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DMAIC Components


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DMAIC Components

  1. 1. DMAIC Components Six Sigma Improvement Focus Anand Subramaniam
  2. 2. <ul><li>“ No quality assurance program, whether it be voluntary or imposed can correct frequent mistakes and unreliable performance introduced by insufficient training, inadequate laboratory environment, and poor administrative practices.” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- William Horwitz </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Highlights <ul><li>DMAIC Components </li></ul><ul><li>DMAIC Roadmap </li></ul><ul><li>Management & Statistical Tools </li></ul>
  4. 4. DMAIC Components
  5. 5. Requirements for Six Sigma.. <ul><li>Leadership commitment </li></ul><ul><li>Decisions based on facts </li></ul><ul><li>Cross functional team training </li></ul><ul><li>Alignment with strategic goals </li></ul><ul><li>Direct management responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>Consistent methodology – DMAIC </li></ul><ul><li>Responsibility NOT with “QC department” </li></ul>
  6. 6. Strategic Goal Alignment <ul><li>Waste Elimination </li></ul><ul><li>Improve Profitability </li></ul><ul><li>Leverage Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Improve Market Share </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce Process Variation </li></ul><ul><li>Improve Employee Capabilities </li></ul><ul><li>Customer Retention & Satisfaction </li></ul>
  7. 7. Six Sigma – Improvement Focus Define Focus What is the problem? Measure Focus What are we doing, and how well are we doing it? Analyse Focus What is the root cause? Improve Focus Get from the problem statement to the goal statement Control Focus Sustain the gain
  8. 8. Define Opportunities Measure Performance Define Opportunities Analyse Opportunity Improve Performance Control Performance Objective Main Activities Potential Tools and Techniques <ul><li>To identify and/ or validate the improvement opportunity, </li></ul><ul><li>To develop the business processes </li></ul><ul><li>To define critical customer requirements </li></ul><ul><li>To be an effective project team. </li></ul><ul><li>Project Charter </li></ul><ul><li>Baseline </li></ul><ul><li>Process Map </li></ul><ul><li>Gate Review </li></ul><ul><li>Validate/Identify Business Opportunity </li></ul><ul><li>Validate/Develop Team Charter </li></ul><ul><li>Identify and Map Processes </li></ul><ul><li>Identify Quick Wins and Refine Process </li></ul><ul><li>Translate VOC into CCRs </li></ul><ul><li>Develop Team Guidelines & Ground Rules </li></ul>Output
  9. 9. Measure Performance <ul><li>DEFINE </li></ul>Objective Main Activities Potential Tools and Techniques <ul><li>To identify critical measures / success factors critical to meet customer requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Develop a methodology to effectively collect data to measure process performance </li></ul><ul><li>To understand the elements of the 6 Sigma calculation and establish baseline processes for analysis by the team </li></ul><ul><li>Measurement Plan </li></ul><ul><li>Gather Data </li></ul><ul><li>Gate Review </li></ul><ul><li>Identify Input, Process, and Output Indicators </li></ul><ul><li>Develop Operational Definition & Measurement Plan </li></ul><ul><li>Plot and Analyse Data </li></ul><ul><li>Determine if Special Cause Exists </li></ul><ul><li>Determine Sigma Performance </li></ul><ul><li>Collect Other Baseline Performance Data </li></ul>Output Define Opportunities Measure Performance Analyse Opportunity Improve Performance Control Performance
  10. 10. Analyse Opportunity Objective Main Activities Potential Tools and Techniques <ul><li>To stratify and analyse the opportunity </li></ul><ul><li>To identify a specific problem and define an easily understood problem statement. </li></ul><ul><li>To identify and validate the root causes </li></ul><ul><li>To ensure the elimination of “real” root causes and thus the problem the team is focused on. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify Root Cause & not symptoms </li></ul><ul><li>Voice of Customer Vs. Voice of Business </li></ul><ul><li>Gate Review </li></ul><ul><li>Stratify Process </li></ul><ul><li>Stratify Data & Identify Specific Problem </li></ul><ul><li>Develop Problem Statement </li></ul><ul><li>Identify Root Causes </li></ul><ul><li>Design Root Cause Verification Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Validate Root Causes </li></ul><ul><li>Enhance Team Creativity & Prevent Group-Think </li></ul>Output Hypothesis Testing Regression Modelling ANOVA Define Opportunities Analyse Opportunity Measure Performance Improve Performance Control Performance
