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INTEGRATING 
INTO AN UNDERGRADUATE MEDICAL 
CURRICULUM 
lessons for the future 
Photo from: https://www.flickr.com/photos/...
WELCOME 
Annalisa Manca -@annalisamanca 
Educational Technologist 
School of Medicine 
Ellie Hothersall - @e_hothersall 
P...
SETTING THE SCENE 
Photo from: https://www.flickr.com/photos/kwl/3573458354 - CC BY 2.0
TECHNOLOGY IS DRIVING 
Photo from: https://www.flickr.com/photos/slowdownism/257931683 - CC BY-NC-ND 2.0
Communicate, share and learn 
Any time, Any place, Any pace 
Photo from: https://www.flickr.com/photos/iainb/212961317/ - ...
No longer restricted to libraries & formal learning 
@nlafferty
Role of technology in learning 
http://www.jisc.ac.uk/media/documents/publications/effectivepracticedigitalage.pdf
Harden & Crosby, 2000 
What is the role of the teacher?
“Guide on the side” 
Photo from: https://www.flickr.com/photos/colinsd40/9394696887 - CC BY-NC-ND 2.0
@nlafferty
http://cdn.nmc.org/media/2014-nmc-horizon-report-he-EN-SC.pdf 
NMC Horizon Report: 
2014 Higher Education Edition
OUR CASE 
“For good pedagogical design, there is simply no escaping the 
need to adopt a theory of learning.” We need “gui...
CONSTRUCTING… AND DECONSTRUCTING
#FOAMed 
building communities around hashtags 
Photo from: https://www.flickr.com/photos/mbiddulph/7614636374 - CC BY-SA 2...
NETWORKED – CONNECTED – INTERACTIVE – HYBRID 
LEARNING IS SOCIAL 
Photo from: http://www.flickr.com/photos/31065898@N08/82...
BANDURA’S SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY (1971) 
environment 
Human 
behaviour 
(learning) 
behavioural 
patterns 
affective and 
...
SELF-EFFICACY (Bandura, 1977) 
An individual’s belief in 
their ability to succeed in 
producing a particular 
outcome (Ba...
Educational activity as a scaffolding structure 
skills 
self-efficacy 
support 
teacher 
tools 
https://www.flickr.com/ph...
(Iterative) Educational design to: 
Self-efficacy 
Cognitive load
Self-efficacy 
expectations 
Performance 
accomplishment 
Vicarious 
experience 
Verbal 
persuasion 
Physiological 
states...
PERFORMANCE-ACCOMPLISHMENT 
Definition Educ Design 2012 2013 
• Personal 
mastery / 
success 
• Based on 
authentic 
exper...
VICARIOUS EXPERIENCE 
Definition Educ Design 2012 2013 
• Inferences 
from social 
comparison 
• Observation 
and interact...
VERBAL PERSUASION 
Definition Educ Design 2012 2013 
• Encouragement 
from tutors and 
peers 
• Not based on 
experience 
...
PHYSIOLOGICAL STATES 
Definition Educ Design 2012 2013 
• Emotional 
arousal can 
debilitate 
performance 
• Help students...
IN PRACTICE… AND RESULTS 
“The relationship between pedagogy 
and technology is not as simple 
as it first appears” 
JISC:...
Origins of #fluscenario 
Based on previous work by nhssm.org 
Original scenarios written by Mr Alex Talbott 
and Dr Chloe ...
4. (To understand there is more to public health 
than drinking water and inequalities)
Data collection 
http://dundeepublichealth.wordpress.com/flu 
scenario/
https://tags.hawksey.info/
https://tags.hawksey.info/
2012 
2013 
http://hawksey.info/tagsexplorer/
2012 
2013 
http://hawksey.info/tagsexplorer/?key=0Ar1MOlq1UirpdGQyS0tHamNNQzN5LTFZaFJZcVQ3VVE&sheet=ob5
http://hawksey.info/tagsexplorer/
Image: Leximancer.com
Application 
“Whooping cough: Three more babies die in 
outbreak http://t.co/VXAIC5Bu #fluscenario” 
“Reading about the em...
What happened? 
Interaction
Evaluation 
“I found #fluscenario irrelevant as it didn't have much 
relevance to the respiratory block.” 
“…waste of time...
0% 
25% 
0% 
13% 
63% 
0% 
11% 
11% 
15% 
6% 
35% 
22% 
Other 
140 characters are not enough to express 
yourself properly...
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS 
“Fauxial learning = forcing people to use 
social media in a course, and then 
confusing compl...
John Schaar, American writer and scholar and Professor Emeritus, University of California 
http://www.jisc.ac.uk/media/doc...
