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Lidar for heritage mapping in India


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A brief description on purpose and advantage of using Lidar technology for heritage sector in India

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Lidar for heritage mapping in India

  1. 1. LiDARLiDAR For Heritage MappingFor Heritage Mapping
  2. 2. Heritage In India OverviewOverview LiDAR Solutions Heritage Management Using LiDAR Technology
  4. 4. Connecting dots for Indian Heritage  Gift of Heritage to us? Eternal Stories!  Heritage conservation Be our focus!!  What are these ‘ancient monuments’? ‘Anything that is not less than a 100 years old and of historical, archaeological or artistic interest is an ancient monument’  What is ‘heritage mapping’? Capture site scene on map As-is structural, characteristics (color/engravings/texture/material) and details
  5. 5. Arms of Heritage Studies in India Monuments :  Ancient monuments dating from prehistoric period to the colonial period and located at different geographical locations  Temples, mosques, tombs, churches, cemeteries, forts, palaces, step- wells, rock-cut caves, and secular architecture, ancient mounds and sites of ancient habitation. Excavation :  New site discovery  Study of culture, lifestyle and artifacts Epigraphical studies :  Inscription on stone, paper, copper, wood and coins Conservation : Preservation and Maintenance Restoration and Reconstruction Adoption Horticulture : Flora around periphery of ancient monuments
  6. 6. Indian Heritage  Diverse, Extensive, Rich..  Listing as a “heritage” is based upon criteria: Historic significance, Historic integrity and Historic context  Includes buildings, monuments, gardens, cemeteries, landscapes, archaeological sites and more  Gives information based on design, material, interior, paint colors or landscapes  Conservation - Purpose: To retain its historical, architectural, aesthetic and cultural significance Modes: To maintenance, preservation, restoration, reconstruction and adoption or combination of these. Categories: As cultural, economical and environmental
  7. 7. Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Sites and Remains Act – 2010 (Salient Features) LiDAR solution 1. Limits of prohibited area and regulated area- 100m and 200m resp. 2. No permission for construction in prohibited areas. 3. Repair and renovation allowed but no construction or reconstruction 4. Satellite/ Google image of monument site for applications Precise demarcation of prohibited areas on map Proximity and buffer analysis on heritage map Frequent change detection analysis through aerial survey Georeferenced and geotagged aerial (UAV) photos and satellite imagery integrated with 360 degree panoramic imagery for selected locations Rules and Regulations for survey and mapping
  8. 8. Need of the hour..  Sacred sites to be dealt with sensitivity  To overcome challenges over difficult terrains  Little intervention as possible without altering or modifying the original character  Identify and target factors responsible for deterioration: Natural Factors : Flood , Biological Factors, Moisture, Rainstorm, Ground salts and water, Windstorm, Air Pollutant, Solar Radiation, Temperature, Vibration Social Factors : Fire, Urban Development, Vandalism  Effects generated: discoloration, abrasion,  crack, stains and fungal growth Flood Vandalism Rust-Iron Abrasion
  9. 9. Current Practices  Time consuming surveys and Several site visits required  Manual intervention leading to errors  Deformation measurement is less accurate due to extrapolation  Time wasted in post-field work  Trivial paperwork/ documentation  Lack of consolidated data  Prolonged decision making  Inefficiency/ inconsistency while sharing data across departments  Less attractive means for advertising, awareness & education regarding heritage
  11. 11. LiDAR  Advanced Surveying Technology !  Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) is a technology that remotely sense objects while collecting millions of point data with accurate ground positions and generates 3D point cloud  Creates a 3D Photorealistic Virtual Reality environment
  12. 12. Mode of survey Aerial Scanner positioned on Helicopter, Airplane, Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Mobile Scanner mounted on a moving vehicle such as Car, Truck, wagon/trailer etc Terrestrial A Stationary scanner to capture surrounding areas or a target object Data captured by various platforms- Octacopter UAV Trailer Stationary
  13. 13. Why does LiDAR stand out?  Quick  Point data collected within seconds  Adaptable  Operates day and night  Works at extreme (hot, cold, windy) conditions  Safe  No health hazard to operators/ people in contact  Precise  Dense point cloud data (millions per sq in.)  Cost Effective  Re-use data anytime  Reduced labour and time  Eliminates frequent and time-consuming site revisits
  15. 15. Purpose  Inspection of the Site/Monument  Continuous Monitoring  3D Modeling  Restoring the Originality  Digitally Preserving the Site/Monument  Keeping track through Change Detection Analysis
  17. 17. SITE SURVEY  Generates georeferenced image of terrain  3D model and 2D site plans/ illustrations  Contour data  Photo realistic point cloud data  Provides selectivity by giving texture details to general silhouette Benefits Reduced manual intervention Lesser site re-visits required Restoration / Recreation of structure Better periodicity No hindrance to regular operations Homogeneity of data (regardless of team, course or weather condition) Site plan
  18. 18. DIGITAL ARCHIVING  DEM, orthoimage and photorealistic  3D model  Time stamped data  Exterior and Interior scans  Historical reports  Material inventories  Structural analysis model/ report  Scaled plans, sections and drawings Benefits Virtual data easy to store Records easy to maintain Time stamped data Easy to share across departments/ collaborations Decision making Change detection Aids post-fieldwork in office Interior Survey
  19. 19. DEFORMATION MEASUREMENT  2D CAD dataset  Cross sections  Elevation drawings  Point-to-point distance, volume, perimeter and surface-area calculations Benefits Accurate measurements Avoid multiple site visits No hindrance to regular operations Deformation Measure
  20. 20. ADVERTISING  Interactive 3D Model  Photo-realistic panoramic imagery  Virtual fly-through  Animation and video  Augmented reality (AR) application Benefits Digital record for future use Easy to maintain Cultural, education and scientific awareness Easy re-visits for the tourists (anytime, any angle, any direction) Online Exhaustive Site Details Enhanced virtual tourism Virtual Fly-Through
  21. 21. ARCHITECTURAL INFORMATION SYSTEM (AIS)  Panoramic images  Architectural GIS system  Maps, information, photos, models, reports, IT solutions/ application Benefits  Single architectural-spatial database to view, interpret and manipulate all data  Access information by simply querying the table  Edit/ manipulate maps from various sources (plans, sections, facades, CAD graphics) AIS Layout
  22. 22. Thank youThank you “ACCEPT THE NEW TO PRESERVE THE OLD” Presented by- Archana Sandeep