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Construction equipment management chapter 2

Construction Equipment Management

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Construction equipment management chapter 2

  1. 1. CHAPTER 2 TYPES OF CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENTS AND THEIR USES Construction Equipment & Plant Management COTM 4202 University University Madawalabu Madawalabu CHAPTER 2 TYPES OF CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENTS AND THEIR USES Lecture by: Andualem Endris (M.Sc) andu0117@yahoo.com School of Engineering, Construction Technology & Management Department
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION  It is a common fact that we find a wide variety of construction machines on every construction sites, which make the construction jobs easy, safe and quicker.  Depending on the application, construction machines are classified into various categories which we are discussing here. A. Earthwork (Earthmoving & Excavating) equipments B. Hoisting equipments C. Concreting equipments February 2, 2019 COTM 4202  It is a common fact that we find a wide variety of construction machines on every construction sites, which make the construction jobs easy, safe and quicker.  Depending on the application, construction machines are classified into various categories which we are discussing here. A. Earthwork (Earthmoving & Excavating) equipments B. Hoisting equipments C. Concreting equipments 2
  3. 3. GROUP A : EARTHWORK EQUIPMENTS February 2, 2019 COTM 4202 *Earthwork equipment is used in the construction industry to : - shift large amounts of earth, - dig foundations and landscape areas. *Types of earthmoving equipment include bulldozers, loaders, graders, scrappers, trucks, … * Types of excavating equipment include excavators, front shovel, … 3
  4. 4. A1 : EXCAVATORS  Excavators are heavy construction equipment consisting of a boom, stick, bucket and cab on a rotating platform (known as the "house").  Excavators are also called diggers  Excavators are used in many ways:  Digging of trenches, holes, foundations  Material handling  Forestry work  Demolition  Landscaping  Heavy lift, e.g. lifting and placing of pipes  Mining, especially, but not only open-pit mining  River dredging  Driving piles, in conjunction with a pile driver February 2, 2019 COTM 4202  Excavators are heavy construction equipment consisting of a boom, stick, bucket and cab on a rotating platform (known as the "house").  Excavators are also called diggers  Excavators are used in many ways:  Digging of trenches, holes, foundations  Material handling  Forestry work  Demolition  Landscaping  Heavy lift, e.g. lifting and placing of pipes  Mining, especially, but not only open-pit mining  River dredging  Driving piles, in conjunction with a pile driver 4
  5. 5. A1 : EXCAVATORS February 2, 2019 COTM 4202 5
  6. 6. A2 : LOADERS  A loader is a heavy equipment often used in construction, primarily used to load material (such as asphalt, demolition debris, dirt, snow, gravel, raw minerals, recycled material, rock, sand, and woodchips) into or onto another type of machinery (such as a dump truck, conveyor belt, or railcar). February 2, 2019 COTM 4202  A loader is a heavy equipment often used in construction, primarily used to load material (such as asphalt, demolition debris, dirt, snow, gravel, raw minerals, recycled material, rock, sand, and woodchips) into or onto another type of machinery (such as a dump truck, conveyor belt, or railcar). 6
  7. 7. A3 : SKID STEER LOADERS  A skid loader or skid-steer loader is a small rigid frame, engine-powered machine with lift arms used to attach a wide variety of labor-saving tools or attachments.  Skid-steer loaders are typically four-wheel vehicles with the wheels mechanically locked in synchronization on each side. February 2, 2019 COTM 4202  A skid loader or skid-steer loader is a small rigid frame, engine-powered machine with lift arms used to attach a wide variety of labor-saving tools or attachments.  Skid-steer loaders are typically four-wheel vehicles with the wheels mechanically locked in synchronization on each side. 7
  8. 8. A4 : GRADERS  A grader, also commonly referred to as a road grader, a blade, a maintainer, or a motor grader, is a construction machine with a long blade used to create a flat surface.  Typical models have three axles, with the engine and cab situated above the rear axles at one end of the vehicle and a third axle at the front end of the vehicle, with the blade in between. February 2, 2019 COTM 4202  A grader, also commonly referred to as a road grader, a blade, a maintainer, or a motor grader, is a construction machine with a long blade used to create a flat surface.  Typical models have three axles, with the engine and cab situated above the rear axles at one end of the vehicle and a third axle at the front end of the vehicle, with the blade in between. 8
