIS Is Very Valuable tool Used in Many Integrated Applications Conservation Crime Science/Modeling Congestion Land Management Defense/Security Water Natural Agriculture/ForestryResources Pollution Business Efficiency Economic Recovery Biodiversity Global Warming Emergency Management Energy Oceans Human Health Land Use Population Education Logistics Energy Development Public Safety Facility Humanitarian Management Urbanization Relief National Security Law Enforcement Environmental Protection Improved Planning, Management and Decision Making . . .
Telecommunication & Its key concepts Telecommunication is the assisted transmission of signals over a distance for the purpose of communication. In early times, smoke signals, drums, semaphore, flags or heliograph were used for communication. In modern times, the electronic devices such as telephone, television, radio or computers are used. Key Concepts: - • Basic Elements • Analogue or Digital • Networks • Channels • Modulation
Issues in Telecommunication1. Capacity Planning & Demand Forecasting2. Map Creation & Updation of Network3. Data Handling Problem4. Network Monitoring5. Optimal Use od Resources6. Handling Customers Problem7. Problem in Decision Making
GIS Role in Resolving Telecommunication Issues Map Creation & Updation of Data Network Handling Capacity Network Planning Monitoring & Demand Forecasting Optimal Use of Resources Services Customer problemsShared Geospatial Services • Time • Cost Problem in Decision Making
Capacity Planning & Demand ForecastingRequirements:• Lots of time & money required• More manpower• Ground surveysLoopholes:• After fulfillment of all these requirements, some loopholes left. Demand is not static, its keep changing.• Problem in identifying the no. of customers in an area, so no idea of equipment amount needed to serve an area.
GIS Solution:• Extract useful information such as home passed, no. of customers, etc. to establish a correlation b/w network requirement & market potential in the service areas.• Identify existing network load & forecast demand growth to perform capacity analysis.• Helps in planting the efficient network.• Just by sitting on desktop, we can view our plant & customers and determine the amount of equipment needed to serve an area.
Map Creation & UpdationRequirements:• More Time• Manpower• Land Survey• Tools• Drawing Skill required These requirements itself act as limitations for Map creation of network. These printed maps can’t be updated easily. And also we can’t access the remote areas without the help of Remote Sensing Satellites.
GIS Solution:• Maps are created easily using GIS tool.• Updation is easy, could be done in minutes.• No drawing skill is required.
Data Handling Problem• Its very hard to preserve the conventional maps & attribute data.• Can’t search old data easily.• Occupy lots of space.• Maintenance problem• Providing data to any other department is a timely process.
GIS Solutions:• Not data handling problem as data will be in digital form.• Few seconds required to search any old data.• Less maintenance.• Centralized Geo-Database System can be created so that data could be available to any other Govt. department easily.• Availability of resources.
Network Monitoring• Network Monitoring is very important part in telecommunication.• Trouble detection & correction requires man power and technicians revisit.• Back up & restoration needs to take device on location again & again.• Takes time in Network recovery.• Emergency response is not possible.• Fault/performance report generation takes much time.
GIS Solution:• GIS helps in monitoring the network efficiently.• We can monitor growth & update capacity accordingly to reduce the risk of help orders or denial of services.• It detects the fault & its location which reduces technician costly revisits.• Response time is very less for network recovery.• Back up could be taken using Web GIS.• GIS helps in location tracking & routing which gives facility of emergency response (e.g. 911 emergency call).
Optimal Use of Resources• Its hard to find out whether the resources are used optimally.• Lots of hard work is required, still optimized efficiency is not achieved.• Time consuming.• Field visit required again & again.GIS Solution:• Through GIS, we can find out the utilization level of existing resources and make better plan.• New hardware could be planted on the best location where its use will be optimal.
Handling Customer Problem• Service disruptions frustrate affected customers, especially with the repeated occurrences.• Without customer history it is hard to find out the root cause of the problems.• Field technician have to make more return visits.• More time is required to resolve customers problem.• It is a big problem to find out why customers are disconnecting & which area is more affected.
GIS Solution:• Service Technician can use GIS technology to generate repeat trouble reports that display the service history of each customer & help to identify the root cause of problems.• Customers will get their service problems resolved in a timely manner, and we can reduce costly return visits from field technicians.• Evaluating connect/disconnect activity in each area allows us to identify the affected area & we can implement target retention program. Network schematics produced from the GIS database help us quickly diagnose repeat trouble spots.
Problem in Decision Making• Without knowing all the parameters, we can’t make decision.• Need to make all parameters on a single map, like road map, settlement map, ground water map, etc.GIS Solution:• All layers could be overlay together to take decision like where to install the towers, what will be the efficient path for fiber optics cable, etc.
Telephone Exchange Information &Planning System (TEIPS)– A Case Study of Vastrapur Telephone Exchange
Background• Vastrapur exchange area lies to extreme west in Ahmedabad Telephone Exchange area.• At the study time, Vastrapur telephone exchange give service to more than 20,000 subscribers.• Two main distribution frames (MDF) are situated at Vastrapur telephone exchange.• About 22 pairs of leading-in (LI) cables each having different capacities are laid down from MDF.
TEIPS - Objective• Better handling of map and attribute data & faster updating of spatial information.• Estimate length & direction of cable network from one point to another point for existing network.• Draw the route of given Lead-in cable & the associated pillars on the map.• Optimize cable network along the roads & estimate the length of cable to be laid down.• Suggest new locations for erection of new pillars.• Generate fault/performance report for lead-in cables, pillars & distribution points.• Indicate no. of working tags, waiting tags & percentage of filled tags in the pillars time to time.
Database organization• Spatial & non-spatial component• Spatial component includes coverages like road, the locality map depicting the major localities of Vastrapur.• Non-spatial component includes subscriber’s list (which includes detail of name, address, the associated pillar & the distribution point & its address in MDF), pillar utilization data time to time, primary cable data with details on size, weight, tags, etc.
Methodology• Maps are available at 1:8000 scale.• These maps were digitized, corrected & topology built where required.• A cable network model & road network model was developed in GIS environment for optimal planning of cables.• Main modules used from Arc/Info are ARCEDIT, ARCPLOT which includes NETWORK module.
Telephone Exchange Information & Planning System• The customized package TEIPS was developed usingArc/Info’s macro language (AML) for the GIS relatedoperations & Visual C++ for developing the user’s interface.• The reason of developing front end in Visual C++ is itsreusability even if GIS is replaced by other GIS.• The software design follows a modular approach. Themodules are as follow: Create/EditThe module allows for creation of spatial & non-spatial data.The users are allowed to:• Create master map, pillar location map, locality map, road map using a digitizer or a mouse.• Edit already existing map.• Import option if map is created elsewhere or scanned map
• Altering the structure of non-spatial table.• Creation & Deletion of non-spatial table.• Topology creation of the coverages.• Importing a non-spatial table from dbase format.Network Module:• Create a network for entire map features.• Updating of already available map.• Delete a network route.• Create bifurcating routes.Information Generation/Presentation:• Used for running queries.• Active Date: Gives the pillar status in the telephone exchange on the basis of active date selected. Pillar status gives details of total tags available, working tags, waiting tags, utilized tags percentage filled tags etc.
• Generate network/route information based on 1. Telephone no. 2. Pillar no. 3. Interactive Pointing• Save• Report• Print
Conclusion• The conceptual framework has been worked out, implemented and is being demonstrated for the Vastrapur area.• This is a general case and in fact could be adopted to any telephone exchange where the cabling is terrestrial.