Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

PMP Chap 8 - Project Quality Management

Free Video Training on Youtube - PMBOK6th edition:
1. Integration Management: https://youtu.be/NdzADFfoRxA
2. Scope Management: https://youtu.be/9u6f2NXlGnI
3. Quality Management: https://youtu.be/8zteKSxDyt4
4. Stakeholder management: https://youtu.be/Vhjc6T9R4d8

PMBOK 6th edition updated slides -
https://www.slideshare.net/anandbobade/chap-80-quality-management-overview
https://www.slideshare.net/anandbobade/chap-81-plan-quality-management
https://www.slideshare.net/anandbobade/chap-82-manage-quality
https://www.slideshare.net/anandbobade/chap-83-control-quality

  • Login to see the comments

PMP Chap 8 - Project Quality Management

  1. 1. By: Anand Bobade (nmbobade@gmail.com) Learn Project Management & prepare for PMP exam: • Learn visually • Detailed coverage of all PMP concepts • Sample Questions PMBOK Chapter 8 : Project Quality Management Plan Quality management Perform Quality Assurance Perform Quality Control Monitoring & ControlPlanning Executing
  2. 2. By: Anand Bobade (nmbobade@gmail.com) Chap 8- Project Quality Management Introduction Quality & Quality management definition Quality theories Quality management processes Each process in details Review of Quality Management knowledge area Exam Essentials & Tips Self assessment
  3. 3. By: Anand Bobade (nmbobade@gmail.com) Quality Introduction -> What is Quality? Quality is Conformance to requirements (by- Philip B. Crosby) Quality is the degree to which a set of inherent (existing) characteristics fulfils requirements. High quality Product: • Meets or exceeds customers’ requirements Low quality product: • Not meeting stated requirements
  4. 4. By: Anand Bobade (nmbobade@gmail.com) Introduction -> What is Quality? Product can be certified as Quality product if: • to the Product requirements.Conformance • adhere to the Requirements.Results • to the Requirements.No deviation • Do it right the first time.No rework • no defects in the delivered product or service.Zero Defects
  5. 5. By: Anand Bobade (nmbobade@gmail.com) Quality management (ISO 9000:2005): • Coordinated activities to direct and control an organization with regard to Quality. Introduction -> What is Quality Management?
  6. 6. By: Anand Bobade (nmbobade@gmail.com) It includes creating & following policies & procedures in order to ensure project meet it’s defined needs. Project Quality Management Creating & following - Policies & Procedures Meet defined quality needs of the Project PMI - Project Quality Management Definition
  7. 7. By: Anand Bobade (nmbobade@gmail.com) Who is effected by Quality? Customer End users Management Project Manager Project Team
  8. 8. By: Anand Bobade (nmbobade@gmail.com) Introduction – Quality vs. Grade If you opted for Saloon CAR, you probably choose it over the regular looking CAR because it looks superior. However, this Saloon CAR will looks low grade compared to Sports CAR.
  9. 9. By: Anand Bobade (nmbobade@gmail.com) Introduction– Quality vs. Grade Quality of a product is a measure of how closely it matches its intended purpose. Grade is a measure of the value people put on a product. Different technical characteristics. High grade product might be low quality product. Regardless of the grade, the quality should be high. In any case, quality cannot be compromised.
  10. 10. By: Anand Bobade (nmbobade@gmail.com) Introduction – Precision vs. Accuracy Accuracy: Refers to how far you are from the true value. (True value is yellow circle) This is accurate but not Precise. Precision: Refers to how close do you get to the same value if you repeated the exercise several times. This is precise but not accurate. Precise and accurate: Quality of product will be considered high if results are Precise and accurate.
  11. 11. By: Anand Bobade (nmbobade@gmail.com) Screw making machine Quality testing • Between 5-7 CM. Expected screw length • All length between 5.5 to 6.5 CM. • Means they are Accurate. Results of cycle 1 • Outside expected range (above 7, but all between 7.1 & 7.3). Hence Precise.Results of cycle 2 Introduction – Precision vs. Accuracy
  12. 12. By: Anand Bobade (nmbobade@gmail.com) Introduction -> Key concepts Customer satisfaction : • Understanding, evaluating, defining and managing requirements, so that customer expectations are met. Prevention over inspection: • Quality should be planned, designed, and built into into the project’s deliverables. • It should not be inspection driven (reactive). Continuous improvement: • The PDCA (plan-do-check-act) cycle is the basis for quality improvement. • Well known quality improvement theories include: Total Quality Management & Six Sigma.
  13. 13. By: Anand Bobade (nmbobade@gmail.com) Introduction – Quality Theories Six Sigma (Introduced by Bill Smith at Motorola) Just In Time (Toyota) Total Quality Management - W. Edwards Deming: ISO – International Standard Organization 80/20 principle - Joseph Juran Zero Defects: Philip Crosby:
  14. 14. By: Anand Bobade (nmbobade@gmail.com) Six Sigma Six Sigma: Introduced by Bill Smith at Motorola. Six sigma helps in Process control. It refines process to get rid of human error & outside influences. Uses precise measurements & continuous refinements. Quality Theories -> Six Sigma Define the problem & the objective Analyse the processes. Define factors of influence Assure that improvements will sustain What do we need to improve? Can we measure this? Identify & implement improvements
  15. 15. By: Anand Bobade (nmbobade@gmail.com) Six Sigma Quality Theories -> Six Sigma Quality levels: Set of techniques and tools for process improvement. • Defects Per Million OpportunitiesDPMO : Sigma value 1 2 3 4 5 6 Compliance percentage 31% 69% 93.3% 99.38% 99.977% 99.99966% Defects percentage 69% 31% 6.7% 0.62% 0.023% 0.00034% DPMO 691,462 308,538 66,807 6,210 233 3.4 Sigma values will be used in calculation
  16. 16. By: Anand Bobade (nmbobade@gmail.com) TQM Total Quality Management - W. Edwards Deming: Comprehensive & structured approach to organizational management that seeks to improve quality of products & services. Customer focused - objective is to consistently improve Customer satisfaction. Continuous on-going refinements in response to continuous feedback. Everyone is involved. 14 steps of total Quality Management, Plan-Do-Check- Act cycle. Quality Theories -> Total Quality Management
  17. 17. By: Anand Bobade (nmbobade@gmail.com) ISO ISO standards: There are various ISO standards & certifications. ISO 9000 - Quality management ISO 27001 - Information security ISO 10006 – Quality in Project Management ISO 9126 – Software quality standards ISO 31000 - Risk management Introduction – ISO Standards The project quality management as described in PMI PMBOK®, is intended to be compatible with ISO.