  9. 9. A4 : GRADERS  In civil engineering, the grader's purpose is to "finish grade" (refine, set precisely) the "rough grading" performed by heavy equipment or engineering vehicles such as scrapers and bulldozers.  Graders are commonly used in the construction and maintenance of dirt roads and gravel roads.  In the construction of paved roads they are used to prepare the base course to create a wide flat surface for the asphalt to be placed on. Graders are also used to set native soil foundation pads to finish grade prior to the construction of large buildings. February 2, 2019 COTM 4202  In civil engineering, the grader's purpose is to "finish grade" (refine, set precisely) the "rough grading" performed by heavy equipment or engineering vehicles such as scrapers and bulldozers.  Graders are commonly used in the construction and maintenance of dirt roads and gravel roads.  In the construction of paved roads they are used to prepare the base course to create a wide flat surface for the asphalt to be placed on. Graders are also used to set native soil foundation pads to finish grade prior to the construction of large buildings. 9
  10. 10. A5 : CRAWLER LOADERS  The crawler loader combines the stability of the crawler tractor with the abilities of a wheel loader.  However, to construct a reliable crawler loader it requires more than simply attaching a loader bucket onto a crawler tractor. It must be designed with its specific purpose in mind to ensure it has the strength to withstand heavy excavating. February 2, 2019 COTM 4202  The crawler loader combines the stability of the crawler tractor with the abilities of a wheel loader.  However, to construct a reliable crawler loader it requires more than simply attaching a loader bucket onto a crawler tractor. It must be designed with its specific purpose in mind to ensure it has the strength to withstand heavy excavating. 10
  11. 11. A5 : CRAWLER LOADERS  The introduction of hydraulic excavators diminished the market for the crawler loader because it was unable to match the excavator's lifting power and flexibility.  However, crawler loaders are capable of moving across the entire construction site under its own power, whereas most hydraulic excavators require towing or transport. While crawler tractors are still being manufactured today for markets, they reached their peak of popularity in the 1960s. February 2, 2019 COTM 4202  The introduction of hydraulic excavators diminished the market for the crawler loader because it was unable to match the excavator's lifting power and flexibility.  However, crawler loaders are capable of moving across the entire construction site under its own power, whereas most hydraulic excavators require towing or transport. While crawler tractors are still being manufactured today for markets, they reached their peak of popularity in the 1960s. 11
  12. 12. A6 : BACKHOE  A backhoe, also called a rear actor or back actor, is a piece of excavating equipment or digger consisting of a digging bucket on the end of a two- part articulated arm. They are typically mounted on the back of a tractor or front loader.  Generally used to excavate trenches, pits for basements and also for grading works. February 2, 2019 COTM 4202  A backhoe, also called a rear actor or back actor, is a piece of excavating equipment or digger consisting of a digging bucket on the end of a two- part articulated arm. They are typically mounted on the back of a tractor or front loader.  Generally used to excavate trenches, pits for basements and also for grading works. 12
  13. 13. A6 : BACKHOE  The section of the arm closest to the vehicle is known as the boom, and the section which carries the bucket is known as the dipper or dipper stick (the terms "boom" and "dipper" having been used previously on steam shovels). The boom is attached to the vehicle through a pivot known as the kingpost, which allows the arm to slew left and right, usually through a total of around 200 degrees. Modern backhoes are powered by hydraulics. February 2, 2019 COTM 4202  The section of the arm closest to the vehicle is known as the boom, and the section which carries the bucket is known as the dipper or dipper stick (the terms "boom" and "dipper" having been used previously on steam shovels). The boom is attached to the vehicle through a pivot known as the kingpost, which allows the arm to slew left and right, usually through a total of around 200 degrees. Modern backhoes are powered by hydraulics. 13
  14. 14. A7 : BULLDOZERS  A bulldozer is a crawler (continuous tracked tractor) equipped with a substantial metal plate (known as a blade) used to push large quantities of soil, sand, rubble, or other such material during construction or conversion work and typically equipped at the rear with a device (known as a ripper) to loosen densely- compacted materials. February 2, 2019 COTM 4202  A bulldozer is a crawler (continuous tracked tractor) equipped with a substantial metal plate (known as a blade) used to push large quantities of soil, sand, rubble, or other such material during construction or conversion work and typically equipped at the rear with a device (known as a ripper) to loosen densely- compacted materials. 14
