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Cascao Cortona Gambella Sharing Water Land Resources

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Cascao Cortona Gambella Sharing Water Land Resources

  1. 1. GAMBELLA: Sharing land and water resources across borders and boundaries Ethiopia Sudan Summer  School “Borders and Border-Crossings in Africa” AEGIS (Africa-Europe Group for Interdisciplinary Studies) Cortona (Italy), 16-22 June 2008
  2. 2. POLITICAL BORDERS Gambella region Borderlands are sites and symbols of power (Donnan and Wilson)
  3. 3. GEOGRAPHICAL BORDERS Baro River Akobo River Sobat River Gilo River White Nile River Rivers do not always respect national borders (IUCN)
  4. 4. WATER BORDERS <ul><li>BORDERS ARE STATIC </li></ul><ul><li>WATER IS MOVEABLE </li></ul><ul><li>LAND IS VARIABLE </li></ul><ul><li>AND POPULATIONS? </li></ul>Sudd - One of the largest wetlands in the world WHAT IS WRONG WITH THIS MAP?
  5. 5. POPULATIONS - MULTIPLE BOUNDARIES Sudan Ethiopia Centre Periphery Highlands Lowlands Locals Outsiders Settlers Nomads Dry season Wet season LAND WATER
  6. 6. Sudan Ethiopia
  7. 7. Centre Periphery
  8. 8. Highlands Lowlands
  9. 9. Locals Outsiders
  10. 10. Settlers Nomads
  11. 11. Dry season Wet season
  12. 12. IDENTITY BOUNDARIES – reality or politics? NUER ANUAK HIGHLANDERS REFUGEE?
  13. 13. COMPETING FOR RESOURCES across borders and boundaries LAND WATER POWER Access Ownership Distribution Migration Politics Conflict RESOURCES POWER
  14. 14. WHERE IS THE BORDER? 80s Highlanders 80s Army and Refugees 90s Urban Dwellers + Movement 90s/2000s Pastoralists 90s/2000s Pastoralists 90s/2000s Pastoralists 90s/2000s Pastoralists Conflict Conflict
  15. 15. GAMBELLA- CONFLICTS WITHOUT BORDERS <ul><li>Pressure over the land </li></ul><ul><li>Pressure over riverian areas </li></ul><ul><li>Ecological degradation </li></ul><ul><li>Conflicts between social groups </li></ul><ul><li>Competition for power and wealth </li></ul><ul><li>Blurred lines of conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Potential for border disputes </li></ul><ul><li>Risk of political manipulation of competition for resources </li></ul>Are we talking about Gambella? Could be Darfur!
  16. 16. Thanks for your attention! <ul><li>Ana Elisa Cascão </li></ul><ul><li>King’s College of London </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul>

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