  18. 18. By: Anand Bobade (nmbobade@gmail.com) ISO ISO Quality management: Provide guidance & tools, to ensure products & services consistently meet customer’s requirements, and that quality is consistently improved. Customer Satisfaction Prevention over inspection Continuous improvement Management Responsibility Cost of Quality (COQ) Introduction – ISO Standards
  19. 19. By: Anand Bobade (nmbobade@gmail.com) Introduction – Quality principals 80/20 principle - Joseph Juran: • 80% of outcomes can be attributed to 20% of causes. • E.g.,: • 80% of defects found in 20% modules of the system. • Fixing 20% modules will fix 80% of defects. Zero Defects: Philip Crosby: • Management-led program to eliminate defects in industrial production. • Cost of poor quality, prevention over inspection and zero defects. • Quality is “conformance to requirements”
  20. 20. By: Anand Bobade (nmbobade@gmail.com) Introduction – Evolution of Quality Management 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2007 Quality Control Quality Assurance ISO 9000 TQM- total Quality Management Six Sigma
  21. 21. By: Anand Bobade (nmbobade@gmail.com) Process improvement models: Organizational Project Management Maturity Model (OPM3®) Capability Maturity Model Integrated (CMMI®) Malcolm Baldrige Introduction -> Process improvement models
  22. 22. By: Anand Bobade (nmbobade@gmail.com) CMMI Capability Maturity Model Integration - Improve overall software quality (design, development and deployment) Introduction – CMMI Level 1 Initial Level 2 Managed Level 3 Defined Level 4 Quantitative ly managed Level 5 Optimizing Process unpredictable, poorly controlled & reactive. Process characterized for projects and is managed Process characterized for organization and is proactive Process is quantitatively measured and controlled Focus on continuous process improvement
  23. 23. By: Anand Bobade (nmbobade@gmail.com) 8. Project Quality Management Knowledge Area 8.1 Plan Quality Management: • Identifying quality requirements & standards, and document how the project will demonstrate compliance. 8.2 Perform Quality Assurance: • Auditing the quality requirements and the results from quality control measurements, to ensure that appropriate quality standards are used. 8.3: Control Quality: • Monitoring and recording results of executing the quality activities to assess performance and recommend necessary changes.
  24. 24. By: Anand Bobade (nmbobade@gmail.com) Learn Project Management & prepare for PMP exam: • Learn visually • Detailed coverage of all PMP concepts • Sample Questions
  25. 25. By: Anand Bobade (nmbobade@gmail.com)By: Anand Bobade (nmbobade@gmail.com) 8.1 Plan Quality Management Plan Quality Management definition Plan Quality Management - ITTO What is Quality Management Plan? What is process improvement Plan? Seven basic Quality tools Review Self Assessment 8.1 I T&T O
  26. 26. By: Anand Bobade (nmbobade@gmail.com) Identifying quality requirements & standards for project & it’s deliverables, & documenting how project will demonstrate compliance with quality requirements. It provides guidance & direction on how quality will be managed & validated throughout Project. 8.1 Plan Quality Management Project Requirements Identify Document 8.1 I T&T O
  27. 27. By: Anand Bobade (nmbobade@gmail.com) 8.1 Plan Quality Management Inputs (6) • Project management plan • Stakeholder register • Risk register • Requirements documentation • EEF • OPA Tools & Techniques(8) • Cost-benefit analysis • Cost of quality • Seven basic quality tools • Benchmarking • Design of experiments • Statistical sampling • Additional quality planning tools • Meetings Outputs (5) • Quality management plan • Process improvement plan • Quality metrics • Quality checklists • Project documents updates 8.1 I T&T O
  28. 28. By: Anand Bobade (nmbobade@gmail.com) PMP Stakeholder register Risk register Requirements documentation EEF OPA 8.1 Plan Quality Management->Input 8.1 I T&T O
  29. 29. By: Anand Bobade (nmbobade@gmail.com) 8.1 Plan Quality Management->Input Scope baseline (Work Breakdown Structure , WBS Dictionary, Schedule baseline), Cost baseline, Other management Plans Identifying those stakeholders possessing a particular interest or having impact on the quality. Contains threats & opportunities that may impact quality requirements. 8.1 I T&T O
  30. 30. By: Anand Bobade (nmbobade@gmail.com) 8.1 Plan Quality Management->Input Captures requirements that project should meet pertaining to stakeholders expectations. Project ( including product) & quality requirements. Government Agency regulations. Rules, standards & guidelines. Working or operating conditions. Organizational quality, policies, procedures and guidelines. Historical Database & Lesson learned. 8.1 I T&T O
  31. 31. By: Anand Bobade (nmbobade@gmail.com) Cost-benefit analysis Cost of quality Seven basic quality tools Benchmarking Design of experiments Statistical sampling Additional quality planning tools Meetings 8.1 Plan Quality Management->T&T 8.1 I T&T O
  32. 32. By: Anand Bobade (nmbobade@gmail.com) Cost of quality All cost incurred over the life of a Product: 8.1 Plan Quality Management->T&T->Cost of Quality Preventing non-conformance to the requirements. Appraising conformance to the requirements. Failing to meet requirements (reworks). 8.1 I T&T O
  33. 33. By: Anand Bobade (nmbobade@gmail.com) 8.1 Plan Quality Management->T&T->Cost of Quality 8.1 I T&T O
  34. 34. By: Anand Bobade (nmbobade@gmail.com) Cost-benefit Analysis A financial analysis tool used to determine the benefits provided by a project against its costs. Benefit of meeting quality requirements Less rework Higher productivity Lower costs Increased stakeholder satisfaction. The primary cost of meeting quality requirements is expenses associated with quality management activities. 8.1 Plan Quality Management->T&T->Cost Benefit Analysis Cost of quality 8.1 I T&T O
  35. 35. By: Anand Bobade (nmbobade@gmail.com) Seven basic quality tools Cause-and-Effect Flowcharts Check-sheet Pareto Diagram Histograms Control Charts Scatter Diagram 8.1 Plan Quality Management->T&T-> 7 Basic quality tools 8.1 I T&T O Quality Planning Quality Assurance Quality Control 7QT
  36. 36. By: Anand Bobade (nmbobade@gmail.com) Cause-and-Effect Diagram (Fishbone or Ishikawa diagrams): • It traces complaints about quality problems. • Help you find the root cause of a problem. 8.1 Plan Quality Management->T&T-> 7QT-> C&E Diagrams Major causes are further investigated. At the end, entire diagram is analysed & possible causes are identified. 5 whys technique: Repeat the question “Why”, to lead to the root cause of the Quality 8.1 I T&T O Uses brainstorming Identify problem. Work out major factors involved. Identify possible causes. Analyse diagram Major causes Contributing causes Problem to be solved 7QT
  37. 37. By: Anand Bobade (nmbobade@gmail.com) Flowcharts (or process maps): • A graphical representation of a process showing relationships among process steps. • It transforms one or more input to one or more outputs. • Flowcharts display sequence of steps. 8.1 Plan Quality Management->T&T->7QT->Flowcharts •Suppliers, Inputs, Process, Outputs, CustomersSIPOC: 8.1 I T&T O7QT
  38. 38. By: Anand Bobade (nmbobade@gmail.com) Check sheets (also known as Tally sheets): • Collect data about a problem during inspections. • Organize facts that will facilitate effective collection of data about quality problem. 8.1 Plan Quality Management->T&T->7QT->Check sheets Defect classification Check sheet Sr. No Defect Classification No of Defects 1 User Interface Defects 320 2 Unexpected exceptions 166 3 System Crashes 25 4 Wrong Calculation 33 5 Not according to requirements 326 6 Integration Failures 60 7 Others 70 Total Defects 1000 8.1 I T&T O7QT
