PRESENT SIMPLE● STRUCTURE – + Subj + V(-(e)s) + Obj – - Subj + do(es) + not + Vinf + Obj – ? Do(es) + subj + Vinf + Obj?● Examples – I live in Barcelona – He doesnt live in Barcelona – Do you live in Barcelona?
● Uses – Facts and States ● The Earth goes around the sun ● The sun sets in the west – Habits and repeated actions ● Lucas gets up at 7 oclock ● She walks to school every day – Permanent situations ● Maria lives in Buenos Aires ● It costs a lot of money to stay at the Hilton. – Schedules or programmes ● The train leaves in an hour – To talk about jokes, stories, tales, sport events... ● Two people walk into a restaurant. One of them says to the waiter... ● Henry kicks the ball! Its a goal!
PRESENT CONTINUOUS● STRUCTURE – + Subj + am/is/are + Ving + Obj – - Subj + am/is/are + not + Ving + Obj – ? Am/is/are + subj + Ving + Obj?● Examples – I am working – He is not working – Are you working?
● Uses – Actions happening at the moment of speaking (now) ● I am writing an email to a costumer. Im busy now. ● Mary is on the phone. Shes speaking to someone. – Temporary situations ● We usually have dinner at home, but today were eating out. – Actions which occur regularly when a complain is implied ● Shes always losing her keys – Actions that are scheduled in the future (with a time reference) ● Im meeting Barbara tonight.
PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE● STRUCTURE – + Subj + have(has) + Vppart* + Obj – - Subj + have (has) + not + Vppart + Obj – ? Have (has) + subj + Vppart + Obj?● Examples – He has bought a lot of new clothes – Jonathan has climbed Mount Everest*Remember: -ed reg.vbs/3rd column irreg. vbs
● Uses – To talk about a situation which started in the past and has and effect in the present ● Ive lost my keys, so I cant leave the house. ● He has started again the gym, thats why hes so tired. – To talk about a present situation that started in the past. ● They have owned different restaurants for several years. ● She has lived in Tokyo since 1998 – To talk about life experiences ● Ive visited New York three times ● They have done bungee jumping on several occasions.
● For and Since – We use them with present perfect to talk about the duration of a state or an action which began in the past and which still continues. They answer the question “How long...? – For: To talk about how long an action or state has continued ● She has worked here for three months – Since: To refer to the specific moment when a state or an action began. ● Shes worked here since last summer
● Already and Yet – Yet at the end of the sentence. Already between the auxiliary verb have and the past participle of the main verb. ●She hasnt left yet ● Shes already left – We use Yet in questions to ask whether an action has been completed ●Have you bought those new trainers yet? – We use yet in negative sentences to talk about an action that we have not completed at the present time, but that we intend to complete in the future I havent saved enough money yet. ● – We use already to emphasize that an action has happened ● Theyve already made a million dolars.