  15. 15. A8 : TRENCHERS  Trenchers, or ditchers as they are sometimes called, are similar to excavators in the sense that they penetrate the earth, breaking soil and rock, and remove it from the ground. They differ from excavators in that the soil is removed in one continuous movement. Trenchers are specifically used for digging trenches for pipes, but other machines have been improvised in the past to serve this purpose. February 2, 2019 COTM 4202  Trenchers, or ditchers as they are sometimes called, are similar to excavators in the sense that they penetrate the earth, breaking soil and rock, and remove it from the ground. They differ from excavators in that the soil is removed in one continuous movement. Trenchers are specifically used for digging trenches for pipes, but other machines have been improvised in the past to serve this purpose. 15
  16. 16. A8 : TRENCHERS  Trenchers can come in two types: ladder trenchers and wheel trenchers, and can dig trenches at speeds that other machines cannot compare to. February 2, 2019 COTM 4202  Trenchers can come in two types: ladder trenchers and wheel trenchers, and can dig trenches at speeds that other machines cannot compare to. 16
  17. 17. A9 : SCRAPERS  In civil engineering, a wheel tractor-scraper is a piece of heavy equipment used for earthmoving. February 2, 2019 COTM 4202  In civil engineering, a wheel tractor-scraper is a piece of heavy equipment used for earthmoving. 17
  18. 18. A10 : WHEELED LOADING SHOVELS  A power shovel (also stripping shovel or front shovel or electric mining shovel) is a bucket- equipped machine, usually electrically powered, used for digging and loading earth or fragmented rock and for mineral extraction.  Power shovels are used principally for excavation and removal of overburden in open-cut mining operations, though it may include loading of minerals, such as coal. They are the modern equivalent of steam shovels, and operate in a similar fashion. February 2, 2019 COTM 4202  A power shovel (also stripping shovel or front shovel or electric mining shovel) is a bucket- equipped machine, usually electrically powered, used for digging and loading earth or fragmented rock and for mineral extraction.  Power shovels are used principally for excavation and removal of overburden in open-cut mining operations, though it may include loading of minerals, such as coal. They are the modern equivalent of steam shovels, and operate in a similar fashion. 18
  19. 19. A10 : WHEELED LOADING SHOVELS  A shovel's work cycle, or digging cycle, consists of four phases:  digging  swinging  dumping  returning February 2, 2019 COTM 4202  A shovel's work cycle, or digging cycle, consists of four phases:  digging  swinging  dumping  returning 19
  20. 20. A11 : DUMPERS  A dumper is a vehicle designed for carrying bulk material, often on building sites. Dumpers are distinguished from dump trucks by configuration: a dumper is usually an open 4-wheeled vehicle with the load skip in front of the driver, while a dump truck has its cab in front of the load. February 2, 2019 COTM 4202  A dumper is a vehicle designed for carrying bulk material, often on building sites. Dumpers are distinguished from dump trucks by configuration: a dumper is usually an open 4-wheeled vehicle with the load skip in front of the driver, while a dump truck has its cab in front of the load. 20
  21. 21. A11 : DUMPERS  Dumpers are normally diesel powered.  Modern dumpers have payloads of up to 10 tones. February 2, 2019 COTM 4202 21
  22. 22. A12 : TIPPERS  A truck or lorry the rear platform of which can be raised at the front end to enable the load to be discharged by gravity also called dump truck or tip truck. February 2, 2019 COTM 4202  A truck or lorry the rear platform of which can be raised at the front end to enable the load to be discharged by gravity also called dump truck or tip truck. 22
  23. 23. A13 : TIPPERS  Tippers are suited for the rough and tumble of mining & quarrying operations, as well as for carrying bulk loads in construction and infrastructure industries. Complete movement, high performance and long-term endurance are common to all trucks, resulting in lower operating costs. February 2, 2019 COTM 4202  Tippers are suited for the rough and tumble of mining & quarrying operations, as well as for carrying bulk loads in construction and infrastructure industries. Complete movement, high performance and long-term endurance are common to all trucks, resulting in lower operating costs. 23
  24. 24. A14 : TRAILERS  A trailer is generally an unpowered vehicle pulled by a powered vehicle.  Commonly, the term trailer refers to such vehicles used for transport of goods and materials. February 2, 2019 COTM 4202  A trailer is generally an unpowered vehicle pulled by a powered vehicle.  Commonly, the term trailer refers to such vehicles used for transport of goods and materials. 24