  39. 39. By: Anand Bobade (nmbobade@gmail.com) Histograms (by Karl Pearson): - Special types of bar charts. • Summarize the distribution of a data set. • Graphical representation of distribution of numerical data. • Each bar represents characteristic of a problem & height represents its frequency. Roll No Grade 1001 33 1002 25 1003 26 1004 78 1005 76 1006 73 1007 80 1008 71 1009 72 1010 72 1011 78 1012 70 1013 65 1014 66 1015 68 1016 61 1017 62 1018 63 1019 60 1020 66 1021 60 1022 70 1023 55 1024 50 1025 59 1026 50 1027 53 1028 59 1029 52 1030 53 1031 55 8.1 Plan Quality Management->T&T->7QT->Histograms Bin Units Frequency 0 0 5 0 10 0 15 0 20 0 25 0 30 2 35 1 40 2 45 1 50 6 55 9 60 14 65 4 70 7 75 1 80 5 85 0 90 0 95 0 100 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 2 1 6 9 14 4 7 1 5 0 0 0 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 No.ofStudents Percentage Students Percentage 1 2 3 Ex: Analyse student performance through Histogram: 1. List all students grades (e.g., 500 students) 2. Create bins (categories like 10 to 15%) & add frequencies. 3. Plot the histogram. 8.1 I T&T O7QT
  40. 40. By: Anand Bobade (nmbobade@gmail.com) 8.1 Plan Quality Management->T&T->7QT->Histograms Observations: 1) Distribution of data is based on a bell curve. 2) Steep Bell Curve – Process in control. 3) Flat Curve – Process out of control. 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 2 1 6 9 14 4 7 1 5 0 0 0 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 No.ofStudents Percentage Students Percentage All Bars are of Equal widthOverall shape Shows Distribution There are 5 measurements between 75-80 8.1 I T&T O7QT
  41. 41. By: Anand Bobade (nmbobade@gmail.com) Pareto Diagram: • It’s a histogram that can help you identify & prioritize problem areas. • Pareto analysis (80-20 rule), means that, 80% of problems are often due to 20% of the causes. 33 65 81 88 94 98 100 1 11 21 31 41 51 61 71 81 91 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Percentage Defects per Category Defects analysis 8.1 Plan Quality Management->T&T->7QT->Pareto Diagram Sr. No Defect Classification No of Defects 1 Not according to requirements 326 2 User Interface Defects 320 3 Unexpected exceptions 166 4 Others 70 5 Integration Failures 60 6 Wrong Calculation 33 7 System Crashes 25 8.1 I T&T O - 900 - 800 - 600 - 500 - 400 - 300 - 200 - 100 - 0 No.ofdefects 7QT
  42. 42. By: Anand Bobade (nmbobade@gmail.com) 8.1 Plan Quality Management->T&T->7QT->Pareto Diagram When to use Pareto Charts: When you have a lot of data for analysis. When you want to identify main cause of problems. When communicating data with stakeholders. When you want to prioritize tasks. When you want to see relative importance of data. 8.1 I T&T O7QT
  43. 43. By: Anand Bobade (nmbobade@gmail.com) Control Charts (developed by Walter A. Shewhart): • Graphic display that illustrates results of a process over time. • Determine whether a process is in control or out of control. • Prevent defects, rather than to detect or reject them. Specification limit (USL or LSL) : Point determines by customer. Control limit (UCL or LCL) : It is point determine by process owner. It’s typically 3 sigma. 8.1 Plan Quality Management->T&T->7QT->Control Charts LSL USL 8.1 I T&T O7QT
  44. 44. By: Anand Bobade (nmbobade@gmail.com) Control Charts (developed by Walter A. Shewhart): • Graphic display that illustrates results of a process over time. • Determine whether a process is in control or out of control. • Prevent defects, rather than to detect or reject them. 8.1 Plan Quality Management->T&T->7QT->Control Charts • 68.27%1 Sigma • 95.44%2 sigma • 99.73%3 Sigma (UCL / LCL) • 99.99%6 Sigma Sigma is another name for standard deviation & indicates how much variance from mean has been established as permissible in the process. Level of quality is indicated by 3 or 6 sigma. 3 Sigma • 66,807 out of 1 million screws produced will have some problems. 6 Sigma • 3.4 out of 1 million screws produced will have problems 8.1 I T&T O7QT
  45. 45. By: Anand Bobade (nmbobade@gmail.com) 8.1 Plan Quality Management->T&T->7QT->Control Charts UCL=7CM LCL=5CM Upper Specification limit =7.25CM Lower Specification limit =4.75 CM Mean / Average = 6 CM 3 sigma 7.5 7.0 6.5 6.0 5.5 5.0 4.5 Qualityspecification 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 Sample Length = 6 CM 8.1 I T&T O7QT
  46. 46. By: Anand Bobade (nmbobade@gmail.com) 8.1 Plan Quality Management->T&T->7QT->Control Charts 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 UCL=7CM LCL=5CM Upper Specification limit =7.25CM Lower Specification limit =4.75 CM Mean / Average = 6 CM 7.5 7.0 6.5 6.0 5.5 5.0 4.5 8.1 I T&T O7QT
  47. 47. By: Anand Bobade (nmbobade@gmail.com) 8.1 Plan Quality Management->T&T->7QT->Control Charts Process is in control: All points are between UCL & LCL. Also called as normal Cause. 99.97% points (3 sigma) fall within the control limits 4 standard deviations from mean Analyse control chats shown in previous slide: 8.1 I T&T O7QT
  48. 48. By: Anand Bobade (nmbobade@gmail.com) Out of control Rule of Seven 8.1 Plan Quality Management->T&T->7QT->Control Charts 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 UCL=7CM LCL=5CM Upper Specification limit =7.25CM Lower Specification limit =4.75 CM Mean / Average = 6 CM 7.5 7.0 6.5 6.0 5.5 5.0 4.5 8.1 I T&T O7QT
  49. 49. By: Anand Bobade (nmbobade@gmail.com) 8.1 Plan Quality Management->T&T->7QT->Control Charts Process is out of control - There is one dot out of UCL, called as special cause. Rule of seven: Consecutive 7 time, measurements fall on the one side of the mean. This also, means process is out of control & need investigation. Assignable causes – Variations may be caused by differences in machines, workers overtime, etc. Identify the root cause Analyse control chats shown in previous slide: 8.1 I T&T O7QT
  50. 50. By: Anand Bobade (nmbobade@gmail.com) Scatter Diagram(scatter plot/ graph, correlation chart): • Predict how change in an independent variable will change a dependent variable. 8.1 Plan Quality Management->T&T->7QT->Scatter Diagram Show if there is a relationship between two variables. Usually first variable is independent & second is dependent on first. Useful when one variable is easy to measure & other is not. Closer data points are to a diagonal line, stronger relation. 8.1 I T&T O7QT
  51. 51. By: Anand Bobade (nmbobade@gmail.com) 8.1 Plan Quality Management->T&T->7QT->Scatter Diagram Three Types of correlation: No Correlation Moderate Correlation Strong Correlation Both Moderate & Strong correlation can be positive or negative. Regression line No Correlation 8.1 I T&T O7QT
  52. 52. By: Anand Bobade (nmbobade@gmail.com) Example: The Y axis show number of Accidents and X axis show speed of vehicle. As speed increases, accidents increases. 8.1 Plan Quality Management->T&T->7QT->Scatter Diagram Moderate Correlation Strong Correlation Accidents Positive Positive Speed of vehicle 140 to 180 KM/Hour Speed of vehicle 180 to 220 KM/Hour 8.1 I T&T O7QT
  53. 53. By: Anand Bobade (nmbobade@gmail.com) Example: The Y axis show cost of Project resources and X axis show project profile. As cost of project resources increases, profit will decrease. If resource cost is one of the factor then correlation will be moderate, however if this is only factor then correlation will be strong. 8.1 Plan Quality Management->T&T->7QT->Scatter Diagram Strong Correlation Moderate Correlation Negative NegativeReducing project profit Reducing project profit CostofProjectresources 8.1 I T&T O7QT
  54. 54. By: Anand Bobade (nmbobade@gmail.com) 8.1 Plan Quality Management->T&T->7QT Overview Traces complaints about quality problems. Process showing relationships among process steps. Process Map. Effective collection of data about potential quality problem. Inspection. Histogram. 80-20 rule. Identify & prioritize problem areas. Central tendency, dispersion. Frequency. Results of a process over time. Identify process gaps. Preventive. Relationship between two variables. 8.1 I T&T O7QT
  55. 55. By: Anand Bobade (nmbobade@gmail.com) Benchmarking Comparing actual or planned practices, such as processes & operations, to other organizations. Comparison may be between two companies, projects, products, materials etc The organizations compared can be internal or external. 8.1 Plan Quality Management->T&T->Benchmarking 8.1 I T&T O Identify best practices, generate ideas for improvement, and provide a basis for measuring performance.
