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Alexander the great powerpoint (life battales


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Alexander the great powerpoint (life battales

  1. 1. Alexander the Great Ruler of the World
  2. 2. Group members M Irfan Ashraf 13061513-059 Salman Tufail 13061513-025 Adnan Ahmad 13061513-046 M Tayyab 13061513-022
  3. 3. Why “the Great”? In ten years, Alexander of Macedonia created the largest empire in the world up to that time Alexander spread Greek culture, ensuring cultural diffusion and the survival of the qualities of classical Greece
  4. 4. Alexander’s Empire
  5. 5. About Alexander’s Born in Pella, Macedonia Tutored by the Greek philosopher, Aristotle His father, Philip, was king of Macedonia, and had conquered the Greek city states during his 27 year reign
  6. 6. Olympia Alexander’s mother Philip Alexander’s father
  7. 7. Alexander Rules Philip was murdered in 336 B.C. by an assassin…maybe hired by his wife, Olympia… So Alexander was only 20 when he became king of Macedonia
  8. 8. Securing his father’s empire Alexander squelched rebellions in the northern regions to the Danube River In the process of reconquering the Greek city states, his forces destroyed Thebes, massacring all, including women and children
  9. 9. Expanding the Empire Alexander’s forces of over 40,000 crossed at the Dardanelles into Asia, where he declared that the whole of Asia would be won by the spear
  10. 10. The Gordian Knot The Gordian Knot: the legend behind the ancient knot was that the man who could untie it was destined to rule the entire world. Alexander simply slashed the knot with his sword and unraveled it.
  11. 11. Defeating Darius of Persia #1: Alexander’s forced dispatched the Persian army, losing only 110 men (legend) #2: Again Alexander was victorious, and Darius was forced to flee, abandoning is mother, wife and children to Alexander
  12. 12. Major cities in Asia Minor and along the Phoenician coast surrendered to Alexander Alexander proceeded to Egypt, where he established the city of Alexandria and was made pharaoh
  13. 13. #3: Yet again, Alexander’s forces defeated Darius, this time in Mesopotamia… Alexander was proclaimed king of Persia and Darius’s royal city and palace were burned to the Persepolis ground… Again, Darius fled… Alexander pursued…
  14. 14. When Darius was found murdered by his own men, Alexander executed the assassins and gave Darius a royal funeral Ruins of Persepolis
  15. 15. Alexander’s divinity While in Egypt, Alexander had visited the temple of Amon-Ra The oracle proclaimed that Alexander was the divine son of Amon-Ra and destined to rule the world Conflicts arose with his Greek soldiers as he adopted Persian dress & demanded to be recognized as a god
  16. 16. The limits of expansion In the spring of 327 BC, Alexander and his army marched into India As he conquered regions he allowed rulers to continue to govern in his name
  17. 17. Bucephalus In India, Alexander’s horse was killed… He mourned his loss and named a city in his honor Alexander on his favorite horse, Bucephalus 'O my son, look thee out a kingdom equal to and worthy of thyself, for Macedonia is too little for thee.' Philip to Alexander (Plutarch, Alexander)
  18. 18. Retreat At the Indus, the Macedonians rebelled and refused to go any farther The forces travelled down the Indus and began the arduous journey back to Mesopotamia His best friend, Hephaestion, died of a fever; to console himself, Alexander led a ferocious military campaign and went on a drinking binge
  19. 19. Securing a legacy Alexander made Babylonia the capital of his Empire He married one of Darius’ daughters and “encouraged” 10,000 of his soldiers to take Persian wives He died the following year at 33 before he could produce an heir and his kingdom was divided among 3 of his generals
  20. 20. Antigonus Seleucus Ptolemy
  21. 21. The mystery of Alexander’s death Alexander died of a fever at 33… but why? Plutarch reports that he was had been plagued by several bad “omens” Some others from the time claimed Alexander was poisoned during the drinking binge
  22. 22. Alexander the Great 13061513-025
  23. 23. The Peloponnesian War:A Big Fat Greek Civil War In 431 B.C. the Spartans got tired of the arrogance of Athens, especially after they started building walls around their city. Spartans fought better on land, Athens fought better at sea so the battles lasted a long time. Sparta eventually won when the Persians joined to help against Athens, made Athens tear down their walls.