  11. 11. Improve Performance Objective Main Activities Potential Tools and Techniques <ul><li>To identify, evaluate, and select the right improvement solutions. </li></ul><ul><li>To develop a change management approach to assist the organisation in adapting to the changes introduced through solution implementation. </li></ul><ul><li>Develop Solution </li></ul><ul><li>Pilot Phase </li></ul><ul><li>Gate Review </li></ul><ul><li>Generate Solution Ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Determine Solution Impacts: Benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate and Select Solutions </li></ul><ul><li>Develop Process Maps & High Level Plan </li></ul><ul><li>Develop and Present Storyboard </li></ul><ul><li>Communicate Solutions to all Stakeholders </li></ul>Output Design of Experiment Analysis / Screening Response Surface Define Opportunities Improve Performance Measure Performance Analyse Opportunity Control Performance
  12. 12. Control Performance Objective Main Activities Potential Tools and Techniques To understand the importance of planning and executing against the plan and determine the approach to be taken to assure achievement of the targeted results. To understand how to disseminate lessons learned, identify replication and standardisation opportunities/ processes, and develop related plans. <ul><li>Process Owner takes responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>Everyone wants to move on </li></ul><ul><li>Most challenging phase </li></ul><ul><li>Gate Review </li></ul><ul><li>Develop Pilot Plan & Pilot Solution </li></ul><ul><li>Verify Reduction in Root Cause Sigma Improvement Resulted from Solution </li></ul><ul><li>Identify if Additional Solutions are Necessary to Achieve Goal </li></ul><ul><li>Identify and Develop Replication & Standardisation Opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Integrate and Manage Solutions in Daily Work Processes </li></ul><ul><li>Integrate Lessons Learned </li></ul><ul><li>Identify Teams Next Steps & Plans for Remaining Opportunities </li></ul>Output Define Opportunities Control Performance Measure Performance Improve Performance Analyse Opportunity
  13. 13. DMAIC Roadmap
  14. 14. Define Project Charter Problem Statement: Goal: Business Case: Scope: Cost Benefit Projection: Milestones: VOC Key Issue CTQ Delighters More Is Better Must Be Voice of the Customer Business Case Initial Process Mapping Outputs Process Inputs Yield: 60% Yield: 90% Yield: 45% Yield: 98% CUSTOMERS SUPPLIERS
  15. 15. Measure Col # 1 2 3 4 5 6 Inspector A B Sample # 1st Trial 2nd Trial Diff 1st Trial 2nd Trial Diff 1 2.0 1.0 1.0 1.5 1.5 0.0 2 2.0 3.0 1.0 2.5 2.5 0.0 3 1.5 1.0 0.5 2.0 1.5 0.5 4 3.0 3.0 0.0 2.0 2.5 0.5 5 2.0 1.5 0.5 1.5 0.5 1.0 Totals 10.5 9.5 3.0 9.5 8.5 2.0 Averages 2.1 1.9 0.6 1.9 1.7 0.4 Sum 4.0 Sum 3.6 X A 2.0 X B 1.8 R A R B Validate Measurement Systems Display Data 0 1000 -1000 10 20 30 UCL X LCL D B F A C E Other Identify the Metrics Data Collection Plan Operational Definition and Procedures Data Collection Plan What questions do you want to answer? Data What Measure type/ Data type How measured Related conditions Sampling notes How/ where How will you ensure consistency and stability? What is your plan for starting data collection? How will the data be displayed? Prioritise the Metrics I1 I2 I3 I4 O1 O2 O3 O4 FMEA Identify Process Capability LSL USL Cp = 0.4 s = 2.7 Measure the process I P O Input Measures Process Measures Output Measures
  16. 16. Analyse VA NVA Process Door Regression Analysis Chi-Square c ² Regression t-test ANOVA X 1 Y Hypothesis-Testing Design of Experiments Cause & Effect Data Door 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 X O n X O n X O n X O n X O n X O n X O n X O n O n X O n .
