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Sticky Ideas Discussion


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Slides for discussing concepts from the book Made to Stick by Dan and Chip Heath. Some of these slides were used for humans+the environment, Fall 2012 and the Urban Ecology Institute 2012 Summer Institute.

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Sticky Ideas Discussion

  1. 1. An idea that’s sticky is readilyunderstood and remembered.
  3. 3. SimpleUnexpectedConcreteCredibleEmotionStory
  4. 4. Simple
  5. 5. The Core
  6. 6. “Finding the core” meansstripping an idea downto its most critical essence… The hardpart is weeding out ideasthat may be really importantbut just aren’t the most important idea…[I]t’s about discarding a lot ofgreat insights in order to let the mostimportant insight shine.
  7. 7. “Finding the core” meansstripping an idea downto its most critical essence… The hardpart is weeding out ideasthat may be really importantbut just aren’t the most important idea…[I]t’s about discarding a lot ofgreat insights in order to let the mostimportant insight shine.
  8. 8. “Finding the core” meansstripping an idea downto its most critical essence…
  9. 9. Forced prioritization is really painful.Smart people recognize the valueof all material. They see nuance,multiple perspectives—and because theyfully appreciate the complexities of asituation, they’re often tempted to lingerthere.
  10. 10. The tendency togravitate toward complexityis perpetually at warwith the need to prioritize.
  11. 11. Analogiesand Metaphors
  12. 12. surface-area-to-volume ratiolimits cell size
  13. 13. Energy FlowTVOntario
  14. 14. Concrete
  15. 15. Abstraction isthe luxuryof the expert.
  16. 16. surface-area-to-volume ratio(SAV)
  17. 17. The amount of surface areaproportional tothe amount of volume.
  18. 18. surface area
  19. 19. volume
  20. 20. their ratio
  21. 21. Energy FlowTVOntario
  22. 22. Surfaces are important!They are the parts of an objectthat are readily accessibleby things outside the object.
  23. 23. Heat exchangehappens via surfaces.
  24. 24. Gas exchangehappens via surfaces.
  25. 25. High SAV isdesirable / advantageous
  26. 26. 36
  27. 27. Unexpected
  28. 28.
  29. 29. “Every piece of designmust have a combination ofsomething that’s familiarand something that’s surprising.The familiar gets us in the door,and the surprising keeps us going.”—Brian Collins
  30. 30.
  31. 31.
  32. 32. Common senseis the enemyof sticky messages.
  33. 33. Knowledge Gaps
  34. 34. Ecosystems Services
  35. 35. “Nature is working for you.”
  36. 36. Natural processes supporthuman activities.
  37. 37.
  38. 38. Worth at least$33,000,000,000,000collectively
  39. 39. primary productivitydecompositionnutrient cycling (C, N, P, O, etc.)pollinationpurification of water and airdetoxification of soilmoderation of climatemitigation of floods and erosionmitigation of disease transmissionpest predationmaterials (dyes, fibers, rubbers, oils)medicinal substances
  40. 40. Example:Insect Pollination
  41. 41. 100 trees25 people2 beehives
  42. 42. Insects transport pollenfrom plant to plant70% of flowering plantsrely on insect pollinationincluding 1/3of the foods and beverageswe consume
  43. 43. Examples
  44. 44. Mac and PC
  45. 45.
  46. 46. SimpleUnexpectedConcreteCredibleEmotionStory
  47. 47. Extreme Heat,Climate Wisconsin
  48. 48.
  49. 49. SimpleUnexpectedConcreteCredibleEmotionStory
  50. 50. The Frontier is Everywhere,The Sagan Series
  51. 51.
  52. 52. SimpleUnexpectedConcreteCredibleEmotionStory
  53. 53. Atrazine
  54. 54. HerbicideWidely usedInexpensiveIncreases yields 1-6%
  55. 55. Tyrone Hayes
  56. 56. How would you figure outif Atrazine has any effect on frogs?
  57. 57. Make Observations Form HypothesesPerform Experiments Analyze Data ???
  58. 58. Dissemination ofScientific Findings
  59. 59. Kinds ofSources
  60. 60. Primary Sourcespublish original researchScholarly journal articles, dissertations
  61. 61. Secondary Sourcesrefer to, review, comment on or critiqueprimary sourcesPopular press articles, textbooks,encyclopedias, science books
