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Maslow Theories and criticism


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How Maslow theory motivates service industry and organization.

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Maslow Theories and criticism

  1. 2. MOHAMED <ul><li>PRESENTER </li></ul>
  2. 3. WHAT IS MOTIVATION? <ul><li>Motivation is derived from Latin words movere which means “to move” </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation is the result of processes, internal or external to the individual, that arouse enthusiasm and persistence to pursue a certain course of action. </li></ul>
  3. 4. ABRAHAM MASLOW <ul><li>Abraham was born in Brooklyn since 1908 – 1970. </li></ul><ul><li>Maslow was a psychologist who studied the lives and activities of individuals that he found considered them to be “successful and productive”. </li></ul><ul><li>Maslow is a famous theorist which encompass everything from basic needs to self-actualization in order to demonstrate what motivates people.  </li></ul>
  4. 5. <ul><li>This theory indicates </li></ul><ul><li>There are 5 levels of needs </li></ul><ul><li>All these needs are arranged in a hierarchy </li></ul><ul><li>Once one level is satisfied, the next level will emerge as the depressed need seeking to be satisfied </li></ul><ul><li>The physiological and security needs are finite but the needs of higher order are infinite and are likely to be dominant in persons at higher levels in the organization. </li></ul><ul><li>Maslow suggests that various levels are interdependent and overlapping. </li></ul>MASLOW THEORIES
  6. 7. AMY <ul><li>PRESENTER </li></ul>
  7. 8. Physical Needs LEVEL ONE
  8. 9. Air
  9. 10. Water
  10. 11. FOOD
  11. 12. rest
  12. 13. Exercise
  13. 14. <ul><li>These are the basic human needs including food, clothing, shelter and other necessities of life. </li></ul><ul><li>Air </li></ul><ul><li>Water </li></ul><ul><li>Food </li></ul><ul><li>Rest </li></ul><ul><li>Exercise </li></ul><ul><li>According to Maslow’s theory, if such needs are not satisfied then one’s motivation will arise from the quest to satisfy them. Higher needs such as social needs and esteem are not felt until one has met the need’s basic to one’s bodily functioning. </li></ul>Physical needs LEVEL ONE :
  14. 15. LEVEL TWO <ul><li>Safety Needs </li></ul>
  15. 16. Safety
  16. 17. Security
  17. 18. Protection
  18. 19. freedom from fear
  19. 20. <ul><li>Safety needs: These includes economic security, protection from physical dangers. </li></ul><ul><li>Safety </li></ul><ul><li>Security </li></ul><ul><li>Protection </li></ul><ul><li>Freedom from Fear </li></ul><ul><li>According to Maslow’s hierarchy, if a person feels that he or she is in harm’s way, higher needs will not receive much attention. </li></ul>Safety needs LEVEL TWO :
  20. 21. KELVIN <ul><li>PRESENTER </li></ul>
  21. 22. LEVEL THREE <ul><li>Social Needs </li></ul>
  22. 23. Love
  23. 24. Belongingness
  24. 25. affection
  25. 26. Social needs LEVEL THREE: <ul><li>Social needs: Need for love, affection, emotional needs, warmth and friendship. </li></ul><ul><li>Love </li></ul><ul><li>Belongingness </li></ul><ul><li>Affection </li></ul>Once a person has met the lower level physiological and safety needs, higher level motivators awaken. Social needs are those related to interaction with others .
  26. 27. Esteem Needs LEVEL FOUR
  27. 28. Strength
  28. 29. Status
  29. 30. <ul><li>Self-esteem: Ego or self esteem, self respect, self confidence, recognition. </li></ul><ul><li>Strength (esteem) </li></ul><ul><li>Status (esteem) </li></ul><ul><li>Maslow later refined his model to include a level between esteem needs and self – actualization the need for knowledge and aesthetics. </li></ul>Esteem needs LEVEL FOUR :
  30. 31. SADDAM <ul><li>PRESENTER </li></ul>
  31. 32. Self-actualization LEVEL FIVE
  32. 33. <ul><li>Self actualization needs: desire for personal achievement or mission of his life. </li></ul><ul><li>Self – actualized persons have frequent occurrence of peak experiences, which are energized moments of profound happiness and harmony. According to Maslow, only a small percentage of the population reaches the level of self- actualization. </li></ul>Self - Actualization LEVEL FIVE :
  33. 34. <ul><li>Researchers have proved that there is lack of hierarchical structure of needs as suggested by Maslow. Some people may have deprived of lower level needs but strive for self actualization. </li></ul><ul><li>There is lack of direct cause and effect relationship between need and behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes peoples are not aware of their own needs. </li></ul><ul><li>Measurement of satisfaction of needs is not possible. </li></ul>Criticism
  34. 35. THE ROLE OF MOTIVATION <ul><li>Why do we need motivated employees?  </li></ul><ul><li>To be effective, managers need to understand what motivates within the context of the roles they perform. Of all the functions a manager performs, motivating employees is the most complex. </li></ul><ul><li>Motivated employees are needed in our rapidly changing workplaces. </li></ul><ul><li>Motivated employees help organizations survive. </li></ul><ul><li>Motivated employees are more productive. </li></ul>
  35. 36. <ul><li>High Employee Performance </li></ul><ul><li>Low employee turnover and absenteeism </li></ul><ul><li>Better Organizational Image </li></ul><ul><li>Better Industrial relations </li></ul><ul><li>Acceptability to change </li></ul><ul><li>Better quality orientation </li></ul><ul><li>Better Productivity </li></ul>IMPORTANCE OF MOTIVATION IN SERVICE INDUSTRY
  37. 38. APPLYING MASLOW'S NEEDS HIERARCHY - BUSINESS MANAGEMENT IMPLICATIONS There are some very important leadership implications to enhance workplace motivation.  There are staff motivation opportunities by motivating each employee through their style of management, compensation plans, role definition, and company activities. These are the suggestions used to motivate employees using Maslow need’s hierarchy
  38. 39. <ul><li>Provide ample breaks for lunch and recuperation to employees. </li></ul><ul><li>Pay good salaries that allow workers to buy life's essentials. </li></ul>Physiological Motivation
  39. 40. <ul><li>Provide a working environment which is safe, relative job security, and freedom from threats. </li></ul><ul><li>The innate desire to have a stable/safe life, a sense of orderly world and personal as well as financial security constitutes safety needs . </li></ul>Safety Needs
  40. 41. <ul><li>Generate a feeling of acceptance, sense of belongingness </li></ul><ul><li>Community by reinforcing team dynamics. </li></ul>Social Needs  
  41. 42. MOHAMED <ul><li>PRESENTER </li></ul>
  42. 43. <ul><li>Recognize achievements. </li></ul><ul><li>Assign important projects. </li></ul><ul><li>Provide status/rewards to make employees feel valued and appreciated. </li></ul>Esteem Motivators
  43. 44. <ul><li>Offer challenging and meaningful work assignments which enable innovation, creativity, and progress according to long-term goals. </li></ul><ul><li>Participation in decision making. </li></ul><ul><li>Job Flexibility and autonomy. </li></ul>Self-Actualization
  44. 45. CONCLUSION The basis of Maslow's motivation theory is that human beings are motivated by unsatisfied needs, and that certain lower factors need to be satisfied before higher needs can be satisfied. According to Maslow, there are general types of needs (physiological, survival, safety, love, and esteem) that must be satisfied before a person can act unselfishly. He called these needs &quot;deficiency needs.&quot; As long as we are motivated to satisfy these cravings, we are moving towards growth, toward self-actualization. Satisfying needs is healthy, while preventing gratification makes us sick or act evilly.