  17. 17. Improve Perform Cost-Benefit Analysis Generate Solutions A B C D 4 1 3 2 Assess Risks Run Pilot Test Full scale Original 2 4 8 6 10 G 1 3 5 7 9 A B C D F E J I H G Plan Implementation Select the Solution FMEA
  18. 18. Control Evaluate Project Results . Ownership & Monitoring Process Change Management Key Learnings QC Process Chart Document & Standardise . Closure Process Owner UCL LCL Before After Step 4 changes implemented } Improvement Target } Remaining Gap Good } Improvement Before After A1 A2 A3 A4 A2 A1 A3 A4 Learnings Recommendations Results • • • next Work Instructions Control/Check Points Response to Abnormality Notes Code # Charac- teristics Control Limits Method Who Immediate Fix Permanent Fix Who Flowchart 2 12 Product Name Process Name Process Code # Date of Issue: Issued by: Approved by: Revision Date Reason Signature 1 Operating Procedures Training Curriculum Training Manual Manual Fill to here LSL USL s = 3.7 Cp = 1.4 s = 2.7 Cp = 0.4
  19. 19. Management & Statistical Tools
  20. 20. Management Tools <ul><li>Business Case </li></ul><ul><li>Problem/Statement </li></ul><ul><li>Project Scope </li></ul><ul><li>Project Goals </li></ul><ul><li>Project Definition </li></ul><ul><li>Project Charter </li></ul><ul><li>Identify Owners/ Stakeholders </li></ul><ul><li>Identify Customers </li></ul><ul><li>Financial Benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Benchmarking </li></ul><ul><li>Team Leadership </li></ul><ul><li>Team Dynamics </li></ul><ul><li>Change Agent </li></ul><ul><li>Performance Measurements </li></ul><ul><li>Gap Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>High Level Process Mapping/ SIPOC </li></ul><ul><li>Design for Six Sigma </li></ul><ul><li>Design for (X) </li></ul><ul><li>- Manufacturing (DFM) </li></ul><ul><li>- Cost (DFC) </li></ul><ul><li>- Test (DFT) </li></ul><ul><li>- Maintainability (DFMA) </li></ul><ul><li>- Quality/Reliability (DFQ) </li></ul><ul><li>Special Design Tools </li></ul><ul><li>- Inventive Problem Solving </li></ul><ul><li>- Axiomatic Design </li></ul><ul><li>Lean Enterprise </li></ul><ul><li>- Lean Thinking </li></ul><ul><li>- Theory of Constraints </li></ul><ul><li>- Continuous Flow Manufacturing </li></ul><ul><li>- Non-Value Added Activities </li></ul><ul><li>- Cycle Time Reduction </li></ul><ul><li>- Cost of Quality </li></ul><ul><li>- Tools </li></ul><ul><li>Visual Factory, Kanban, Poka-Yoke </li></ul><ul><li>Solution Implementation </li></ul><ul><li>- Mistake-Proofing (Poka-Yoke) </li></ul><ul><li>- Visible Enterprise </li></ul><ul><li>The Six Sigma Journey </li></ul><ul><li>Enterprise View </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership </li></ul><ul><li>Business Strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Organisational Goals/Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Project Management Tools (N7) </li></ul><ul><li>- Activity Network Diagram </li></ul><ul><li>- Affinity Diagram </li></ul><ul><li>- Interrelationship Digraph </li></ul><ul><li>- Matrix Diagram </li></ul><ul><li>- Prioritisation Matrix/Grid </li></ul><ul><li>- Tree Diagram </li></ul><ul><li>- Process Decision Program Chart </li></ul><ul><li>What’s Next-Six Sigma Evolution </li></ul><ul><li>Control Plans </li></ul><ul><li>- Training </li></ul><ul><li>- Documentation </li></ul><ul><li>- Monitoring </li></ul><ul><li>- Response </li></ul><ul><li>- Systems and Structures </li></ul><ul><li>Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) </li></ul><ul><li>Best Practice Sharing/Translation </li></ul>Analyse Measure Define Improve Control