  25. 25. A15 : TRAILERS February 2, 2019 COTM 4202 25
  26. 26. The selection of excavating and earthmoving equipment is mainly dependent on the following factors:  Quantities of material to be moved  The available time to complete the work and the job conditions  The prevailing soil types, the swell and compaction factors, etc.  The job conditions include factors such as availability of loading and dumping area, accessibility of site, traffic flows and weather conditions at site. February 2, 2019 COTM 4202 SELECTION CRITERIA FOR EARTHWORK EQUIPMENTS The selection of excavating and earthmoving equipment is mainly dependent on the following factors:  Quantities of material to be moved  The available time to complete the work and the job conditions  The prevailing soil types, the swell and compaction factors, etc.  The job conditions include factors such as availability of loading and dumping area, accessibility of site, traffic flows and weather conditions at site. 26
  27. 27. In order to plan the number of Earthwork Equipment needed, the planner first determines the following:  The suitable class of equipment for earthwork-for example, if the soil to be excavated is loose and marshy, and bulk excavation is involved In the project, one may opt for a dragline.  The appropriate model of equipment based on different characteristics such as payload of bucket and speeds required.  The number of equipment needed for the project to carry out the given quantity.  The number of associated equipment required to support the main equipment February 2, 2019 COTM 4202 In order to plan the number of Earthwork Equipment needed, the planner first determines the following:  The suitable class of equipment for earthwork-for example, if the soil to be excavated is loose and marshy, and bulk excavation is involved In the project, one may opt for a dragline.  The appropriate model of equipment based on different characteristics such as payload of bucket and speeds required.  The number of equipment needed for the project to carry out the given quantity.  The number of associated equipment required to support the main equipment 27
  28. 28. GROUP B: HOISTING EQUIPMENTS February 2, 2019 COTM 4202 GROUP B: HOISTING EQUIPMENTS 28
  29. 29. B1 : CRANES  A crane is a type of machine, generally equipped with a hoist, wire ropes or chains, and sheaves, that can be used both to lift and lower materials and to move them horizontally. It is mainly used for lifting heavy things and transporting them to other places. February 2, 2019 COTM 4202  A crane is a type of machine, generally equipped with a hoist, wire ropes or chains, and sheaves, that can be used both to lift and lower materials and to move them horizontally. It is mainly used for lifting heavy things and transporting them to other places. 29
  30. 30. B1 : CRANES  It uses one or more simple machines to create mechanical advantage and thus move loads beyond the normal capability of a man. Cranes are commonly employed in the transport industry for the loading and unloading of freight, in the construction industry for the movement of materials and in the manufacturing industry for the assembling of heavy equipment. February 2, 2019 COTM 4202  It uses one or more simple machines to create mechanical advantage and thus move loads beyond the normal capability of a man. Cranes are commonly employed in the transport industry for the loading and unloading of freight, in the construction industry for the movement of materials and in the manufacturing industry for the assembling of heavy equipment. 30
  31. 31. B2 : CONVEYORS  A conveyor system is a common piece of mechanical handling equipment that moves materials from one location to another. Conveyors are especially useful in applications involving the transportation of heavy or bulky materials. Conveyor systems allow quick and efficient transportation for a wide variety of materials, which make them very popular in the material handling and packaging industries February 2, 2019 COTM 4202  A conveyor system is a common piece of mechanical handling equipment that moves materials from one location to another. Conveyors are especially useful in applications involving the transportation of heavy or bulky materials. Conveyor systems allow quick and efficient transportation for a wide variety of materials, which make them very popular in the material handling and packaging industries 31
  32. 32. B2 : CONVEYORS February 2, 2019 COTM 4202 32
