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Unit 9History’s MysteriesObjectives:• Speculate about the out-of-the-ordinary• Present a theory about a past event• Discuss how believable a story is• Evaluate the trustworthiness of news sources
IntroductionThroughout History, there have beenunexplained events and misconceptionswhich can be interesting source ofdiscussion. For example: The hundred years’ war actually lasted 116 years. Panama hats are actually made in Ecuador. The October Revolution was celebrated in November. The Canary Islands are named after the dogs.Summit 1: Page 98
Sound Bites Statements about Strange Stories: Don’t tell me you buy that story!(I cant believe you think that story is true!) Youre such a skeptic!(You always doubt everything!) There’s no question, that’s story is real!(The story is definitely real!) Get out of here!(You’ve got to be kidding!) You have such a wild imagination!(You think up some crazy things) Seeing is believing(I have to see something with my own eyes to believe it)Summit 1: Page 100
VocabularyWays to say “I don’t know”Beats me!I don’t have a clueYour guess is as good as mineYou got me!I can’t imagine!I have no idea!Who knows?
Ways to express certaintyVery certain:“Clearly /It’sobvious / There’sno question…he’s not coming”Almost certain:Most likely,probably, I’llbet… he’s notcoming”Somewhatcertain: “I guess/I imagine / Isuppose… he’snot coming”Not certain:Maybe /It’spossible /It couldbe… he’s notcoming”“I wonder why he hasn’t arrived yet”
Grammar Snapshot:Reported Speech with Modals When a reporting verb is in past form, theverb is the reported statement must alsoshift to a previous past tense:◦ I went to the store → “She said that she had goneto the store” You most also change pronouns andpossessives to preserve the speaker’s pointof view:◦ My brother got me a gift → “She said that herbrother had gotten her a gift”SUMMIT 1: Pages 100-101
Grammar Snapshot:Reported Speech with Modals• With → would• Can → could• May → might• Must → had to• Have to → had to• Would → would• Could → could• Might → might• Should → should• Ought to → Ought toWhenreportingwith modalverbs somemodalschange topreviouspast andothersdon’t:SUMMIT 1: Pages 102-103
Speculating About the Past UsingModals and Passive Voice You can use:[May-could-must-had to] + [have been] + [past participle]to speculate with different degrees ofcertainty:Very Certain Almost Certain Not Certain+ Had tp have been Must have been Might have beenMay have beenCould have been-Couldn’t have been Must not have been Might not have beenCant have been May not have beenSUMMIT 1: Pages 102-103
Word Skill:Using adjectives with suffix -ableProvable:I don’t thinkyour theory isprovable (thatcan be shownto be true).Believable:The story hetold seemsbelievable (canbe accepted astrue, seemspossible).Debatable:The cause ofthe explosion isdebatable (noteasy to prove).Questionable:Her version ofthe story isquestionable(uncertain, butmost likely tobe untrue).Unsolvable:The mysterymay beunsolvable(impossible toprove).SUMMIT 1: Page 104-105Note: Provable /pruvebel/ is different from Probable /prabebel/
Reading:Evaluate trustworthiness of a hoax Read the articles on your book and selectthe best answers for the questions below:Questions Story 1 Story 2The hoax is aboutThe news was publishedThe truth was revealedThe responsible wasPossible answers1A filmmaker and a surgeon260 years later3diaries written by Hitler4As soon as experts examined the diaries5Londons Daily Mail in 19336a photo of Lock Ness Monster7German Magazine Der Stern IN 19838A reporter and an art forgersummit 1: Pages 106-107
Writing:Avoiding sentence fragments A sentence fragment is a group of wordsthat does not express a complete thought. A dependent clause: “Because the bankeradmitted to fraud” (this is a group of words thatcontains a subject and a verb but begins with asubordinating conjunction that makes it anincomplete thought). A phrase: “With his help” “At the end of the year”(this is a group of words that does NOT contain asubject and a verb).
Writing:Avoiding sentence fragments To connect a sentence fragment, we need toattach the fragment to an independent clause tocomplete the thought:“Because the banker admitted to fraud, the bank wasclose down.” We can also add a subject or a verb to make thefragment into a sentence:“She graduated at the end of the year.” Be sure to identify the subordinatingconjunctions:after – as soon as - because – since – unless – until –when – whenever - while.