  56. 56. By: Anand Bobade (nmbobade@gmail.com) Design of experiments Identify factors that can influence different variables of product or process. Used to determine number & type of tests needed to achieve required quality. We can change multiple variables at a time, to find optimal condition. Once we know, factors that influence product, quality check list will be developed for them. 8.1 Plan Quality Management->T&T->DOE 8.1 I T&T O
  57. 57. By: Anand Bobade (nmbobade@gmail.com) Statistical sampling Choosing few items as a sample from a larger group of items. During planning we will decide, how to do sampling in quality control process. Help to determining cost of quality (COQ) Types of Data measurement: Variable (Continuous) : Measure with yes or no. Can be divided. E.g., Typical variable values will be like students passes exam (Pass or fail). Attribute (discrete): Measure by counting. Can’t divide. E.g., Number of children in a family, Or attendance at a theatre. It can not be like 1.5 8.1 Plan Quality Management->T&T->Statistical Sampling 8.1 I T&T O
  58. 58. By: Anand Bobade (nmbobade@gmail.com) Additional quality planning tools Brainstorming: Used for generating ideas. Force Field Analysis: Diagrams of forces for and against change. Nominal Group Technique: In this technique to vote for ideas to be further discussed by a larger group of people . Quality Control and Management Tools: This tools will be explained in the next process. 8.1 Plan Quality Management->T&T->Add. QPT 8.1 I T&T O
  59. 59. By: Anand Bobade (nmbobade@gmail.com) Force Field Analysis: • It is a decision-making technique. • Helps to make a decision by analysing forces for & against a change. 8.1 Plan Quality Management->T&T->Add. QPT Eliminate re-keying errors Faster execution of administrative work Online documentation eliminate work Reduces need for clerical staff Increase control Auditing capabilities Managers unhappy with clerical work Requires Training of more Peoples Some activity cost shift to high paid staff Cost of eliminating clerical cost Start up cost HumanResourceSystem Implementation Forces for Change Forces against Change Relativeforcestrength Relativeforcestrength 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 23 4 Total = 10 Total = 8 8.1 I T&T O
  60. 60. By: Anand Bobade (nmbobade@gmail.com) Meetings 8.1 Plan Quality Management->T&T->Meetings 8.1 I T&T O Any one with quality related responsibilities should attend meetings. Key participants: Project Manager Sponsor Quality manager Selected team members Selected stakeholders Discuss & agree on quality standards. Discuss & agree on quality requirements
  61. 61. By: Anand Bobade (nmbobade@gmail.com) 8.1 Plan Quality Management->T&T->Summary Cost of implementing quality requirements against benefits Quality cost incurred over the life of a the Product Cause-and-Effect, Flowcharts, Check-sheet, Pareto Diagram, Histograms, Control chart, Scatter Diagram Compare to past activities/standard Change several factors for each experiment, to determine best approach Choosing few items as a sample from a larger group of items. Additional QM tools: Brainstorming, Force Field Analysis, Nominal Group Technique, Quality Control and Management Tools. Quality related meetings 8.1 I T&T O
  62. 62. By: Anand Bobade (nmbobade@gmail.com) Quality management plan Process improvement plan Quality metrics Quality checklists Project documents updates 8.1 Plan Quality Management->Outputs 8.1 I T&T O
  63. 63. By: Anand Bobade (nmbobade@gmail.com) 8.1 Plan Quality Management->Outputs 8.1 Plan Quality Management: 8.2 Perform Quality Assurance: 8.3: Control Quality: Quality metrics Process improvement plan Quality checklists 8.1 I T&T O
  64. 64. By: Anand Bobade (nmbobade@gmail.com) Quality Management Plan Quality management plans explains how organizations quality policies will be implemented. Depending on project, plan can be very detailed or simple. Planned should be reviewed early. Sharper focus on projects value proposition. (Cost of Quality, Cost benefit analysis) Details how Quality requirements are captured. Should refer to Quality management standard followed by product. May contain sample size of process to calculate it. 8.1 Plan Quality Management->Outputs ->QMP 8.1 I T&T O
  65. 65. By: Anand Bobade (nmbobade@gmail.com) Process Improvement Plan It details the steps that will help improving various process. It helps you to analyse the existing business processes, identify problems and rectify them to improve the. It is implemented in the QA and QC processes. It contains: • The purpose of process, inputs & outputs, Owner etcProcess Boundaries: • Graphical depiction of the process.Process Configuration: • Used for measuring process efficiency (Control limits).Process Metric: • Targets for improvement. Targets for Improved Performance: 8.1 Plan Quality Management->Outputs->PIP 8.1 I T&T O
  66. 66. By: Anand Bobade (nmbobade@gmail.com) Quality metrics Description of a project/product attribute & how to measure it. They are used to directly translate customer needs into acceptable performance measures in both products and processes. E.g., Finishing project within budget & time, freq. of defects, failure rate The metrics & tolerance level for variation is set in Quality plan. 8.1 Plan Quality Management->Outputs->Quality Metrics Tactical Measure Time Cost Resources Scope Sample Indicator Schedule Performance Index (SPI) = Earned Value / Planned Value Cost Performance Index (CPI) = Earned Value / Actual Cost Amount of hours overspent per Testing cycle Number of Change Requests 8.1 I T&T O
  67. 67. By: Anand Bobade (nmbobade@gmail.com) Quality checklists A structured tool used to verify that a set of required steps has been performed. It is a list of items you need to verify, check or inspect. They are used in every imaginable field — from building inspections to complex medical surgeries. It allows you to ensure you don’t forget any important steps. Developed based on product requirements. List steps to be followed to achieve desired quality. 8.1 Plan Quality Management->Outputs 8.1 I T&T O
  68. 68. By: Anand Bobade (nmbobade@gmail.com) 8.1 Plan Quality Management->Outputs Project documents updates Risk Register, Requirement Traceability Matrix WBS dictionary 8.1 I T&T O
  69. 69. By: Anand Bobade (nmbobade@gmail.com) 8.1 Plan Quality Management 8.1 I T&T O
  70. 70. By: Anand Bobade (nmbobade@gmail.com) Self Assessment c. Raise Change request with recommendation to address the process Gap Since you are responsible for the Quality assurance activities on the project. Its your responsibility to officially inform to concern authority. Hence you must officially raise CR for CCB review. You are reporting to a very senior Project Manager on CRM project and responsible for the quality assurance of the Project. You found some serious process gap in the process followed by the team. If issue is not addressees in time, project may end up with failure. How you will deal with the situation? a. PM is responsible for the team activities hence don’t do anything. b. Privately talk to PM and raise the issue. c. Raise Change request with recommendation to address the process Gap d. Direct team to work on the new process recommended by you. 8.1 I T&T O
