This presentation is designed to cover some of the principles of Basic Life Support & First Aid as of January 2012. This includes things such as; - DRABCD - Care for Bleeding - Care for Shock - First Aid for Sprains & Strains - Care for dislocations and fractures - Poisoning - Burns - Diabetic Emergencies
It is not comprehensive, but is designed to refresh those who have had any previous experience in Basic Life Support. In saying that being able to apply some of these skills is useful for anyone.
PurposeThe purpose of this presentation is tointroduce and refresh some Basic LifeSupport (aka First Aid) principles, nowbased on the 2011 Australian Guidelines. This presentation was designed withhealth students in mind, as a refresher or in preparation for clinical placements.However, the topics covered here will be of use to anyone.
check for D anger S end for help check R esponse check A irwayscheck for B reathing give C PR apply a D efibrillator
Check for Danger(Hazards/Risks/Safety?) • to you • to others • to casualtyFor example; electricalwires, gases, aggressiverelatives, water, etc.Remove yourself and thecasualty to an area of safety Andy Field (Hubmedia) via flickr
Check the casualty for aresponse.Use the COWS Method• C an you hear me?• O pen your eyes• W hat is your name?• S queeze my handGently squeeze shoulders(i.e. the trapezoid muscle)If casualty is unresponsive callfor help.
Call 112 to reach emergency servicesvirtually anywhere in the world. Call 911 for USA, 000 for Australia Ornotify your Cardiac Arrestteam within the hospital. Image: betsyweber
Check the airway is open and clearof obstructions.Use a head tilt, chin lift to open theairway.Use a jaw thrust for patientswith suspected spinal cord,head, neck and facial trauma.(usually done on patient’s with aGCS < 8. Not recommended forunexperienced people).
In an unconscious patient, thetongue is the most commoncause of obstruction.Also check the airway forblood, vomit & any otherforeign materials.If breathing begins place inrecovery position. Vassia Atanassova - Spiritia
Look, listen and feel for breathing, up to 10 seconds. • is chest rising and falling? • can you hear or feel air from mouth or nose? In Australia it is no longer recommended to deliver rescue breaths but rather continue straight to CPR. In clinical situations use aface mask to administer the breaths. CPR should be the chief priority. image: c0d3in3 via Flickr
If no signs of life – unconscious, not breathing and not moving, start CPR (cardiopulmonary resuscitation) CPR involves giving; 30 compression and 2 breaths 100 compressions per minute (useful tunes for compression The recommended point ofrate are Staying Alive by the BeeGees, Another one Bites the Dust compresions is the midline over to name a few) the lower half of the sternum.
Remember to push hard and fast, straight arms. Revival checks conducted every 2 minutes (look for pulse & signs of life) Should swap person doingcompressions every 2min (so they don’t become tired and perform ineffective compressions)
Doing CPR on Infantsuse two fingers instead of using hands You should checkto deliver compressions. for vital signs every 2 minutes. Give 30 compression & 2 breaths 100 compressions per minute CPR should continue until thewhen delivering breaths do not overdo return of spontaneousthe amount, as you may cause a lung circulation or you are relievedto rupture. by a qualified professional.
If Defibrillator isavailable, apply andfollow voice prompts.Remember whenshocking to get everyoneto stand well back. The Lifepak 500 is the standard product in Australia Keep checking for signs of life.
* * Note the next two slides are specific to allied health professionals and medical students. It is a reminder of some devices used for airway management.Oropharyngeal Airway Nasopharyngeal Endotracheal Laryngeal mask (guedels) Airway tube Images from wikipedia & flickr
** Once the Guedel or Nasopharyngeal airway is inplace, * Apply face mask * Use the resuscitator to provide ventilations * Attach 15L of oxygen to resuscitator If performing ventilation manually ensure a tight seal between the mask and the face. Where possible have one person firmly holding the face mask down and the other ventilating.
BLS - what’s coming up…We shall now cover the following aspects ofBasic Life Support.oCare for BleedingoCare for ShockoFirst Aid for Sprains & StrainsoCare for Dislocations & FracturesoPoisoningoBurnsoDiabetic Emergency
1. Apply Pressure to the Wound2. Raise and Support injured part3. Bandage Wound4. Check Circulation below wound5. If severe bleeding persists, give nothing by mouth & call emergency services
1. Assess Casualty (DRSABCD)2. Call emergency3. Position Casualty Keep the casualty lying down if possible. Elevate legs 10-12inches unless you suspect a spinal injury4. Treat any other injuries5. Ensure Comfort Cover casualty to maintain warmth Provide casualty with fresh air6. Monitor & Record breathing and pulse
R–I–C–ER estI ce, apply a cold pack. Donot apply ice directly toskin.C ompress, use an elasticor comforting wrap – not totight.E levate, above heart levelto control internal bleeding.
Follow DRSABCD. Then proceed with I A-C-T.I mmobilise area. Use jackets, pillows, blankets and so on.Stop any movement by supporting injured area.A ctivate emergency services.Call 112 or 000.C are for shock. See care for shock slide.T reat any additional secondary injuries.
Follow DRSABCD & Check Materials Safety Data Sheet if possible . Signs & Symptoms Abdominal pain Drowsiness Nausea/vomiting Burning pains from mouth to stomach Difficulty in breathing Tight chest Blurred vision and so on…….
1. Remove Casualty from Danger (follow DRSABCD & remember STOP, DROP & ROLL)2. Cool the burnt area (hold burnt area under cold running water for a minimum of 20 minutes.)3. Remove any constrictions (e.g. clothing & jewellery)4. Cover Burn (place sterile, non-stick dressing over burn) isafmedia via flickr5. Calm Casualty
1. Follow DRS ABCD2. Try to determine whether the individual is suffering from a high (e.g. thirsty) or a low (hungry) blood sugar.3. If you are unsure, then the best option is to give the person a sweet drink, as it is more important to maintain minimum blood sugar levels. isafmedia via flickr4. Monitor individual & wait for arrival of medical assistance.
Standard PrecautionsStandard Precautions are standard, safe work practicesthat are to be applied to all patients regardless of their known or presumed infectious status.Standard Precautions are particularly Standard Precautions include stepsimportant in cases with: such as:• Blood (including dried blood) • hand washing• All other body fluids, secretions and • use of appropriate personal excretions (excluding protective equipment (eg. sweat), regardless of whether they gloves) contain visible blood • management of sharps, and• Non-intact skin • immunisation of health care• Mucous membranes workers.
Notice/DisclosureI’m not a Medical Professional or a Doctor. Anything thatis mentioned in this presentation, I have learnt during my university studies or through certified training programs. This presentation is not a substitute for professional training or proper medical advice. Hope you enjoyed this presentation. Cheers, Aaron