  21. 21. Statistical Tools <ul><li>Voice of the Customer (VOC) </li></ul><ul><li>QFD </li></ul><ul><li>XY Matrix </li></ul><ul><li>Process Analysis and FMEA </li></ul><ul><li>Data Collection Methods </li></ul><ul><li>Data Integrity and Accuracy </li></ul><ul><li>Basic Statistics </li></ul><ul><li>- Common Distributions </li></ul><ul><li>- Central Limit Theorem </li></ul><ul><li>- Sampling Distribution of Mean </li></ul><ul><li>- Basic Probability Concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Decision-Making </li></ul><ul><li>Non-Normal Data Graphical </li></ul><ul><li>Short vs. Long Term Capability </li></ul><ul><li>Data Analysis (B7) </li></ul><ul><li>- Cause and Effect Diagram </li></ul><ul><li>- Check Sheets </li></ul><ul><li>- Control Charts </li></ul><ul><li>- Flowcharts </li></ul><ul><li>- Histogram </li></ul><ul><li>- Pareto Chart </li></ul><ul><li>- Scatter Diagram </li></ul><ul><li>Measurement System </li></ul><ul><li>(Gage) Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Process Capability Assessment </li></ul>Analyse Measure Define Improve Control
  22. 22. Statistical Tools (Contd) <ul><li>Graphic Data Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Multi-Vari Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Inferential Statistics </li></ul><ul><li>- Confidence Intervals </li></ul><ul><li>- Sample Size </li></ul><ul><li>Hypothesis Tests </li></ul><ul><li>- Means, Variances and Proportions </li></ul><ul><li>- ANOVA </li></ul><ul><li>- T-Tests </li></ul><ul><li>- Test for Equal Variance </li></ul><ul><li>- Paired Comparison Tests </li></ul><ul><li>- Chi-Square </li></ul><ul><li>- Proportion </li></ul><ul><li>- Contingency Tables </li></ul><ul><li>- Point and Interval Estimation </li></ul><ul><li>- Non-Parametric Tests </li></ul><ul><li>Simple Linear Correlation </li></ul><ul><li>Regression-Simple and Multiple </li></ul><ul><li>- Measure and Model Relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Between Variables </li></ul><ul><li>- Binary Logistics </li></ul><ul><li>Process Modeling and Simulation </li></ul>Analyse Measure Define Improve Control
  23. 23. Statistical Tools (Contd) <ul><li>Hypothesis Tests </li></ul><ul><li>- ANOVA </li></ul><ul><li>- Non-Parametric tests </li></ul><ul><li>- Contingency Tables </li></ul><ul><li>Design of Experiments </li></ul><ul><li>- Terminology </li></ul><ul><li>- Plan and Organise Experiments </li></ul><ul><li>- Design Principles </li></ul><ul><li>- One Factor </li></ul><ul><li>- Full-Factorial </li></ul><ul><li>- Two Level Fractional </li></ul><ul><li>- Mixture Experiments </li></ul><ul><li>- Taguchi Robustness Concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Response Surface Methodology </li></ul><ul><li>- Steepest Ascent/Decent </li></ul><ul><li>- High Order Experiments </li></ul><ul><li>Evolutionary Optimisation (EVOP) </li></ul><ul><li>Design for Six Sigma </li></ul><ul><li>Quality Function Deployment (QFD) </li></ul><ul><li>Robust Design and Process </li></ul><ul><li>- Functional Requirements </li></ul><ul><li>- Noise Strategies </li></ul><ul><li>- Tolerance Design </li></ul><ul><li>- Tolerance and Process Capability </li></ul><ul><li>Design Analysis and FMEA </li></ul><ul><li>Reliability Fundamentals </li></ul><ul><li>Control Charts </li></ul><ul><li>- Theory, Objectives, Benefits </li></ul><ul><li>- Variable Selection </li></ul><ul><li>- Rational Sub- grouping </li></ul><ul><li>- Selection / Application </li></ul><ul><li>- Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>- Moving Average </li></ul><ul><li>- Exponentially Weighted </li></ul><ul><li>Moving Average (EWMA) </li></ul><ul><li>- CuSum </li></ul><ul><li>Process Capability Assessment </li></ul>Analyse Measure Define Improve Control
  24. 24. <ul><li>“Quality means doing it right when no one is looking.” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- Henry Ford </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>Good Luck </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>