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Ruby On Rails Basics

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Basics of Ruby on Rails.

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Ruby On Rails Basics

  1. 1. Ruby On Rails Basics Amit Solanki http://amitsolanki.com
  2. 2. Introduction Web-application framework - includes everything needed to create database-backed web applications according to the Model-View- Control(MVC) pattern Built on Ruby - Language of the year 2006 Extracted by David Heinemeier Hansson(DHH) from his work on Basecamp, a project management tool by 37signals Released as open source in July 2004 - more than 1400 contributors
  3. 3. Showcase More at http://rubyonrails.org/applications
  4. 4. Framework - Why do we need it? Consider following Python Code: #!/usr/bin/env python import MySQLdb print "Content-Type: text/htmln" print "<html><head><title>Books</title></head>" print "<body>" print "<h1>Books</h1>" print "<ul>" connection = MySQLdb.connect(user='mysql_user', passwd='mysql_pass', db='my_database') cursor = connection.cursor() cursor.execute("SELECT name FROM books ORDER BY pub_date DESC LIMIT 10") for row in cursor.fetchall(): print "<li>%s</li>" % row[0] print "</ul>" print "</body></html>" connection.close()
  5. 5. Framework - Why do we need it? What happens when multiple parts of your application need to connect to the database? - database-connecting code need to be duplicated in each individual CGI script. Instead, we could refactor it into a shared function Should a developer really have to worry about printing the “Content-Type” line and remembering to close the database connection? - this reduces programmer productivity and introduces opportunities for mistakes. These setup- and teardown-related tasks would best be handled by some common infrastructure What happens when this code is reused in multiple environments, each with a separate database and password? - some environment-specific configuration becomes essential What happens when a Web designer who has no experience coding Python wishes to redesign the page? - one wrong character could crash the entire application. Ideally, the logic of the page — the retrieval of book titles from the database — would be separate from the HTML display of the page, so that a designer could edit the latter without affecting the former.
  6. 6. Framework - Why do we need it? The MVC Implementation: # models.py (the database tables) from django.db import models class Book(models.Model): name = models.CharField(max_length=50) pub_date = models.DateField() # views.py (the business logic) from django.shortcuts import render_to_response from models import Book def latest_books(request): book_list = Book.objects.order_by('-pub_date')[:10] return render_to_response('latest_books.html', {'book_list': book_list}) # urls.py (the URL configuration) from django.conf.urls.defaults import * import views urlpatterns = patterns('', (r'^latest/$', views.latest_books), ) # latest_books.html (the template) <html><head><title>Books</title></head> <body> <h1>Books</h1> <ul> {% for book in book_list %} <li>{{ book.name }}</li> {% endfor %} </ul> </body></html>
  7. 7. Framework - Why do we need it? The models.py file contains a description of the database table, represented by a Python class. This class is called a model. Using it, you can create, retrieve, update and delete records in your database using simple Python code rather than writing repetitive SQL statements The views.py file contains the business logic for the page. The latest_books() function is called a view The urls.py file specifies which view is called for a given URL pattern. In this case, the URL /latest/ will be handled by the latest_books() function. In other words, if your domain is example.com, any visit to the URL http:// example.com/latest/ will call the latest_books() function The latest_books.html file is an HTML template that describes the design of the page. It uses a template language with basic logic statements — e.g., {% for book in book_list %}
  8. 8. Running Rails on your machine Install ruby - http://ruby-lang.org/ Windows: One click installer Linux: Installer tools such as apt-get and yum Mac OS X: Macports Best practice is to install by compiling from source Install rubygems - http://rubyforge.org Install rails gem - http://rubyonrails.org/download gem install rails may require sudo access on unix/linux based OS Editors: TextMate, VIM, Emacs, jEdit, SciTE IDE: RadRails, RubyMine, 3rd Rail, NetBeans, Komodo
