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Communication and health behavior copy

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lecture in communication and its uses in Medicine

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Communication and health behavior copy

  1. 1. COMMUNICATION ANDCOMMUNICATION AND HEALTH BEHAVIORHEALTH BEHAVIOR Dr. AmAny r. Abo-El-SEouDDr. AmAny r. Abo-El-SEouD ProfESSor of CommunityProfESSor of Community mEDiCinEmEDiCinE ZAgAZig univErSity.EgyPtZAgAZig univErSity.EgyPt
  2. 2. DefinitionsDefinitions Communication:Communication: It is a requirement forIt is a requirement for life in any society.life in any society. It is the process inIt is the process in which feelings or ideas are expressed aswhich feelings or ideas are expressed as messages: sent, received andmessages: sent, received and comprehended.comprehended. The process of communication is dynamic,The process of communication is dynamic, continuous, irreversible and transactional.continuous, irreversible and transactional.
  3. 3. Health educationHealth education : To raise awareness: To raise awareness of people to prevent disease and toof people to prevent disease and to improve knowledge, attitude and practiceimprove knowledge, attitude and practice of individuals for healthy living.of individuals for healthy living. Knowledge:Knowledge: confident understanding ofconfident understanding of a subject with the ability to use it for aa subject with the ability to use it for a specific purpose.specific purpose. ‫المعرفة‬‫المعرفة‬
  4. 4. Attitude:Attitude: positive, negative or neutralpositive, negative or neutral view of a person, behavior or event.view of a person, behavior or event. ‫موقف‬‫موقف‬ Belief:Belief: a subjective mental interpretationa subjective mental interpretation derived from perception, reasoning orderived from perception, reasoning or communication.communication. ‫اعتقاد‬‫اعتقاد‬ BehaviorBehavior: actions or reaction of a person: actions or reaction of a person in relation to certain circumstances.in relation to certain circumstances. ‫تصرف‬‫تصرف‬
  5. 5. COMMNUICATIONCOMMNUICATION Human communication is the process ofHuman communication is the process of creating meaning between two or morecreating meaning between two or more people.people. It is to transfer Ideas - Information - NormsIt is to transfer Ideas - Information - Norms ‫نماذج‬‫نماذج‬- Values - Attitudes through message- Values - Attitudes through message to another party so that it can beto another party so that it can be understood and acted upon.understood and acted upon.
  6. 6. Why do we communicateWhy do we communicate?? The importance of communication:The importance of communication: To make people understand us and toTo make people understand us and to understand others.understand others. To make us accepted.To make us accepted. To undertake something.To undertake something. To strengthen the human relationshipsTo strengthen the human relationships and social links.and social links.  To spread the human spirit of friendshipTo spread the human spirit of friendship and cooperation.and cooperation.
  7. 7. Benefits in the medical fieldBenefits in the medical field To improve patient complianceTo improve patient compliance To improve patient satisfactionTo improve patient satisfaction To improve health outcomes for patientsTo improve health outcomes for patients To improve the accuracy and efficiency ofTo improve the accuracy and efficiency of the consultation and hence is morethe consultation and hence is more rewarding for the doctorrewarding for the doctor
  8. 8. Elements of communication The Sender Who Sends the message: doctor, nurse, parents, actor, teacher The Message What Ideas, Information, Feelings, Emotions. Can be at personal hygiene, nutrition guide, safe motherhood, risk factors etc The Channel How Means of message transmission. Face-face, group discussion, radio, newspaper, conference, T.V,internet. The Receptor To whom The person to whom we talk or the one who receives the message. Illiterate or highly educated, culture, habits, traditions, language. The Feedback With What Effects The information or the reaction given to the receptor
  9. 9. Let us think • You perform a health education program in x village for family planning to increase the users of pills. 2 weeks after the message there was no increase in pill users……why?
  10. 10. What can hinderWhat can hinder communicationcommunication?? 1-1- At the source or sender levelAt the source or sender level  Does not know or convinced with the subject.Does not know or convinced with the subject.  Cannot communicate the message.Cannot communicate the message.  Does not formulate clearly the objectives or theDoes not formulate clearly the objectives or the message.message.  Does not choose the suitable language of the receptor.Does not choose the suitable language of the receptor.  Does not change the tone.Does not change the tone. The communicator must :The communicator must : CLEAR=CLEAR= C: Clarify L: Listen E: Encourage A: AppreciateC: Clarify L: Listen E: Encourage A: Appreciate R: ReassureR: Reassure Do notDo not give orders. Do not attack. Do not be aggressivegive orders. Do not attack. Do not be aggressive or ridiculousor ridiculous..
