What is statistics?
Collection of methods for planning experiments, obtaining data, and then organizing,
summarizing, presenting, analyzing, interpreting, and drawing conclusions.
There are two main branches of statistics
1. Descriptive Statistics – the organization and description of the characteristics of a collection of
Example: Mean, Median, Mode
2. Inferential Statistics – the use of descriptive statistics to make educated guesses about
The basic fallacies of inferential statistics:
They assume that the past is prologue to the future
They assume you are going to test your inference an
infinite amount of times.
How Statistics Work?
Statistics starts with a question, not with data/information
Every time we use statistic to find the solution for a question.
Statistics are what decision makers can use to reduce ambiguity by qualifying it.
“Not enough to know
Just enough for a better guess
Statistics are born”
All Statistics are based on data
Data are what we hear, see, smell, taste, touch, etc.
Data requires measuring
Good measurement gives good data
Good data give better answers than bad data
But all data will give you an answer
Statistics are designed to transform data into information
Make decisions using that information.
Statistics are about and used to measure/assess risk of the decision.
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Areas we use statistics
Business and Industry
Health and Medicine
Business and Industry
Statistics to Start or start a Business
Whether you are writing a business plan, feasibility study, advertising and marketing
campaign, or even still deciding on what kind of business to start, start by looking at what is
already happening in the field or industry you are interested in.
Business trends and statistics can give you a quick, overall glance at the viability of an
industry, and how well people are already doing in that industry. Statistics are not magic
formulas for success, but they can give you important clues about how others are succeeding -
The statistics can be useful in helping you come up with new business ideas, in developing
strategies and marketing campaigns.
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Statistics to manufacturing
In this process we use statistic to understand the number of products we have to produce and
what are the new strategies we have to apply in future. It also gives an overview of the market.
Statistics to marketing
In marketing we use statistic in many ways
The money you have in your business bank account can often provoke actions that are
regretted at a later time.
For example, if you have a healthy balance, you may decide to splash out on a
purchase or investment that will in time, leave your account dangerously low: when money comes in, it is not
unusual for all common sense to go out of the window…a bit extreme you may think!
Statistics to Engineering
Engineers apply physical and chemical laws and mathematics to design, develop, test, and
supervise various products and services.
Engineers perform tests to learn how things behave under stress, and at what point they might
As engineers perform experiments, they collect data that can be used to explain relationships
better and to reveal information about the quality of products and services they provide.
Computing is the interface between statistics, computer science and numerical analysis. It is the area of
computational science specific to the mathematical science of statistics.
The terms computational statistics and statistical computing are often used interchangeably, although
Carlo Lauro (a former president of the International Association for Statistical Computing) proposed
making a distinction, defining statistical computing as "the application of computer science to statistics",
and computational statistics as "aiming at the design of algorithm for implementing statistical methods
on computers, including the ones unthinkable before the computer age
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Health and Medicine
Medical statistics deals with applications of biostatistics to medicine and the health sciences,
including epidemiology, public health forensic medicine, and clinical research.
Find data on indicators of the nation's health, such as health inequalities, morbidity rates,
smoking drinking and drug use, and abortion statistics.
Statistics is an important tool in pharmacological research that is used
to summarize (descriptive statistics) experimental data in terms of central
tendency (mean or median) and variance (standard deviation, standard error of
the mean, confidence interval or range) but more importantly it enables us to
conduct hypothesis testing. This is of particular importance when attempting to
determine whether the pharmacological effect of one drug is superior to another which clearly has
implications for drug development and getting that next paper published in a respectable journal!
Therefore, it is essential for pharmacologists to have an understanding of the uses and abuses of
Statistic for teachers
The techniques of statistics can prove to be valuable tools for teachers of all subjects. The ability
to interpret statistics is advantageous to analyze lab results, book and journal articles, and as an aid in
approaching problem-solving scientifically. Statistics will allow you to critically evaluate your students,
your teaching, and the results of educational research.
Statistics are unique in two ways:
1. They best analyze groups or populations. "Thestatisticians' concern is with properties which are
descriptive of the group, or aggregation itself rather than with properties of particular
2. They allow one to compare unrelated material. For example, statistics are useful in comparing
the productivity of athletes. The performance of a hockey goalie can be compared to that of a
soccer goalie by using information such as shots taken vs. shots saved.
These statistics can be related even though hockey and soccer are very
Statistics for other fields
Most of the fields in the world related to learning we use statistic.
Especially in education field we use statistics to identify problems and manage
how it should be change.
Subjects like science we usually use statistics to do practical and make decisions.
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The word researches are depending in statistics, when we found any data from research we
analyze and make decisions using statics. These are the examples for government researches.
Research and Development: DOE Could Enhance the Project Selection Process for
Government Oil and Natural Gas Research.
GAO-09-186 December 29, 2008 Although competitive oil and natural gas markets generally provide
incentives for companies to invest...
Ontario government supporting alternative energy research.