  71. 71. By: Anand Bobade (nmbobade@gmail.com) Self Assessment b. Precision is consistency that the value of a repeated set of measurements are clustered and have little scatter whereas accuracy is correctness that the measured value is very close to the true value. PM is unsure of the difference between precision and accuracy and asks for your help in understanding the difference between the two terms. Which of these responses would be the best response to such a question? a. Accuracy and Precision are equivalent and normally specified in the SOW by the customer who issues the SOW. b. Precision is consistency that the value of a repeated set of measurements are clustered and have little scatter whereas accuracy is correctness that the measured value is very close to the true value. c. Accuracy is more important than precision. The project management team must decide the level of accuracy required. d. Accuracy is consistency that the value of a repeated set of measurements are clustered and have little scatter whereas precision is correctness that the measured value is very close to the true value. 8.1 I T&T O
  72. 72. By: Anand Bobade (nmbobade@gmail.com) Self Assessment d. Rework Cost of failure detected internally is really an example of: a. Cost of conformance b. Quality Audit c. Cost of Warranty d. Rework 8.1 I T&T O
  73. 73. By: Anand Bobade (nmbobade@gmail.com) Self Assessment Answer: a. The design of experiments The method used in the plan quality management process to identify the factors that may influence specific variables of a product under development is known as: a. The design of experiments b. Statistical sampling c. Prototyping d. Control charts 8.1 I T&T O
  74. 74. By: Anand Bobade (nmbobade@gmail.com) Self Assessment Answer: a. Business will accept the doors Results are within UCL & LCL. It is not qualifying for rule of seven hence process in still within control. You are producing doors. The control limits set for the thickness of doors for this process set to 9.8cm and 10.2cm. The business specification limits are 9.7 cm and 10.3cm. During Inspection, it was noticed that last 6 doors continuously has thickness of 10.25 cm long. Select appropriate answer. a. Business will accept the doors b. Quality parameters are not meet c. Business will reject the doors d. The process is out of control and needs to be adjusted. 8.1 I T&T O
  75. 75. By: Anand Bobade (nmbobade@gmail.com) Self Assessment d. Performance is out of control as 7 consecutive results are above the mean. During Control chart analysis, Process is considered out of control if seven consecutive data poins are on one side of the mean (Reference: PMBOK 238) Your are executing a Software Performance Test. According to the PT acceptable each transaction should execute within 1 to 30 milliseconds. After the execution results were as 16, 18,16, 17, 17, 18, 16,18,16, 16, 17,15 milliseconds respectively. How you will interpret this data using control chart. a. Performance is within control as all results are close to mean value. b. Performance is within control as all results fall within acceptable range. c. Performance is out of control as results are constantly varying. d. Performance is out of control as 7 consecutive results are above the mean. 8.1 I T&T O
  76. 76. By: Anand Bobade (nmbobade@gmail.com) Self Assessment c. 7 consecutive points are on one side of the mean, even though they are within the control limits The “Rule of Seven” comes into play when a. 7 points become out of control b. 7 points breach the standard deviation c. 7 consecutive points are on one side of the mean, even though they are within the control limits d. 7 random points that are on any side of the mean, but within or without the control limits 8.1 I T&T O
  77. 77. By: Anand Bobade (nmbobade@gmail.com) Learn Project Management & prepare for PMP exam: • Learn visually • Detailed coverage of all PMP concepts • Sample Questions
  78. 78. By: Anand Bobade (nmbobade@gmail.com)By: Anand Bobade (nmbobade@gmail.com) 8.2 Perform Quality Assurance Perform Quality Assurance definition Perform Quality Assurance - ITTO Difference between Quality control & assurance Quality management & control tools What is Quality Audit? Review Self Assessment 8.2 I T&T O
  79. 79. By: Anand Bobade (nmbobade@gmail.com) 8. Project Quality Management Knowledge Area 8.1 Plan Quality Management: • It is the process of identifying quality requirements and/or standards for the project and its deliverables • Document how the project will demonstrate compliance with relevant quality requirements. 8.2 Perform Quality Assurance: • It is the process of auditing the quality requirements and the results from quality control measurements to ensure that appropriate quality standards and operational definitions are used. 8.3: Control Quality: • It is the process of monitoring and recording results of executing the quality activities to assess performance and recommend necessary changes. 8.2 I T&T O
  80. 80. By: Anand Bobade (nmbobade@gmail.com) Process of auditing quality requirements & results from quality control measurements to ensure appropriate quality standards & operational definitions are used. It facilitates the improvement of quality processes. 8.2 Perform Quality Assurance Ensure Quality Standards & Operational Definitions are used Quality requirement s Results from Quality Control Measures 8.2 I T&T O
  81. 81. By: Anand Bobade (nmbobade@gmail.com)Copyrights @ Anand Bobade (nmbobade@gmail.com – 055-5932004) Quality Control & Quality Assurance process Direct and Manage Project work Control Quality Plan Quality management Perform Quality Assurance Deliverables Quality Checklist Sampling Inspection (System testing, Load testing etc) Quality Control measurements Quality Audit Process Analysis QMPQuality Matrix Process Improvement plan No. of defects Defect classification Perform Integrated change Control WPD PMP Project Documents Verified Del’s WPI Validated changes Change Request PMP updates Approved CR Approved CR review 8.2 I T&T O
  82. 82. By: Anand Bobade (nmbobade@gmail.com) 8.2 Perform Quality Assurance-> ITTO Inputs (5) • Quality management plan • Process improvement plan • Quality metrics • Quality control measurements • Project documents Tools & Techniques(3) • Quality management & control tools • Quality audits • Process analysis Outputs (4) • Change requests • PMP updates • Project documents updates • OPA updates 8.2 I T&T O
  83. 83. By: Anand Bobade (nmbobade@gmail.com) Quality Management Plan Process Improvement Plan Quality Metrics Quality Control Measurements Project documents 8.2 Perform Quality Assurance -> Input 8.2 I T&T O
  84. 84. By: Anand Bobade (nmbobade@gmail.com) 8.2 Perform Quality Assurance -> Input 8.1 Plan Quality Management: 8.2 Perform Quality Assurance: 8.3: Control Quality: 8.2 I T&T O
  85. 85. By: Anand Bobade (nmbobade@gmail.com) 8.2 Perform Quality Assurance -> Input Quality management plan: • Contains plan for quality assurance and process improvement. Process Improvement Plan: • This will tell us about the project’s process improvement plan which needs to be aligned with quality assurance process. Quality Metrics: • It will tells what we need to measure and what are the allowable variation for our measurements. 8.2 I T&T O