  11. 11. 2-2- At the message levelAt the message level Difficult words.Difficult words. Is not of interest to the receiver.Is not of interest to the receiver. Is not related to the stated objectives.Is not related to the stated objectives. Unclear, confusing.Unclear, confusing. 3-3- At the channel levelAt the channel level Noise.Noise. Not adapted to the message transmission.Not adapted to the message transmission. Not accessible to the receptor.Not accessible to the receptor.
  12. 12. 4-4- At the receptor levelAt the receptor level  Indifferent to the message.Indifferent to the message.  Could not decode (understand) the message.Could not decode (understand) the message.  Cannot receive the message.Cannot receive the message.  Poor listening conditions.Poor listening conditions. 5-5- At the feedback levelAt the feedback level  Feedback not well prepared.Feedback not well prepared.  Limited time.Limited time.  Selection of those who respond.Selection of those who respond.  Question poorly formulated.Question poorly formulated.
  13. 13. Forms (channels) ofForms (channels) of communicationcommunication Verbal:Verbal: By saying or writing words e.g.By saying or writing words e.g. talk, discussion, conferencestalk, discussion, conferences,, oror PresentationPresentation,, books, newspapersbooks, newspapers.. NonNon––verbal:verbal: Intentional (signs and movements).Intentional (signs and movements). Unconscious (Feelings) as way of clientUnconscious (Feelings) as way of client’’ss walking, sitting, hand movements, facialwalking, sitting, hand movements, facial expression, vocal characteristics (pitch,expression, vocal characteristics (pitch, volume, rate).volume, rate).
  14. 14. Communication skills used inCommunication skills used in the medical fieldthe medical field:: (1)(1)Skills of history takingSkills of history taking (2)(2) Skills of CounselingSkills of Counseling (3)(3)Skills of health educationSkills of health education
  15. 15. HEALTH EDUCATIONHEALTH EDUCATION  Aims at changing behavior of individuals towards healthy behavior.Aims at changing behavior of individuals towards healthy behavior. It gives new information (unknown before) or change old wrongIt gives new information (unknown before) or change old wrong knowledge.knowledge.  Health education covers all the areas of community medicine, inHealth education covers all the areas of community medicine, in health promotion (to give information to people how to be healthy) inhealth promotion (to give information to people how to be healthy) in prevention of health hazards (give information about vaccination,prevention of health hazards (give information about vaccination, smoking hazards) in control of disease (to take treatment accordingsmoking hazards) in control of disease (to take treatment according to doctor advice) and in rehabilitation (to use the remaining healthto doctor advice) and in rehabilitation (to use the remaining health capabilities).capabilities).  Health education is concerned with physical, mental and socialHealth education is concerned with physical, mental and social wellbeingwellbeing  It is life long processIt is life long process  It can be directed to individual, family or communityIt can be directed to individual, family or community
  16. 16. Stages of behavioralStages of behavioral changechange:: Health belief modelHealth belief model :: Awareness of the problem: to perceiveAwareness of the problem: to perceive that there is a problem (to be aware of thethat there is a problem (to be aware of the bad effect of obesity on health)bad effect of obesity on health) Interest: to show an interest in the problemInterest: to show an interest in the problem (he becomes interested in that subject and(he becomes interested in that subject and he considers that he may be victim of thathe considers that he may be victim of that complication/ disease).complication/ disease). Knowledge: need to know more to decideKnowledge: need to know more to decide to change and adopt an innovation .(toto change and adopt an innovation .(to know more about obesity hazards).know more about obesity hazards).