  24. 24. Macedonia Makes a Move After the Persian War and Peloponnesian War, Greece was very week and distracted. Phillip II, King of Macedonia took the opportunity to take over Greece (except Sparta) and then attack Persia. Great General, expert at using the phalanx. Became king at only 23
  25. 25. Getting to Greece 338 BC: Phillip and the Macedonians defeat the Greek City States and Unify Greece. Governments remained independence, ruling themselves.
  26. 26. Arise Alexander Became King of Macedonia at age 20 after Phillip died of poisoning (suspiciously). Killed all others who could beat him to the throne. Wanted to be like warriors he studied from the blind poet, Homer. Student of Aristotle who taught him about Greek culture. . Determined to outdo his father and spread Greek culture. Believed he descended from Hercules and Achilles.
  27. 27. Alexander’s Three Point Plan Alexander wanted to rule the world, uniting different cultures under one ruler. How would he do this? Spread Greek culture and ideas, basically make everyone “Greek”. Make himself a god to inspire loyalty. Respect people he conquered and adopt their cultures in addition to Greece.
  28. 28. Born to Be a Leader Alexander was an excellent military leader, men were very loyal to him. Led from the front of his men. Ate and drank with his men. First one to climb walls into a city. Soldiers would follow him happily into battle.
  29. 29. Alexander’s Conquests By conquering the Persians, Alexander could the unite Greeks against a common enemy. By 334 he freed all Greek city states from Persia. 332: Invaded Ancient Egypt, a Persian territory. Was welcomed as a liberator. Crowned as a pharaoh/god Founded the city of Alexandria and a huge library on the Nile. 330 B.C.E: Conquered the Persian Empire.
  30. 30. The Library at Alexandria
  31. 31. Facts about the library Dedicated to the Greek Muses of Inspiration. Contained a Zoo, botanical gardens, and a restaurant. Included over 500,000 papyrus scrolls. Became a center of advanced Greek learning.
  32. 32. Spreading Civilization By the Sword As Alexander’s empire spread, so did the Greek culture. Alexander passed the ideas and philosophies of Aristotle on to the world. Sent samples of plants and animals back to his tutor to study. Encouraged his soldiers to marry foreign girls so that the Greek culture would spread.
  33. 33. The Hellenistic Heyday Alexander’s conquests led to the combination of many cultures. This time period of combined cultural advances under Alexander was called the Hellenistic Era. Hellas in Greek means land. So all of this was considered “Greek land” Greek + Egyptian + Indian + Persian = Hellenistic Culture Practices of other cultures were adopted by Greeks, like monotheistic religions.
  34. 34. Hellenistic Advances Alexander’s conquests spread the classical Greek ideas such as democracy and geometry out into the world. Cities conquered were redesigned in Greek style. Greek soldiers married foreign girls to “blend” the cultures” Alexander tried to set an example by marrying a Persian princess, wearing Persian clothes, worshiping Egyptian gods, etc.
  35. 35. The End of Alexander 324: After reaching India, Alexander’s soldiers were too tired and refused to go on. Age 33, Alexander died of swamp fever and alcoholism. After his death, Alexander’s generals divided his empire into three pieces: Egypt, Greece, and Asia. He was buried in Alexandria, but his body was lost after being burned.
  36. 36. What if???? What if the Greeks had not united with Sparta during the Persian War? What if Persia had won the War? What if there had been no Greek Golden Age? What if there had been no Aristotle? What if there had been no Alexander the Great? What would we have without Greece?