  86. 86. By: Anand Bobade (nmbobade@gmail.com) 8.2 Perform Quality Assurance -> Input Quality Control Measurements: • Documented results of control quality activities (measurements taken in Control Quality Process) • Measurements are used as input for Quality Assurance. • Evaluate effectiveness of quality assurance process. Project documents: • It may influence Quality assurance work • It should be monitored within the context of system for Configuration management. 8.2 I T&T O
  87. 87. By: Anand Bobade (nmbobade@gmail.com) Quality Management & Control Tools Quality Audits Process Analysis 8.2 Perform Quality Assurance-> Tools & Techniques 8.2 I T&T O
  88. 88. By: Anand Bobade (nmbobade@gmail.com) Quality Management & Control Tools Affinity diagram PDPC Interrelationship Digraph Tree Diagram Prioritization Matrix Network Diagram Matrix Diagram 8.2 Perform Quality Assurance->T&T->QM&CT 8.2 I T&T O
  89. 89. By: Anand Bobade (nmbobade@gmail.com) Affinity Diagram: Classifying large number of ideas into groups 8.2 Perform Quality Assurance->T&T->QM&CT 8.2 I T&T O
  90. 90. By: Anand Bobade (nmbobade@gmail.com) Interrelationship Digraph: Provide a process for creative problem-solving in moderately complex scenarios that possess logical relationships. 8.2 Perform Quality Assurance->T&T->QM&CT 1. City Growth concentrated in east & west 2. South has no infrastructure to attract city growth 3. Highway 111 can’t be widened through city center 4. Existing transportation plan is inadequate 5. Clock tower tunnel can ease City center congestion 8. Congestion in City center is getting worse 7. Grand road can be widened to reduce congestion 6. Additional river bridge is required to divert traffic away from city center 9. Main bridge on river is located close to City center An item with large number of outputs considered as cause of many effect. An item with large number of inputs can be source of Quality metrics. 8.2 I T&T O
  91. 91. By: Anand Bobade (nmbobade@gmail.com) Process Decision Program Chart (PDPC) : Used to understand a goal in relation to steps for getting to goal. It identifies what might go wrong in a plan under development. 8.2 Perform Quality Assurance->T&T->QM&CT Improve Product Quality Quality Training Self Study Difficult to track progress Provide oversight of individuals No interaction benefit Periodically bring students together Training by outside Expert Costly Allocate funds in budget Lack of internal process understanding Train trainer on internal processes Training by internal SME Time commitment is high Get management buy-in. No training experience Train on presentation skills X X XO O O Project benefit do not overweight Risk Project benefit do not overweight Risk Logistics Cost Schedule Selected Mitigation benefit overweight mitigated Risk Internal SME improve presentation skills. Cost saving compared with external. Team building with interaction & participation. 8.2 I T&T O
  92. 92. By: Anand Bobade (nmbobade@gmail.com) 1. Divided & subdivide a complex plan into more simple steps. 2. Identify possible problems that will hinder implementing the plan. 4. Put O in front of the solutions that are practical and you put X in front of the solutions that are not practical. 4. At the end you either change your plan where there is no practical solution or prepare yourself accordingly. 8.2 Perform Quality Assurance->T&T->QM&CT 8.2 I T&T O
  93. 93. By: Anand Bobade (nmbobade@gmail.com) 8.2 Perform Quality Assurance->T&T->QM&CTWhentoUse: Tree Diagram: A systematic diagram of decomposition, used to visualize parent- to-child relationships. Issue is addressed at high level & you need to move to specific details. Used when analysing processes in detail. Used when probing for the root cause of a problem. Can be used as a communication tool. 8.2 I T&T O
  94. 94. By: Anand Bobade (nmbobade@gmail.com) Matrix Diagram: It shows relationship between factors, causes, and objectives. It provides a compact way of representing many-to-many relationships of varying strength. 8.2 Perform Quality Assurance->T&T->QM&CT List 1 List 2 Item1 Item A Item2 Item B Item3 Item C Item4 Item D Item5 Item E ItemA ItemB ItemC ItemD ItemE Item1 O Item2 O O Item3 O O O Item4 O Item5 O 8.2 I T&T O
  95. 95. By: Anand Bobade (nmbobade@gmail.com) # Defect description Module1 Module2 Module3 Module4 Module5 Module6 Module7 Module8 Module9 Module10 1 System is calculating wrong totals O O O O O O 2 System not meeting Performance O O O O 3 Background colour is not as per specification. O O O O O O O O O O 4 Validation message box has wrong message. O O O O 5 System O O O O O O O Matrix Diagram example: 8.2 I T&T O
  96. 96. By: Anand Bobade (nmbobade@gmail.com) Prioritization Matrices : To prioritize tasks, issues or possible options based on known, weighted criteria. 8.2 Perform Quality Assurance->T&T->QM&CT # Defect description Duration Complexity Impact on other modules Total 1 System is calculating wrong totals 10 10 10 30 2 System not meeting Performance 5 5 5 15 3 Background colour is not as per specification. 4 Validation message box has wrong message. 5 System # Development Duration Value 1 More than a week 5 2 2 to 7 days 7 3 Less than 2 days 10 # Development complexity Value 1 Complex 5 2 Medium 7 3 No impact 10 # Impact to other area’s Value 1 Major 5 2 Medium 7 3 Minor 10 Weighted Criteria's 8.2 I T&T O
  97. 97. By: Anand Bobade (nmbobade@gmail.com) It is used to sort a list of items into order of relative importance. Used usually when short list of items needs to be prioritised. The rigorous approach can be helpful in gaining agreement within a group It helps to present right decision to lead to a more successful outcome. 8.2 Perform Quality Assurance->T&T->QM&CT 8.2 I T&T O
  98. 98. By: Anand Bobade (nmbobade@gmail.com) 8.2 Perform Quality Assurance->T&T->QM&CT 1. List items to prioritise 2. Identify criteria 3. Identify weights 4. Score items 5. Total scores 6. Interpret 7. Take action Lowcostof implementation Lowrunning costs Highchanceof success Highchanceof beingapproved Weight: 2 5 3 4 Full supplier review system 1 3 5 2 11 40 New supplier managers 5 4 3 1 13 43 Short education program 3 1 3 4 11 36 Reselection of suppliers 2 1 2 3 8 27 Unweightedtotal Weightedtotal CriteriaScoring: 1 = meets criteria poorly 5 = meets criteria very well Weighting: 1 = unimportant, 5 = very important 5x2 + 4x5 + 3x3 + 1x4 1 2 3 4 5 New suppliers managers would need work to get approved. Work on getting sponsorship. Support with short education program. 6 7 8.2 I T&T O
  99. 99. By: Anand Bobade (nmbobade@gmail.com) 8.2 Perform Quality Assurance->T&T->QM&CT Overview Classifying large number of ideas into groups. What might go wrong in a plan under development. Different problems are related to each other. Used after Case-and-effect, mind mapping, affinity diagram. General plan is related to specific parts. Action plan. Communication. Prioritize tasks. Options based on weighted criteria. How activates are connected. When to apply quality procedures. Relationship between factors, causes, and objectives. Many to may relations. 8.2 I T&T O
  100. 100. By: Anand Bobade (nmbobade@gmail.com) Quality audits Quality audits are independent reviews of the quality processes & procedures. Quality audits can done randomly or can be scheduled based. Audits can be carried externally or internally. Quality audits can confirm implementation of: Approved changes Corrective actions Preventive action Defect repairs 8.2 Perform Quality Assurance-> T&T->Quality Audits 8.2 I T&T O