  33. 33. B3 : FORKLIFTS  A forklift truck (also called a lift truck, a fork truck, a forklift, or a tow-motor) is a powered industrial truck used to lift and transport materials.  Forklift trucks are available in many variations and load capacities. In a typical warehouse setting most forklifts used have load capacities between one to five tons. Larger machines, up to 50 tons lift capacity are used for lifting heavier loads, February 2, 2019 COTM 4202  A forklift truck (also called a lift truck, a fork truck, a forklift, or a tow-motor) is a powered industrial truck used to lift and transport materials.  Forklift trucks are available in many variations and load capacities. In a typical warehouse setting most forklifts used have load capacities between one to five tons. Larger machines, up to 50 tons lift capacity are used for lifting heavier loads, 33
  34. 34. B3 : FORKLIFTS February 2, 2019 COTM 4202 34
  35. 35. B4 : HOISTS  A hoist is a device used for lifting or lowering a load by means of a drum or lift- wheel around which rope or chain wraps. It may be manually operated, electrically or pneumatically driven and may use chain, fiber or wire rope as its lifting medium. The load is attached to the hoist by means of a lifting hook February 2, 2019 COTM 4202  A hoist is a device used for lifting or lowering a load by means of a drum or lift- wheel around which rope or chain wraps. It may be manually operated, electrically or pneumatically driven and may use chain, fiber or wire rope as its lifting medium. The load is attached to the hoist by means of a lifting hook 35
  36. 36. B4 : HOISTS  Also known as a Man-Lift, Buckhoist, temporary elevator, builder hoist, passenger hoist or construction elevator, this type of hoist is commonly used on large scale construction projects, such as high-rise buildings or major hospitals. There are many other uses for the construction elevator.  Many other industries use the buckhoist for full time operations. The purpose is being to carry personnel, materials, and equipment quickly between the ground and higher floors, or between floors in the middle of a structure. February 2, 2019 COTM 4202  Also known as a Man-Lift, Buckhoist, temporary elevator, builder hoist, passenger hoist or construction elevator, this type of hoist is commonly used on large scale construction projects, such as high-rise buildings or major hospitals. There are many other uses for the construction elevator.  Many other industries use the buckhoist for full time operations. The purpose is being to carry personnel, materials, and equipment quickly between the ground and higher floors, or between floors in the middle of a structure. 36
  37. 37. SELECTION CRITERIA FOR HOISTING EQUIPMENTS Factors affecting the selection of hoisting equipments are: 1.Building Design -Building Height -Project Duration 2.Capability -Power Supply -Load lifting frequency -Operators Visibility 3.Safety -Initial Planning and -Engineering 4.Economy -Cost of move in, setup, and move out -Cost for rent -Productivity 5.Site Conditions -Soil Stability and ground conditions -Access road requirement and site accessibility February 2, 2019 COTM 4202 Factors affecting the selection of hoisting equipments are: 1.Building Design -Building Height -Project Duration 2.Capability -Power Supply -Load lifting frequency -Operators Visibility 3.Safety -Initial Planning and -Engineering 4.Economy -Cost of move in, setup, and move out -Cost for rent -Productivity 5.Site Conditions -Soil Stability and ground conditions -Access road requirement and site accessibility 37
  38. 38. GROUP C: CONCRETING EQUIPMENTS February 2, 2019 COTM 4202 GROUP C: CONCRETING EQUIPMENTS 38
  39. 39. C1 : TUNNELING AND HANDLING EQUIPMENTS  A tunnel boring machine (TBM) also known as a "mole", is a machine used to excavate tunnels with a circular cross section through a variety of soil and rock strata. They can bore through anything from hard rock to sand. Tunnel diameters can range from a meter (done with micro-TBMs) to 19.25 m to date. Tunnels of less than a meter or so in diameter are typically done using trenchless construction methods or horizontal directional drilling rather than TBMs. February 2, 2019 COTM 4202  A tunnel boring machine (TBM) also known as a "mole", is a machine used to excavate tunnels with a circular cross section through a variety of soil and rock strata. They can bore through anything from hard rock to sand. Tunnel diameters can range from a meter (done with micro-TBMs) to 19.25 m to date. Tunnels of less than a meter or so in diameter are typically done using trenchless construction methods or horizontal directional drilling rather than TBMs. 39
  40. 40. C2 : CONCRETE MIXERS  A concrete mixer (also commonly called a cement mixer) is a device that homogeneously combines cement, aggregate such as sand or gravel, and water to form concrete. A typical concrete mixer uses a revolving drum to mix the components. For smaller volume works portable concrete mixers are often used so that the concrete can be made at the construction site, giving the workers ample time to use the concrete before it hardens. February 2, 2019 COTM 4202  A concrete mixer (also commonly called a cement mixer) is a device that homogeneously combines cement, aggregate such as sand or gravel, and water to form concrete. A typical concrete mixer uses a revolving drum to mix the components. For smaller volume works portable concrete mixers are often used so that the concrete can be made at the construction site, giving the workers ample time to use the concrete before it hardens. 40