The government of Ontario has invested approximately $5 million to support research in the cleantech
Bureau of Government Research wants 'realistic' development strategy
In a report released today to City Business, the Bureau of Government Research called for New Orleans
Dialog Offers Government Research Reports
Dialog announced that it will be offering a collection of more than 400,000 government-sponsored
research reports distributed by...
Bureau of Government Research rips New Orleans City Council for handing out no-bid
At a time when resources are scarce, the Bureau of Government Research today
issued its latest report taking...
A broader vision for government research
In recent years, the question of "balance" has been a hot topic in science policy circles.
All these researches are useful to get decisions for future of the country
Statistical surveys are used to collect quantitative information about items in a population.
Surveys of human populations and institutions are common in political polling and government, health,
social science and marketing research. A survey may focus on opinions or factual information depending
on its purpose, and many surveys involve administering questions to individuals. When the questions
are administered by a researcher, the survey is called a structured interview or a researcher
administered survey. When the questions are administered by the respondent, the
survey is referred to as a questionnaire or a self- administered
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Social statistics is the use of statistical measurement systems to study human behavior in a
social environment. This can be accomplished through polling a particular group of people, evaluating a
particular subset of data obtained about a group of people, or by observation and statistical analysis of a
set of data that relates to people and their behaviors.
Often, social scientists are employed in the evaluation of the quality of services of a particular
group or organization, in analyzing behaviors of groups of people in their environment and special
situations, or even in determining the wants or needs of people through statistical sampling.
We use statistic in so many things in social environment. To fond Social indicators we use
statistics. From these Social indicators, we can understand about the society. These are the main ponts
we can get from Social indicators
Child-bearing, Child and elderly populations , Population
health, nutrition and educational level in country.
to identify the strength of working people.
to planning the future
Housing , Human settlements
identify problems in housing planning.
to settle the problems in slums.
study about the currant education system in country.
develop the subject planning
future employment planning.
to provide health facilities.
Income and economic activity , Unemployment
to understand about savings and investment.
introduce future investing systems
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Statistics are used in the scientific study of agriculture as a tool to determine if the differences in
variables are real or due to chance. This translates to the farmer to let him know with confidence which
varieties are better than other varieties or which fertilizer treatments will give better yields than others.
In many countries in agriculture they use so many statistical researches to do their agriculture
successfully. These are some of projects that some countries are managed.
The Pennsylvania Office of the National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS-PA)
is a joint federal/state office of USDA's National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) and
the Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture (PDA). The office is funded and staffed by both federal and
state resources. This cooperative arrangement is much more efficient than operating separate and
duplicate federal and state agencies to measure Pennsylvania agriculture. The mission is to provide
timely, accurate and useful statistics in service to Pennsylvania and U.S. agriculture.
USDA's National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS)
is a network of 46 field offices (including the Harrisburg office), serving all 50 states and
Puerto Rico through cooperative agreements with state departments of agriculture or universities.
These field offices regularly survey thousands of farm operators, ranchers, and agribusinesses who
voluntarily provide information on a confidential basis. Consolidating these reports with field
observations, objective yield measurements, and other data, statisticians then produce state statistics.
These statistics are forwarded to NASS headquarters in Washington, D.C., where they are combined and
released to the public.
Agricultural Water Use Survey (AWUS)
The Agricultural Water Use Survey is conducted to gather information on water use, irrigation
methods and practices, and sources and quality of water used for agricultural purposes on Canadian
This survey is part of the Canadian Environmental Sustainability Indicators (CESI) initiative and is
also the result of a collaboration between Statistics Canada, Health Canada, and Environment Canada.
The data collected will be used in CESI's reporting activities. The information will also be used by
Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada to inform water use policy and development of programs for
Canadian irrigators. Statistics Canada will also use the survey results to improve the modelling of
irrigation volumes by type of crops and as part of the water accounts.
The goal of the Canadian Environmental Sustainability Indicators (CESI) is to provide Canadians
with more regular and reliable information on the state of their environment and how it is linked with
human activities. Environment Canada, Statistics Canada and Health Canada are working together to
develop and communicate these indicators. Reflecting the joint responsibility for environmental
management in Canada, this effort has benefited from the co-operation and input of the provinces and
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The place statistics hold in Sri Lanka
As all other countries, Sri Lanka uses statistics for all kind of decision making process. As a developing
world country we hold more risk than developed countries. In Sri Lanka there are few governmental
Department of Census and Statistics, Sri Lanka
Department of Statistics and Computer Science
Department of Statistics and Computer Science have been dedicated to the highest standards of
education, research and community outreach since its establishment in 1996.
Other than these departments most of the Universities in Sri Lanka have statistics Departments.
Department of Statistics - University of Colombo.
Department of Mathematics and Statistics - University of Jaffna.
University of Kelaniya - Department of Statistics & Computing.
Department of Economics & Statistics, University of Peradeniya.
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Downloaded presentations from internet.
Downloaded pdf references from internet.
Grade 9,10,11 S social Studies books.
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