  17. 17. Attitude: to decide to take action (he formsAttitude: to decide to take action (he forms positive opinion about the bad outcome ofpositive opinion about the bad outcome of obese persons).obese persons). Legitimization: is that subject in line withLegitimization: is that subject in line with legal, cultural, financial and sociallegal, cultural, financial and social acceptance? If yes it is easily to practice .acceptance? If yes it is easily to practice . (are friends know that obesity is bad? Is it(are friends know that obesity is bad? Is it costly? Can I do it? What are the barrierscostly? Can I do it? What are the barriers to change?)to change?) Practice (action): try it to see its feasibilityPractice (action): try it to see its feasibility and effectiveness.( I try to decrease fattyand effectiveness.( I try to decrease fatty diets to see its effect on my health).diets to see its effect on my health). Sustainability : to keep the change for life.Sustainability : to keep the change for life. (keep eating healthy diet, with low fat(keep eating healthy diet, with low fat content).content).
  18. 18. Let us thinkLet us think Apply the health belief model onApply the health belief model on prevention of smokingprevention of smoking
  19. 19. Health belief modelHealth belief model AwarenessAwareness InterestInterest KnowledgeKnowledge AttitudeAttitude Feasibility of practicingFeasibility of practicing PracticePractice SustainabilitySustainability Q :Q : When can we intervene by a healthWhen can we intervene by a health education program in this model?education program in this model?
  20. 20. Health belief modelHealth belief model To know disease And Severity Motivation attitude Internal/personal variavles external cancel action relapse Healthy behavior
  21. 21. Behavior at illnessBehavior at illness Do nothing & wait Feeling of illness Self treatment, folk medicine Ask pharmacy doctor Go to physician Non complianc e to ttt Complianc e to ttt and cure
  22. 22. Factors that affectFactors that affect health/illness behaviorhealth/illness behavior  Age, sex, level of education, culture, religion, past experienceAge, sex, level of education, culture, religion, past experience  Recognition of symptoms, signs.Recognition of symptoms, signs.  Seriousness of symptoms/signsSeriousness of symptoms/signs  If these symptoms affect his ordinary lifeIf these symptoms affect his ordinary life  Persistence and frequency of symptomsPersistence and frequency of symptoms  Personal tolerance to symptomsPersonal tolerance to symptoms  Level of knowledge, cultural opinion about these symptomsLevel of knowledge, cultural opinion about these symptoms  Fear of illness to be fatal.Fear of illness to be fatal.  Stigma : community opinion towards patients of that illnessStigma : community opinion towards patients of that illness  Availability of medical servicesAvailability of medical services  Trusted services and health providersTrusted services and health providers
  23. 23. Planning for health educationPlanning for health education programprogram "who says what and when to whom by"who says what and when to whom by which channel"which channel" therefore we should consider the following:therefore we should consider the following: the message, sender, recipient, method,the message, sender, recipient, method, barriers for changebarriers for change
  24. 24. Evaluation of H.E. programEvaluation of H.E. program * Pre and post testing: for the same group or* Pre and post testing: for the same group or for 2 groupsfor 2 groups Every thing should be evaluated (theEvery thing should be evaluated (the educator, message, method and theeducator, message, method and the persons who are educated)persons who are educated) * Increased number of good behaviors* Increased number of good behaviors * Change in the morbidity & mortality rates* Change in the morbidity & mortality rates **
  25. 25. How to design A questionnaireHow to design A questionnaire Brief introduction, aim and gentle askingBrief introduction, aim and gentle asking for co-operationfor co-operation Simple language, direct questionsSimple language, direct questions Not ask for 2 things in the same q.Not ask for 2 things in the same q. Don’t use negative negative q.Don’t use negative negative q. Short answers, closed q.Short answers, closed q. Not too long questionnaireNot too long questionnaire It must be reliable, validIt must be reliable, valid
  26. 26. 2 types of questions:2 types of questions: Qualitative (Likert’s scale) for attitude orQualitative (Likert’s scale) for attitude or yes/noyes/no Quantitative: giving % or numberQuantitative: giving % or number Multiple choices are easierMultiple choices are easier
  27. 27. Let us thinkLet us think Design a questionnaire for assessing SEDesign a questionnaire for assessing SE standard of living?standard of living? Design a questionnaire for knowingDesign a questionnaire for knowing feedback of students on Communityfeedback of students on Community Medicine?Medicine? Design a questionnaire for pre test forDesign a questionnaire for pre test for health education program for hepatitis C?health education program for hepatitis C?
  28. 28. My Best WishesMy Best Wishes thank youthank you

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