  9. 9. Features Convention over Configuration Don't Repeat Yourself (DRY) Agile Individuals and interactions over processes and tools Working software over comprehensive documentation Customer collaboration over contract negotiation Responding to change over following a plan Easy integration with features with AJAX and RESTful Connects to most of the databases - just install DB driver Latest stable release is 2.3 => 3.0 Coming soon Rails is FUN
  10. 10. Model-View-Controller Architecture 1 Controller 4 3 2 View Model Database 1
  11. 11. Framework Structure ActiveRecord an object relationship mapping (ORM) system for database access ActiveResource provides web services before 2.0 => ActionWeb ActionPack ActionController ActionView ActiveSupport Utility classes and standard library extensions from Rails ActionMailer Plugins to extend capability
  12. 12. Directory Structure . |-- README Installation and usage information |-- Rakefile Build script |-- app Model, view and controller files go here | |-- controllers | |-- helpers | |-- models | |-- views |-- config Configuration and database connection parameters | |-- boot.rb | |-- database.yml | |-- environment.rb | |-- environments | |-- initializers | `-- routes.rb |-- db Schema and migration information | |-- migrate |-- doc Autogenerated documentation |-- lib Shared code |-- log Log files produced by your application |-- public Web-acccessible directory. Your application runs from here |-- script Utility scripts |-- test Unit, functional, and integration tests, fixtures, and mocks |-- tmp Runtime temporary files |-- vendor Imported code `-- plugins
  13. 13. Demo
  14. 14. config/ Every environment has a database configuration in database.yml Global configuration file - environment.rb Individual configuration file under config/environments production.rb development.rb test.rb Easy to add custom environments e.g. for a staging server create staging.rb Start server by passing RAILS_ENV ruby script/server RAILS_ENV=‘production’ mongrel_rails start
  15. 15. script/ about breakpointer console dbconsole destroy generate plugin runner server
  16. 16. Rake db:migrate doc:app doc:rails log:clear rails:freeze:gems rails:freeze:edge rails:update test stats
  17. 17. Some Quotes “Rails is the most well thought-out web development framework I’ve ever used. And that’s in a decade of doing web applications for a living. I’ve built my own frameworks, helped develop the Servlet API, and have created more than a few web servers from scratch. Nobody has done it like this before.” -James Duncan Davidson, Creator of Tomcat and Ant “Ruby on Rails is a breakthrough in lowering the barriers of entry to programming. Powerful web applications that formerly might have taken weeks or months to develop can be produced in a matter of days.” -Tim O'Reilly, Founder of O'Reilly Media “It is impossible not to notice Ruby on Rails. It has had a huge effect both in and outside the Ruby community... Rails has become a standard to which even well-established tools are comparing themselves to.” -Martin Fowler, Author of Refactoring, PoEAA, XP Explained “What sets this framework apart from all of the others is the preference for convention over configuration making applications easier to develop and understand.” -Sam Ruby, ASF board of directors
  18. 18. Some Quotes (contd.) “Before Ruby on Rails, web programming required a lot of verbiage, steps and time. Now, web designers and software engineers can develop a website much faster and more simply, enabling them to be more productive and effective in their work.” -Bruce Perens, Open Source Luminary “After researching the market, Ruby on Rails stood out as the best choice. We have been very happy with that decision. We will continue building on Rails and consider it a key business advantage.” -Evan Williams, Creator of Blogger, ODEO, and Twitter “Ruby on Rails is astounding. Using it is like watching a kung-fu movie, where a dozen bad-ass frameworks prepare to beat up the little newcomer only to be handed their asses in a variety of imaginative ways.” -Nathan Torkington, O'Reilly Program Chair for OSCON “Rails is the killer app for Ruby.” Yukihiro Matsumoto, Creator of Ruby
  19. 19. Resources guides.rubyonrails.org weblog.rubyonrails.com loudthinking.com rubyinside.com therailsway.com weblog.jamisbuck.com errtheblog.com nubyonrails.com planetrubyonrails.org blog.caboo.se
  20. 20. Thanks Amit Solanki amit@vinsol.com

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