  101. 101. By: Anand Bobade (nmbobade@gmail.com) Process Analysis Implement plan outlined in “Process Improvement Plan” which was an output to Plan Quality Management process. Use root-cause analysis to identify problems in processes and take preventive actions. 8.2 Perform Quality Assurance->T&T->Process Analysis 8.2 I T&T O
  102. 102. By: Anand Bobade (nmbobade@gmail.com) Change requests PMP updates Project doc’s updates OPA updates 8.2 Perform Quality Assurance -> Output 8.2 I T&T O
  103. 103. By: Anand Bobade (nmbobade@gmail.com) 8.2 Perform Quality Assurance -> Output Change requests related to corrective, preventive, and defect repair are made. Quality Management Plan, Scope Management Plan, Schedule Management Plan, and Cost Management Plan are updated. Audit Reports, Training Plans, and Process Documentation are updated. Organization quality standards and quality management systems are updated 8.2 I T&T O
  104. 104. By: Anand Bobade (nmbobade@gmail.com) 8.2 Perform Quality Assurance -> Process Flow Chart 8.2 I T&T O
  105. 105. By: Anand Bobade (nmbobade@gmail.com) Self Assessment d. Where it is determined if standards are being met, work is continuously improved & problem are identified & fixed. Perform Quality Assurance process is: a. Where the customer formally accepts the product. b. Where the customer performs a test of the product of the project to check for correctness of the work product. c. Where any variances are recorded as changes and sent to Change Control Board for review. d. Where it is determined if standards are being met, work is continuously improved & problem are identified & fixed. 8.2 I T&T O
  106. 106. By: Anand Bobade (nmbobade@gmail.com) Self Assessment c. Quality is driven by Prevention. Which of the following is most TRUE regarding quality? a. It is cheaper to build quality into a project. b. Quality is driven by Inspection. c. Quality is driven by Prevention. d. Quality always costs more in the long run 8.2 I T&T O
  107. 107. By: Anand Bobade (nmbobade@gmail.com) Self Assessment Answer: c. Present the results of quality audit’s. A customer is constantly concerned about the product quality & thinking that quality process are not being followed as agreed in the quality management plan. How project manager can verify this claim? a. Invite customer to perform the quality inspections b. Increasing the sample size c. Review the results of quality audit’s. Request customer to review quality management plan 8.2 I T&T O
  108. 108. By: Anand Bobade (nmbobade@gmail.com) Learn Project Management & prepare for PMP exam: • Learn visually • Detailed coverage of all PMP concepts • Sample Questions 8.2 I T&T O
  109. 109. By: Anand Bobade (nmbobade@gmail.com)By: Anand Bobade (nmbobade@gmail.com) 8.3 Control Quality Control Quality definition Control Quality - ITTO Difference between Quality control & assurance Difference between Quality control & verify scope What is Inspection? Review Self Assessment 8.3 I T&T O
  110. 110. By: Anand Bobade (nmbobade@gmail.com) 8. Project Quality Management Knowledge Area 8.1 Plan Quality Management: • It is the process of identifying quality requirements and/or standards for the project and its deliverables • Document how the project will demonstrate compliance with relevant quality requirements. 8.2 Perform Quality Assurance: • It is the process of auditing the quality requirements and the results from quality control measurements to ensure that appropriate quality standards and operational definitions are used. 8.3: Control Quality: • It is the process of monitoring and recording results of executing the quality activities to assess performance and recommend necessary changes. 8.3 I T&T O
  111. 111. By: Anand Bobade (nmbobade@gmail.com) Monitoring & recording results of executing quality activities to assess performance & recommend necessary changes. - Identifying causes of poor process/product quality & recommend action -Validating that project deliverables & work to meet the requirements. 8.3 Control Quality Monitoring & Recording Recommend ation Action Action Execution of quality activities Assess performance Recommend necessary changes 8.3 I T&T O
  112. 112. By: Anand Bobade (nmbobade@gmail.com)Copyrights @ Anand Bobade (nmbobade@gmail.com – 055-5932004) Quality Control & Quality Assurance process Direct and Manage Project work Control Quality Plan Quality management Perform Quality Assurance Deliverables Quality Checklist Sampling Inspection (System testing, Load testing etc) Quality Control measurements Quality Audit Process Analysis QMPQuality Matrix Process Improvement plan No. of defects Defect classification Perform Integrated change Control WPD PMP Project Documents Verified Del’s WPI Validated changes Change Request PMP updates Approved CR Approved CR review 8.3 I T&T O
  113. 113. By: Anand Bobade (nmbobade@gmail.com) 8.3 Control Quality Inputs (8) • Project management plan • Quality metrics • Quality checklists • Work performance data • Approved change requests • Deliverables • Project documents • Organizational process assets Tools & Techniques (4) • Seven basic quality tools • Statistical sampling • Inspection • Approved change requests review Outputs (8) • Quality control measurements • Validated changes • Verified deliverables • Work performance information • Change requests • PMP updates • Project documents updates • OPA updates 8.3 I T&T O
  114. 114. By: Anand Bobade (nmbobade@gmail.com) 8.3 Control Quality -> Concepts Prevention • It is about keeping errors out of process Inspection • It is about keeping errors out of hands of the customer Attribute Sampling • The result of an attribute either conforms or does not conforms 8.3 I T&T O
  115. 115. By: Anand Bobade (nmbobade@gmail.com) 8.3 Control Quality -> Concepts Tolerance: • Tolerance is a specified range of acceptable results. Variable Sampling: • The result of variable is on continuous scale with a degree of conformity. Control Limits: • Control Limits is about specifying boundaries for a stable process. 8.3 I T&T O
  116. 116. By: Anand Bobade (nmbobade@gmail.com) PMP Quality metrics Quality checklists Work Performance data Approved change requests Deliverables Project documents OPA 8.3 Control Quality -> Input 8.3 I T&T O
  117. 117. By: Anand Bobade (nmbobade@gmail.com) 8.3 Control Quality -> Input 8.1 Plan Quality Management: 8.3: Control Quality: Part of PMP 8.3 I T&T O
  118. 118. By: Anand Bobade (nmbobade@gmail.com) Quality metrics It describes how project or products attributes will be measured. 8.3 Control Quality -> Input->Quality Metrics Function Points (FP): • In IT, FP are used to count number of function, an information system providing to a business. • Can be used for estimation. Mean time between Failures (MTBF): • It shows reliability of product. • It specifies time between two failures. • E.g., hard disk will have a failure after 300,000 hours. Mean time to repair (MTTR): • It is average amount of time a device/product will need to be repaired. 8.3 I T&T O