  41. 41. C2 : CONCRETE MIXERS  Special concrete transport trucks (in–transit mixers) are made to transport and mix concrete up to the construction site. They can be charged with dry materials and water, with the mixing occurring during transport. With this process, the material has already been mixing. The concrete mixing transport truck maintains the material's liquid state through agitation, or turning of the drum, until delivery. February 2, 2019 COTM 4202  Special concrete transport trucks (in–transit mixers) are made to transport and mix concrete up to the construction site. They can be charged with dry materials and water, with the mixing occurring during transport. With this process, the material has already been mixing. The concrete mixing transport truck maintains the material's liquid state through agitation, or turning of the drum, until delivery. 41
  42. 42. C3 : COMPACTORS  A compactor is a machine or mechanism used to reduce the size of waste material or soil through compaction.  In construction, there are three main types of compactor: the plate compactor, the "Jumping Jack" and the road roller. The roller type compactors are used for compacting crushed rock as the base layer underneath concrete or stone foundations or slabs. February 2, 2019 COTM 4202  A compactor is a machine or mechanism used to reduce the size of waste material or soil through compaction.  In construction, there are three main types of compactor: the plate compactor, the "Jumping Jack" and the road roller. The roller type compactors are used for compacting crushed rock as the base layer underneath concrete or stone foundations or slabs. 42
  43. 43. C3 : COMPACTORS  The plate compactor has a large vibrating base plate and is suited for creating a level grade, while the jumping jack compactor has a smaller foot. The jumping jack type is mainly used to compact the backfill in narrow trenches for water or gas supply pipes etc. Road rollers may also have vibrating rollers. February 2, 2019 COTM 4202  The plate compactor has a large vibrating base plate and is suited for creating a level grade, while the jumping jack compactor has a smaller foot. The jumping jack type is mainly used to compact the backfill in narrow trenches for water or gas supply pipes etc. Road rollers may also have vibrating rollers. 43
  44. 44. C4 : PAVERS  A paver (paver finisher, asphalt finisher, paving machine) is an engineering vehicle used to lay asphalt on roadways. It is normally fed by a dump truck. A separate machine, a roller, is then used to press the hot asphalt mix, resulting a smooth, even surface. The sub-base being prepared by use of a grader to trim crushed stone to profile after rolling. February 2, 2019 COTM 4202  A paver (paver finisher, asphalt finisher, paving machine) is an engineering vehicle used to lay asphalt on roadways. It is normally fed by a dump truck. A separate machine, a roller, is then used to press the hot asphalt mix, resulting a smooth, even surface. The sub-base being prepared by use of a grader to trim crushed stone to profile after rolling. 44
  45. 45. C4 : PAVERS February 2, 2019 COTM 4202 45
  46. 46. C5 : SPRAYING AND PLASTERING MACHINES  Plaster spraying allows a plasterer to skim a drywall more than five times faster than using a hand float to apply it. Although classic gypsum-based plaster can be sprayed if it is "spray grade," most plaster sprayers prefer the organic-based pre-mixed plaster packaged in a plastic bag because the plaster spraying machine does not need to be cleaned out after the job is finished, providing that plaster is kept moist. February 2, 2019 COTM 4202  Plaster spraying allows a plasterer to skim a drywall more than five times faster than using a hand float to apply it. Although classic gypsum-based plaster can be sprayed if it is "spray grade," most plaster sprayers prefer the organic-based pre-mixed plaster packaged in a plastic bag because the plaster spraying machine does not need to be cleaned out after the job is finished, providing that plaster is kept moist. 46
  47. 47. C5 : SPRAYING AND PLASTERING MACHINES  Worm-drive pump Most commonly, sprayers have a worm-drive pump that pumps the plaster up to a spray gun that has a large nozzle, usually 4 to 8 mm, that extrudes the plaster into a chamber on the end of the gun  Piston pump Newer types of plaster sprayer have a piston pump, which has sufficient pressure to spray smooth (untextured) plaster without compressed air. February 2, 2019 COTM 4202  Worm-drive pump Most commonly, sprayers have a worm-drive pump that pumps the plaster up to a spray gun that has a large nozzle, usually 4 to 8 mm, that extrudes the plaster into a chamber on the end of the gun  Piston pump Newer types of plaster sprayer have a piston pump, which has sufficient pressure to spray smooth (untextured) plaster without compressed air. 47