  62. 62. ScientificJournals
  63. 63. Articles in scientific journals are...submitted by researchers,considered by editors andpeer-reviewed.
  64. 64. Hermaphroditic, demasculinized frogs after exposureto the herbicide atrazine at low ecologicallyrelevant dosesTyrone B. Hayes*, Atif Collins, Melissa Lee, Magdelena Mendoza, Nigel Noriega, A. Ali Stuart, and Aaron VonkLaboratory for Integrative Studies in Amphibian Biology, Group in Endocrinology, Museum of Vertebrate Zoology, Department of Integrative Biology,University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3140Communicated by David B. Wake, University of California, Berkeley, CA, March 1, 2002 (received for review December 20, 2001)Atrazine is the most commonly used herbicide in the U.S. and human choriogonadotropin (1,000 international units) 6 h beforeprobably the world. It can be present at several parts per million in harvesting gametes. Eggs were manually stripped from theagricultural runoff and can reach 40 parts per billion (ppb) in female and fertilized in vitro in 0.3 ϫ modified mammalianprecipitation. We examined the effects of atrazine on sexual Ringer’s solution by using the sperm obtained from the dissecteddevelopment in African clawed frogs (Xenopus laevis). Larvae were testes of the three males. The embryos were allowed to to atrazine (0.01–200 ppb) by immersion throughout After 4 days, the larvae were all mixed and netted into tanks 5larval development, and we examined gonadal histology and at a time repeatedly, until all tanks contained 30 larvae. Larvaelaryngeal size at metamorphosis. Atrazine (>0.1 ppb) induced were reared in 4 liters of aerated 10% Holtfreter’s solution (15)hermaphroditism and demasculinized the larynges of exposed and fed a solution of ground Purina rabbit chow daily. Foodmales (>1.0 ppb). In addition, we examined plasma testosterone levels were adjusted as the animals grew to maximize growth.levels in sexually mature males. Male X. laevis suffered a 10-folddecrease in testosterone levels when exposed to 25 ppb atrazine. Dosing. In Exp. 1, we exposed larvae to atrazine at nominalWe hypothesize that atrazine induces aromatase and promotes the concentrations of 0.01, 0.1, 1.0, 10.0, and 25 parts per billionconversion of testosterone to estrogen. This disruption in steroi- (ppb), whereas the second experiment used 0.1, 0.4, 0.8, 1.0, 25,dogenesis likely explains the demasculinization of the male larynx and 200 ppb atrazine. Concentrations were confirmed by twoand the production of hermaphrodites. The effective levels re- independent laboratories (PTRL West, Richmond, CA, and theported in the current study are realistic exposures that suggest that Iowa Hygienic Laboratory, Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City, IO). Allother amphibian species exposed to atrazine in the wild could be stock solutions were made in ethanol (10 ml), mixed in 15-gallonat risk of impaired sexual development. This widespread com- containers, and dispensed into treatment tanks. Controls werepound and other environmental endocrine disruptors may be a treated with ethanol such that all tanks contained 0.004%factor in global amphibian declines. ethanol. Water was changed and treatments were renewed once every 72 h. Each treatment was replicated 3 times with 30I n the last 10 years, a great deal of attention has focused on the global presence of endocrine-disrupting contaminants in theenvironment (1, 2). Similarly, a great deal of attention has animals per replicate (total of 90 animals per treatment) in both experiments. All treatments were systematically rotated around the shelf every 3 days to ensure that no one treatment or no onefocused on global amphibian declines (3, 4). In the case of tank experienced position effects. Experiments were carried outamphibian declines, efforts focus on identifying causes (5), at 22°C with animals under a 12-h͞12-h light͞dark cycle (lights
  65. 65. Tyrone’s Atrazine Rap
  66. 66. SimpleUnexpectedConcreteCredibleEmotionStory
  67. 67. Okay, it’s sticky.Now what?