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Tablet manufacturing process created by Asadulla Mulla


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Procedure or way of manufacturing of tablets in pharmaceutical company

Published in: Health & Medicine
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Tablet manufacturing process created by Asadulla Mulla

  1. 1. AUTHOR - ASAD K. MULLA. B.Pharmacy
  2. 2. The manufacture of oral solid dosage forms such as tablets is a complex multi-stage process under which the starting materials change their physical characteristics a number of times before the final dosage form is produced. Traditionally, tablets have been made by granulation, a process that imparts two primary requisites to formulate: compactibility and fluidity. Both wet granulation and dry granulation (slugging and roll compaction) are used. Regardless of whether tablets are made by direct compression or granulation, the first step, milling and mixing, is the same; subsequent steps differ. Numerous unit processes are involved in making tablets, including particle size reduction and sizing, blending, granulation, drying, compaction, and (frequently) coating. Various factors associated with these processes can seriously affect content uniformity, bioavailability, or stability.
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  4. 4. The sifting and sizing (size reduction, milling, crushing, grinding, pulverization) is an important step in the process of tablet manufacturing. In manufacturing of compressed tablets, the mixing or blending of several solid pharmaceutical ingredients is easier and more uniform if the ingredients are about the same size. This provides a greater uniformity of dose. A fine particle size is essential in case of lubricant mixing with granules for its proper function. Advantages of smaller tablets are as follows: Increased surface area, which may enhance an active ingredient's dissolution rate and hence bioavailability Improved tablet-to-tablet content uniformity due to a larger number of particles per unit weight Controlled particle size distribution of dry granulation or mix to promote better flow of mixture in tablet machine Improved flow properties of raw materials Improved colour and/or active ingredient dispersion in tablet excipients Uniformly sized wet granulation to promote uniform drying
  5. 5. Following particle size reduction and blending, the formulation may be granulated, which provides homogeneity of drug distribution in blend. This process also is very important and needs experience to attain proper quality of granule before tableting, quality of granule determines the smooth and trouble free process of tablets manufacturing.Please keep in mind, if one can not have experience of granulation, can make great troubles for tableting press operator. Process Critical Parameters During Process:- Dry mixing Impeller speed Chopper Mixing time Granulation Kneading during Binder addition Kneading at slow Speed after Binder addition Kneading at slow speed
  6. 6. Drying is a most important step in the formulation and development of pharmaceutical product. It is important to keep the residual moisture low enough to prevent product deterioration and ensure free flowing properties. The commonly used dryers include Fluidized – bed dryer, Vacuum tray dryer, Microwave dryer, Spray dryer, Freeze dryer, Turbo - tray dryer, Pan dryer, etc. Process Critical Parameters During Process:- Drying Inlet Temperature Outlet temperature Product bed temperature Dutch sieve Integrity before and after use
  7. 7. The successful mixing of powder is more difficult than mixing liquid, as perfect homogeneity is difficult to achieve. A further problem is the inherent cohesiveness and resistance to movement between the individual particles. The process is further complicated in many systems by the presence of substantial segregation influencing the powder mix. This arises from the difference in size, shape, and density of the component particles. The powder/granules blending are involved at stage of pre granulation and/or post granulation stage of tablet manufacturing. Each process of mixing has an optimum mixing time, and longer mixing may result in an undesired product. The optimum mixing time and mixing speed must be evaluated. Blending prior to compression is normally achieved in a simple tumble blender. The blender may be a fixed blender into which the powders are charged, blended and discharged. It is now common to use a bin blender.
  8. 8. Process Critical Parameters During Process:- Lubrication Lubrication Time RPM of cage blender Yield of lubricated granules
  9. 9. After the preparation of granules (in case of wet granulation) or sized slugs (in case of dry granulation) or mixing of ingredients (in case of direct compression), they are compressed to get final product. The compression is done either by single punch machine (stamping press) or by multi station machine (rotary press). The tablet press is a high-speed mechanical device. It 'squeezes' the ingredients into the required tablet shape with extreme precision. It can make the tablet in many shapes, although they are usually round or oval. Also, it can press the name of the manufacturer or the product into the top of the tablet. . Each tablet is made by pressing the granules inside a die, made up of hardened steel. The die is a disc shape with a hole cut through its centre. The powder is compressed in the centre of the die by two hardened steel punches that fit into the top and bottom of the die.The punches and dies are fixed to a turret that spins round. As it spins, the punches are driven together by two fixed cams - an upper cam and lower cam. . The top of the upper punch (the punch head) sits on the upper cam edge .The bottom of the lower punch sits on the lower cam edge.
  10. 10. Stage 1: Top punch is withdrawn from the die by the upper cam Bottom punch is low in the die so powder falls in through the hole and fills the die Stage 2: Bottom punch moves up to adjust the powder weight-it raises and expels some powder. on the tablets; punches with recessed etchings produce tablets with raised impressions or monograms. Logos may be placed on one or on both sides of a tablet, depending on the punches. The shapes of the two cams determine the sequence of movements of the two punches. This sequence is repeated over and over because the turret is spinning round. The force exerted on the ingredients in the dies is very carefully controlled. This ensures that each tablet is perfectly formed. Because of the high speeds, they need very sophisticated lubrication systems. The lubricating oil is recycled and filtered to ensure a continuous supply. Common stages occurring during compression
  11. 11. Process Critical Parameters During Process:- Compression Granules flow from granule's container to Feeder Machine Overload pressure Appearance Weight of 20 tablets Individual weight variation Hardness Tablet thickness Friability Disintegration Time Yield Coating Baffle type Spray Nozzle Aperture Pan Load Temperature of Inlet air Temperature of Exhaust air Coating Pan RPM Atomizing Pressure Spray Rate Distance Between gun & tablet bed Average Weight gain Yield
  12. 12. Tablets must be packaged before they can be sent out for distribution. The type of packaging will depend on the formulation of the medicine. Blister packs are a common form of packaging. They are safe and easy to use and the user can see the contents without opening the pack. Many pharmaceutical companies use a standard size of blister pack. This saves the cost of different tools and changing the production machinery between products. Sometimes the pack may be perforated so that individual tablets can be detached. This means that the expiry date and the drug's name must be printed on each part of the package. The blister pack itself must remain absolutely flat as it travels through the packaging processes, especially when it is inserted into a carton. Extra ribs are added to the blister pack to improve its stiffness. Process Critical Parameters During Process:- Packing Sealing Roller Temperature Leak Test Yield