AMBAR JYOTI HAZARIKA
Roll No- BT/BME-13/03
Sterilization – An introduction
Importance of sterilization
Advantages & Disadvantages
Effects of Sterilization
Conclusion and future prospects
The process of killing or
removing bacteria and all other
forms of living micro-organisms
and there spares from preparation.
Essential concept in the
preparation of sterile
is to provide a product that is safe and eliminates the
possibility of introducing
Prevents the Growth of Diseases
In any medical tool/device used, bacteria comes onto it. If left unchecked
or not disinfected properly, it is highly likely that bacteria will grow.
Prevents the Spread of Diseases
If surgical equipment is not properly sterilized, patients treated are
exposed to a disease the previous patient had.
Prevents Double Surgeries
If unsterilized equipment is used, it can cause an infection leading to
another surgery later on in order to remove it.
This is costly and can cause many life-threatening complications.
THREE METHOD :-
1. Physical method
a)Dry heat sterilization
b)Moist heat sterilization
c)Sterilization by radiation (gamma radiation)
2. Chemical method
a) Gaseous sterilization
b) Sterilization by disinfectant
3. Mechanical method
Pass through bacteria-proof filter
METHOD OF STERILIZATION
Physical Method of
1 Dry Heat Oven
2 Moist Heat Autoclave
3 Radiation Gamma-ray Chamber
OVEN : -
specially designed instrument - electrically heated and
Expose at 160 ºC for 1 hour.
it is suitable method for sterilization of
substances destroyed by moisture.
long heating time, high temperature.
DRY HEAT STERILIZATION
Heating process in autoclave - saturated steam under pressure
is allowed to penetrated through materials for 15 minutes and
temperature 121º c.
micro organism are killed most efficiency in lesser time
due to high pressured saturated steam
unsuitable for materials not withstanding
temperature of 115ºC or more during heating
MOIST HEAT STERLIZATION
Two techniques involved:
Alteration of chemicals lead to form new compound in
cells destroying the micro-organism itself
Vital structure like nuclear protein are destroyed killing the
e.g., Co-60 - used for gamma ray sterilization process.
Gamma rays –
generally obtained from radio isotope(Co-60) during
disintegration of unstable atoms
kill micro-organisms by isolating atoms of essential substance of
cells present in them.
STERELIZATION BY RADIATION
1. No significance rise in temperature
2. Continuous process due to short exposure time.
1. May lead to color change.
2. Solubility of preparation leading to decomposition of
Ethylene oxide used.
Special type of chemical sterilization using gases and vapour
The gas used is safe & non-inflammable.
Now-a-days, ethylene oxide most widely used gaseous
sterilization agent in medical science.
1. It has penetration power quite useful for sterilizing
surgical instruments (such as catheter, needles, plastics,
1. Very slow sterilization process
2. Very costly equipment
Decontamination - removal of microorganisms contaminating
Preservation - preventing methods of microbes-caused
spoilage of susceptible products(pharmaceuticals, foods)
Sanitization - removal of microbes that pose a threat to the
public health, food industry, water conditioning
sanitizer-an agent, usually a detergent, that reduces the numbers
of bacteria to a safe level
Alcohols, aldehydes, halogen, phenols, surfactants,
e.g., ethylene oxide – most commonly used for sterilisation
1. Widely used in hospitals for materials that cannot
withstand steam sterilisation
1. 40-60% humidity in sterilizing chamber
The solution to be sterilized is passed through depth-
filter or screen-filter which includes
Pharmaceutical solutions are sterilized by this method.
The micro-organism are physically removed by
absorption on the filter medium or by mechanism.
Filtration filling and sealing processes are under a septic
Sterilization test must be done.
There are 3 effects:
1. Gamma radiation sterilization of medical device is
common but irradiation effect at 2.5 mega rad on a bone
replacement material when started and modified property
when investigated by Creep test.
2.Irradiation increase Creep resistance of material with
the formation of crosslink and then increase in crystality
3.Biodegradable materials sterilized by gamma radiation
may be associated with some advance effect.
SOME EFFECTS OF STERILIZATION
In the near future the main challenge as biomedical
engineer is to make the sterilization process
Less time consuming and
at hospitals, pharmaceutical company, drug industry and
food processing plants.