Photo from: https://www.flickr.com/photos/wwworks/4759535950 - CC BY 2.0
@annalisamanca 
@e_hothersall 
Any question 
Photo from: https://www.flickr.com/photos/eleaf/2536358399/ - CC BY 2.0
References 
• Bandura, A. (1971). Social Learning Theory. New York: 
General Learning Corporation. 
• Bandura, A. (1977). ...
Integrating Twitter into an Undergraduate Medical Curriculum: Lessons for the Future
Integrating Twitter into an Undergraduate Medical Curriculum: Lessons for the Future
Integrating Twitter into an Undergraduate Medical Curriculum: Lessons for the Future
Integrating Twitter into an Undergraduate Medical Curriculum: Lessons for the Future
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Integrating Twitter into an Undergraduate Medical Curriculum: Lessons for the Future

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This is the presentation of a conference paper I delivered with @e_hothersall at ECEL2014, the 13th European conference on e-Learning, in Copenhagen, the 31st October 2014.
We describe the development, pedagogical underpinning and evaluation (via SNA and narrative analysis) of a Twitter-based educational intervention we ran in 2012 and 2013 for Public Health teaching.
Contact me if you would like to read the paper.

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Integrating Twitter into an Undergraduate Medical Curriculum: Lessons for the Future

  1. 1. INTEGRATING INTO AN UNDERGRADUATE MEDICAL CURRICULUM lessons for the future Photo from: https://www.flickr.com/photos/jreed/322057841 - CC BY-SA 2.0
  2. 2. WELCOME Annalisa Manca -@annalisamanca Educational Technologist School of Medicine Ellie Hothersall - @e_hothersall Public health doctor and theme lead for public health teaching School of Medicine On behalf of: Natalie Lafferty - @nlafferty
  3. 3. SETTING THE SCENE Photo from: https://www.flickr.com/photos/kwl/3573458354 - CC BY 2.0
  4. 4. TECHNOLOGY IS DRIVING Photo from: https://www.flickr.com/photos/slowdownism/257931683 - CC BY-NC-ND 2.0
  5. 5. Communicate, share and learn Any time, Any place, Any pace Photo from: https://www.flickr.com/photos/iainb/212961317/ - CC BY-ND 2.0
  6. 6. No longer restricted to libraries & formal learning @nlafferty
  7. 7. Role of technology in learning http://www.jisc.ac.uk/media/documents/publications/effectivepracticedigitalage.pdf
  8. 8. Harden & Crosby, 2000 What is the role of the teacher?
  9. 9. “Guide on the side” Photo from: https://www.flickr.com/photos/colinsd40/9394696887 - CC BY-NC-ND 2.0
  10. 10. @nlafferty
  11. 11. http://cdn.nmc.org/media/2014-nmc-horizon-report-he-EN-SC.pdf NMC Horizon Report: 2014 Higher Education Edition
  12. 12. OUR CASE “For good pedagogical design, there is simply no escaping the need to adopt a theory of learning.” We need “guidance on how to judge whether the learning and teaching processes adopted will really achieve the intended learning outcomes” Mayes & de Freitas, 2008
  13. 13. CONSTRUCTING… AND DECONSTRUCTING
  14. 14. #FOAMed building communities around hashtags Photo from: https://www.flickr.com/photos/mbiddulph/7614636374 - CC BY-SA 2.0
  15. 15. NETWORKED – CONNECTED – INTERACTIVE – HYBRID LEARNING IS SOCIAL Photo from: http://www.flickr.com/photos/31065898@N08/8220970905/ CC BY-NC-SA 2.0
  16. 16. BANDURA’S SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY (1971) environment Human behaviour (learning) behavioural patterns affective and cognitive factors • self-efficacy • practice • expectations • knowledge • attitudes • community • norms • social system Bandura, A. (1971). Social Learning Theory. New York: General Learning Corporation.