  119. 119. By: Anand Bobade (nmbobade@gmail.com) 8.3 Control Quality -> Input Quality Management Plan of the Project Management Plan. A list that will help us to verify, if produced deliverables fulfils product/project requirements. The data gathered from actual, which can include planned Vs actual schedule performance, cost performance and technical performance. The changes requested may include defect repairs which needs to quality controlled and verified. 8.3 I T&T O
  120. 120. By: Anand Bobade (nmbobade@gmail.com) 8.3 Control Quality -> Input Deliverables are validated in Control Quality process. Agreements, quality audit documents, training plans and their assessment, process documentation Organization’s quality policies, defect reporting procedure, and communication policy 8.3 I T&T O
  121. 121. By: Anand Bobade (nmbobade@gmail.com) Seven basic quality tools Statistical sampling Inspection Approved CR review 8.3 Control Quality -> Tools & Techniques 8.3 I T&T O
  122. 122. By: Anand Bobade (nmbobade@gmail.com) 8.3 Control Quality -> Tools & Techniques These were explained in Plan Quality Management -> Tools & Techniques As defined in the Quality Management Plan, samples are selected and tested (Already explained) Inspection refers to the examination of the product in order to determine whether it according to the documented standards (review, peer reviews, audits, or walkthroughs). Inspections are also used to validate defect repairs. All the approved change requests are reviewed to verify they are implemented as approved. 8.3 I T&T O
  123. 123. By: Anand Bobade (nmbobade@gmail.com) Quality control measurements Validated changes Verified deliverables Work performance information Change requests PMP updates Project documents updates OPA updates 8.3 Control Quality -> Output 8.3 I T&T O
  124. 124. By: Anand Bobade (nmbobade@gmail.com) 8.3 Control Quality -> Output 8.2 Perform Quality Assurance: 8.3: Control Quality: Quality control measurements 8.3 I T&T O
  125. 125. By: Anand Bobade (nmbobade@gmail.com) 8.3 Control Quality->Output->Verified Deliverables Goals of Control Quality is to verify the correctness of deliverables. Thus deliverables are either verified or rejected. The verified deliverables becomes input to Validate Scope process where they are formally accepted or rejected. Verified deliverables Direct & Manage Project Work -> Deliverables Control Quality (Quality tools & Inspection) Verified Deliverables (Output) Scope Management (Validate Scope) 8.3 I T&T O
  126. 126. By: Anand Bobade (nmbobade@gmail.com) 8.3 Control Quality -> Output->Validated changes Validated changes Changed or repaired product, based on approved CR, are validated in Control Quality process. This is done using Review Approved Change Requests technique. The change or repaired done is either validated or rejected. This information is further used in Monitor & control project work. Integrated Change Control -> Approved Change Request Quality Control -> Approved CR review tool Validated changes Monitor & Control project work 8.3 I T&T O
  127. 127. By: Anand Bobade (nmbobade@gmail.com) Quality control measurements Control Quality Measurements are the results of Control Quality process. These are input to Perform Quality Assurance process Examples: No. of test cases executed No. of test cases passed No. of text failed No. of open defects No. of closed defects 8.3 Control Quality->Output->Quality Control measure Inspection -> Software testing (SIT) -> Construction quality test 8.3 I T&T O
  128. 128. By: Anand Bobade (nmbobade@gmail.com) Work performance information WPI is performance related data that is output to many monitoring and controlling processes This is used in Monitor & control project work for further analysis. WPI will show: Projects achievement against requirements. Information about rejections. Reasons for the rejections. Rework required. Need for change in quality processes. 8.3 Control Quality->Output->WPI 8.3 I T&T O
  129. 129. By: Anand Bobade (nmbobade@gmail.com) 8.3 Control Quality -> Output Change requests in the form of rework, repair, change to management plan etc are made. Quality Management Plan, and Process Improvement Plans might be updated Agreements, quality audit documents, training plans and their assessment, process documentation Completed Checklists: Documented checklist becomes part of project document Lesson Learned Doc: Causes of variances, Reasoning behind corrective action 8.3 I T&T O
  130. 130. By: Anand Bobade (nmbobade@gmail.com) Quality Control Vs Verify Scope Control Quality (monitoring & controlling) • Performed internally during project execution • Ensure that product is defect free & all parameters are within acceptable limits set in the quality control plan. • Performed by quality control engineer with project team. Validate Scope (monitoring & controlling) • Performed with the client at the end of the project • Verify if product is complete, all requirements are met, & product is ready for client acceptance. • Objective is to get a formal acceptance from client. • Can be performed far before project ends; can be done with perform quality control process. 8.3 I T&T O
  131. 131. By: Anand Bobade (nmbobade@gmail.com) Quality Assurance Vs Quality Control Quality Assurance: • Process of auditing quality requirements & results from quality control measurements to ensure that appropriate quality standards & operational definitions are used. Quality Control: • Process of monitoring & recording results of executing quality activities to assess performance & recommend necessary changes. 8.3 I T&T O
  132. 132. By: Anand Bobade (nmbobade@gmail.com) 8.3 Control Quality -> Data Flow Diagram 8.3 I T&T O
  133. 133. By: Anand Bobade (nmbobade@gmail.com) Self Assessment C. The defined requirements of the customers are fulfilled. Quality is achieved when ___ a. We exceed customer’s every expectation. b. We exceed customer’s expectation is some way or other. c. The defined requirements of the customers are fulfilled. d. The number of benefits far outweighs the number of defects. 8.3 I T&T O
  134. 134. By: Anand Bobade (nmbobade@gmail.com) Self Assessment d. The Senior Management In the end, Quality is the responsibility of a. The Customer b. The Project Manager c. The Team Members d. The Senior Management 8.3 I T&T O
  135. 135. By: Anand Bobade (nmbobade@gmail.com) Review!! 8.1 Plan Quality Management: 8.2 Perform Quality Assurance: 8.3: Control Quality: Cost-benefit analysis Cost of quality Seven basic quality tools Benchmarking Design of experiments Statistical sampling Additional quality planning tools Meetings Cause-and- Effect Flowcharts Check-sheet Pareto Diagram Histograms Control Charts Scatter Diagram Quality control measureme nts Validated changes Verified deliverables Work performanc e information Quality Management Plan Process Improvement Plan Quality Metrics 8.3 I T&T O
  136. 136. By: Anand Bobade (nmbobade@gmail.com) Learn Project Management & prepare for PMP exam: • Learn visually • Detailed coverage of all PMP concepts • Sample Questions
  137. 137. By: Anand Bobade (nmbobade@gmail.com) Thank You! To Learn Project Management, Contact Anand Bobade (055 5932004) •nmbobade@gmail.com •https://ae.linkedin.com/in/anandbobade •http://www.slideshare.net/anandbobade •Conduct Online training, Corporate Training, evening & weekend workshops. Free learning resources on slide share

×