  48. 48. C6 : ROAD ROLLER  A road roller (sometimes called a roller-compactor, or just roller) is a compactor type engineering vehicle used to compact soil, gravel, concrete, or asphalt in the construction of roads and foundations, similar rollers are used also at landfills or in agriculture. February 2, 2019 COTM 4202  A road roller (sometimes called a roller-compactor, or just roller) is a compactor type engineering vehicle used to compact soil, gravel, concrete, or asphalt in the construction of roads and foundations, similar rollers are used also at landfills or in agriculture. 48
  49. 49. C7 : STONE CRUSHERS  A crusher is a machine designed to reduce large rocks into smaller rocks, gravel, or rock dust. Crushers may be used to reduce the size, or change the form, of waste materials so they can be more easily disposed of or recycled, or to reduce the size of a solid mix of raw materials (as in rock ore), so that pieces of different composition can be differentiated. February 2, 2019 COTM 4202  A crusher is a machine designed to reduce large rocks into smaller rocks, gravel, or rock dust. Crushers may be used to reduce the size, or change the form, of waste materials so they can be more easily disposed of or recycled, or to reduce the size of a solid mix of raw materials (as in rock ore), so that pieces of different composition can be differentiated. 49
  50. 50. C7 : STONE CRUSHERS February 2, 2019 COTM 4202 50
  51. 51. C8 : SLURRY&HEAVY DUTY PUMPS  A Slurry pump is a type of centrifugal pump in physics principle that increases the pressure of liquid and solid particle mixture (aka slurry), through centrifugal force (a rotating impeller) and converts electrical energy into slurry potential and kinetic energy.  A pump is a device used to move fluids, such as liquids, gases or slurries. A pump displaces a volume by physical or mechanical action. February 2, 2019 COTM 4202  A Slurry pump is a type of centrifugal pump in physics principle that increases the pressure of liquid and solid particle mixture (aka slurry), through centrifugal force (a rotating impeller) and converts electrical energy into slurry potential and kinetic energy.  A pump is a device used to move fluids, such as liquids, gases or slurries. A pump displaces a volume by physical or mechanical action. 51
  52. 52. SELECTION CRITERIA FOR CONCRETING EQUIPMENTS Selection of concreting equipment can be complicated and difficult. The decision will involve many issues that have to be analyzed. The following factors are noteworthy:  Site characteristics such as boundary conditions, noise limitations and other restrictions.  Equipment availability-local availability of equipments, whether the contractor owns that equipment  Continuity of operation  Effect of permanent work  Weather conditions  Temporary works  Time restrictions  Concrete specifications February 2, 2019 COTM 4202 Selection of concreting equipment can be complicated and difficult. The decision will involve many issues that have to be analyzed. The following factors are noteworthy:  Site characteristics such as boundary conditions, noise limitations and other restrictions.  Equipment availability-local availability of equipments, whether the contractor owns that equipment  Continuity of operation  Effect of permanent work  Weather conditions  Temporary works  Time restrictions  Concrete specifications 52
  53. 53. ASSIGNMENT 1  The following activities are the four common earthmoving and excavating work that require heavy construction equipments. List of equipments that typically work together to perform this task are needed. Each piece of equipment plays a specific role in the series of activities required to perform the task efficiently and effectively. Equipment packages will vary based on the volume of work, desired productivity, equipment availability, and specific work conditions and needs.  Please assign and discuss the required equipments for the following activities: 1. Site clearing 2. Trench excavation 3. Foundation excavation 4. Back fill Submission date: April 03, 2015 February 2, 2019 COTM 4202  The following activities are the four common earthmoving and excavating work that require heavy construction equipments. List of equipments that typically work together to perform this task are needed. Each piece of equipment plays a specific role in the series of activities required to perform the task efficiently and effectively. Equipment packages will vary based on the volume of work, desired productivity, equipment availability, and specific work conditions and needs.  Please assign and discuss the required equipments for the following activities: 1. Site clearing 2. Trench excavation 3. Foundation excavation 4. Back fill Submission date: April 03, 2015 53
  54. 54. February 2, 2019 COTM 4202 THANK YOU 54

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