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Design principal

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Design principal

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Design principal

  1. 1. While SCALE allude to the size of something compered to a reference standard or to the size of something else, PROPORTION refers to the proper or harmonious relation of one part to another or to the whole. Proportioning system go beyond the functional & technical determinants of architectural form & space to provide an aesthetic rationale for their dimensions . They can visually unify the multiplicity of elements in an architectural design by having of all its parts belong to the same family of proportions. They can provide a sense of order in, & heighten the continuity of, a sequence of spaces. Whole Part Proportion
  2. 2. Human scale in architecture is based on the dimensions & proportions of the human body. We can use elements that have human meaning & whose dimensions are related to the Dimensions of our posture, pace, reach, or grasp. Such element as a table or chair, the sill Of a window & the lintel over a doorway, not only help us to judge the size of space, but also give it a human scale. A table that made for ten men for meal, that can be used by two. But it fails to make intimacy between those two men. Of a room three dimensions, its height has a greater effect on its scale then either its Wide or length.
  3. 3. INTIMATE ENVIRONMENT bedroom MASS ENVIRONMENT Public place SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT
  4. 4. A axis is a line established by two points in space, about which forms and spaces can be arranged in a symmetrical or balanced manner. A main line of direction, motion, growth, or extension. Axis
  5. 5. → Well-defined spaces, generally centralized or regular in form . → Points in space established by vertical, linear elements or centralized building forms. → Gateways that open outward toward a view or vista beyond. Character of termination element:
  6. 6. Location: Vatican City, Rome, Italy Architect: Bernini Building Type: Piazza, outdoor plaza, open urban space
  7. 7. Itsukushima Temple Hiroshima Prefecture Japan A symbolic gateway in the sea
  8. 8. A datum refers to • Line • Plane • Volume of reference to which other elements in a composition can relate. a linear datum must have sufficient visual continuity to cut through or bypass all of the elements being organized. If planar or volumetric in form, a datum must have sufficient size, closure, and regularity to be seen as a figure that can embrace or gather together the elements being organized within its field." Devore House, Pennsylvania Architect: Louis Khan Datum
  9. 9. German Pavilion, Montrel World Exposition Architect: Rolf Gutbrod and Frei Otto
  10. 10. Hierarchy The articulation of the importance or significance of a form or space by its size, shape or placement relative to the other forms and spaces of the organization. A system of elements ranked, classified and organized one above another, according to importance or significance. Hierarchy by Size Permanent Mission of India to the UN. New York. -Charles Correa
  11. 11. Hierarchy The articulation of the importance or significance of a form or space by its size, shape or placement relative to the other forms and spaces of the organization. A system of elements ranked, classified and organized one above another, according to importance or significance. Hierarchy by Shape
  12. 12. Hierarchy The articulation of the importance or significance of a form or space by its size, shape or placement relative to the other forms and spaces of the organization. A system of elements ranked, classified and organized one above another, according to importance or significance. Hierarchy by Placement
  13. 13. A symmetrical composition requires the balanced arrangement equivalent patterns of form and space on opposite sides of a dividing line or plane ,or about a center or axis. Symmetry
  14. 14. Petronas twin tower Malaysia
  15. 15. Bilateral Symmetry Example : The Parthenon Location: Athens, Greece Architect: Ictinus and Callicrates with Phidias Building Type: Temple Symmetry: Vertical mirror through each side of the temple
  16. 16. Biaxial symmetry is the condition in which the plan is symmetrical on two perpendicular axes. Palladio Villa Rotonda Vicenza, Italy (1569) Biaxial symmetry
  17. 17. Radial Symmetry Swiss ray tower London
  18. 18. Architect: James Ream Building Type: House Symmetry: The rooms of the house spiral out from a central chimney. Example : Ross House Spiral or Helical Symmetry
  19. 19. Wheel Pattern Strip Pattern Variation In Symmetry
  20. 20. Symmetry In nature
  21. 21. Rhythm Rhythm, controlled or measured flow of movement, either aural or visual, usually produced by an ordered arrangement of differing elements of the medium concerned. Rhythm is a basic feature of all the arts, particularly music, poetry, and dance; rhythm can also be detected in natural phenomena. Three outstanding methods …. 1. Through the repetition of shapes. 2. Through a Progression of sizes. 3. Through continuous line movement.
  22. 22. Through the repetition of shapes. . . Through a Progression of sizes . . .
  23. 23.  In Nature…..
  24. 24.  In ARCHITECTURE….. Kahn’s Salk Institute

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