  17. 17. SELF-EFFICACY (Bandura, 1977) An individual’s belief in their ability to succeed in producing a particular outcome (Bandura 1977) 1977 2004 2008 phobias PTSD education/technology Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psych Rev
  18. 18. Educational activity as a scaffolding structure skills self-efficacy support teacher tools https://www.flickr.com/photos/gavatron/10037318335/ careful not to overload
  19. 19. (Iterative) Educational design to: Self-efficacy Cognitive load
  20. 20. Self-efficacy expectations Performance accomplishment Vicarious experience Verbal persuasion Physiological states Behaviour/Learni ng BUILDING SELF-EFFICACY EXPECTATIONS
  21. 21. PERFORMANCE-ACCOMPLISHMENT Definition Educ Design 2012 2013 • Personal mastery / success • Based on authentic experience Building self-efficacy expectations - in practice • It can influence self-motivation • Model around learning needs • Pre-existing knowledge • Context • Boost sense of achievement • Questions to guide discussion • Choice of media • Feedback • Storify • “Summary of learning” tweets
  22. 22. VICARIOUS EXPERIENCE Definition Educ Design 2012 2013 • Inferences from social comparison • Observation and interaction with others • Experience • Encourage communicatio n and interaction • Set appropriate level of difficulty • Share experience • Signpost to facilitators’ online spaces • No change Building self-efficacy expectations - in practice
  23. 23. VERBAL PERSUASION Definition Educ Design 2012 2013 • Encouragement from tutors and peers • Not based on experience • Teacher accountability • Moderation • Leadership + engagement • Peer support • Moderation and replies • No change Building self-efficacy expectations - in practice
  24. 24. PHYSIOLOGICAL STATES Definition Educ Design 2012 2013 • Emotional arousal can debilitate performance • Help students overcome fear and anxiety related to performance • Early acquaintance with tools • Intro to Titter • Tutors’ presence • No intro to Twitter Building self-efficacy expectations - in practice
  25. 25. IN PRACTICE… AND RESULTS “The relationship between pedagogy and technology is not as simple as it first appears” JISC: Effective Practice in a Digital Age
  26. 26. Origins of #fluscenario Based on previous work by nhssm.org Original scenarios written by Mr Alex Talbott and Dr Chloe Sellwood Twitter chat with Social Media emphasis Easy to tweak to student focus http://www.open.edu/openlearn/sites/www.open.edu.openlearn/files/sneezeInLine_0.jpg Creative Commons
  27. 27. 4. (To understand there is more to public health than drinking water and inequalities)
  28. 28. Data collection http://dundeepublichealth.wordpress.com/flu scenario/
  29. 29. https://tags.hawksey.info/
  30. 30. https://tags.hawksey.info/
  31. 31. 2012 2013 http://hawksey.info/tagsexplorer/
  32. 32. 2012 2013 http://hawksey.info/tagsexplorer/?key=0Ar1MOlq1UirpdGQyS0tHamNNQzN5LTFZaFJZcVQ3VVE&sheet=ob5
  33. 33. http://hawksey.info/tagsexplorer/
  34. 34. Image: Leximancer.com
  35. 35. Application “Whooping cough: Three more babies die in outbreak http://t.co/VXAIC5Bu #fluscenario” “Reading about the emergence of multidrug-resistant TB and automatically relating this to the spread of #fluscenario. Hello Library Weekends.”
  36. 36. What happened? Interaction
  37. 37. Evaluation “I found #fluscenario irrelevant as it didn't have much relevance to the respiratory block.” “…waste of time” “I enjoyed using twitter as a new way of teaching and I feel like I learnt a lot from the opportunity to discuss the flu scenario with my peers.” “The fluscenario was a personal highlight for me, I really found it beneficial.” B+
  38. 38. 0% 25% 0% 13% 63% 0% 11% 11% 15% 6% 35% 22% Other 140 characters are not enough to express yourself properly It wasn't interesting I did not feel like I had the time to do it I did not feel confident using Twitter Twitter is too public 2012 2013
  39. 39. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS “Fauxial learning = forcing people to use social media in a course, and then confusing compliance with engagement and (even worse) learning” Jane Hart (@C4LPT)
  40. 40. John Schaar, American writer and scholar and Professor Emeritus, University of California http://www.jisc.ac.uk/media/documents/publications/effectivepracticedigitalage.pdf
  41. 41. Photo from: https://www.flickr.com/photos/wwworks/4759535950 - CC BY 2.0
  42. 42. @annalisamanca @e_hothersall Any question Photo from: https://www.flickr.com/photos/eleaf/2536358399/ - CC BY 2.0
  43. 43. References • Bandura, A. (1971). Social Learning Theory. New York: General Learning Corporation. • Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological Review, Vol 84, No. 2, pp 191-215. • Caprara. (2008). Longitudinal analysis of the role of perceived self-efficacy for self-regulatory learning in academic continuance an achievement. Journal of Educational Psychology, 100(3) 525–534 • Mayes, T. & de Freitas, S. (2008). Learning and e-learning: The role of theory. In Beetham & Sharpe. Rethinking Pedagogy for a Digital Age: Designing and Delivering e- Learning. New York: Routledge
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This is the presentation of a conference paper I delivered with @e_hothersall at ECEL2014, the 13th European conference on e-Learning, in Copenhagen, the 31st October 2014. We describe the development, pedagogical underpinning and evaluation (via SNA and narrative analysis) of a Twitter-based educational intervention we ran in 2012 and 2013 for Public Health teaching. Contact me if you would like to read the paper.

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