  37. 37. Alexander the Great 13061513-046
  38. 38. Battle of Issus In the autumn of 333 BC, the Macedonian army's encountered the Persian forces under the command of King Darius III himself at a mountain pass at Issus in northwestern Syria. 30,000 Greeks again formed a sizable addition to the Darius' army as elite fighters and were positioned directly against the Macedonian phalanx. Describing the atmosphere before a battle, the Roman historian Curtius explained how Alexander raised the morale of the Macedonians, Greeks, Illyrians, and Thracians in his army, one at the time
  39. 39. Riding to the front line he (Alexander the Great) named the soldiers and they responded from spot to spot where they were lined up. The Macedonians, who had won so many battles in Europe and set off to invade Asia ... got encouragement from him - he reminded them of their permanent values. They were the world's liberators and one day they would pass the frontiers set by Hercules and Father Liber. They would subdue all races on Earth. Bactria and India would become Macedonian provinces. Getting closer to the Greeks, he reminded them that those were the people (the Persians on the other side) who provoked war with Greece, ...
  40. 40. Darius's army greatly outnumbered the Macedonians, but the Battle of Issus ended in a big victory for Alexander. Ten's of thousands of Persians, Greeks, and other Asiatic soldiers were killed and king Darius fled in panic before the Macedonian phalanx, abandoning his mother, wife, and children behind. Alexander treated them with the respect out of consideration for their royalty.
  41. 41. Sieges of Tyre and Gaza The victory at Issus opened the road for Syria and Phoenicia. In early 332, Alexander sent general Parmenio to occupy the Syrian cities and himself marched down the Phoenician coast where he received the surrender of all major cities except the island city of Tyre which refused to grant him access to sacrifice at the temple of the native Phoenician god Melcart. A very difficult seven-month siege of the city followed. In an enormous effort, the Macedonians begun building a mole that would connect the island-city with the coast. Tons of rocks and wood were poured into the water strip separating the island from the coast but its construction and the attacks from the city walls cost Alexander many of his bravest Macedonians.
  42. 42. Although seriously tempted to lift the siege and continue marching on Egypt, Alexander did not abandon the project and continued the siege, surrounding the island with ships and blasting the city walls with catapults. When the walls finally gave in, the Macedonians poured their anger over the city defenders - 7,000 people were killed, 30,000 were sold as slaves. Alexander entered the temple of Melcart, and had his sacrifice.
  43. 43. During the seven-month siege of Tyre, Alexander received a letter from Darius offering a truce with a gift of several western provinces of the Persian Empire, but he refused to make peace unless he could have the whole empire. He continued marching south toward Egypt but was again held up by resistance at Gaza. The Macedonians put the city under a siege which lasted two months, after which the scenario of Tyre was repeated.
  44. 44. The mainland Greeks had hoped that the Persian navy and the Greek commander Memnon would land in Greece and help them launch a rebellion against Antipater's Macedonians, transfer the war into Macedonia itself, and cut off Alexander in Asia, but the sealing of the coast prevented this from happening. Memnon fell sick and died while attempting to regain the lost Greek city of Miletus on the Asia Minor coast, and the Persian plan to transfer the war into Europe well apart.
  45. 45. Conquest of Egypt Alexander entered Egypt in the beginning of 331 BC. The Persian satrap surrendered and the Macedonians were welcomed by the Egyptians as liberators for they had despised living under Persian rule for almost two centuries. Here Alexander ordered that a city be designed and founded in his name at the mouth of river Nile, as trading and military Macedonian outpost, the first of many to come. He never lived to see it built, but Alexandria will become a major economic and cultural center in the Mediterranean world not only during the Macedonian rule in Egypt but centuries after In the spring of 331
  46. 46. Alexander made a pilgrimage to the great temple and oracle of Amon-Ra, the Egyptian god of the sun, whom the Greeks and Macedonians identified with Zeus Ammon. The earlier Egyptian pharaohs were believed to be sons of Amon-Ra and Alexander as new ruler of Egypt wanted the god to acknowledge him as his son. He decided to make the dangerous trip across the desert to visit the oracle at the temple of the god. According to the legend, on the way he was blessed with abundant rain, and guided across the desert by ravens. At the temple, he was welcomed by the priests and spoke to the oracle.
  47. 47. Battle of Gaugamela At Tyre, Alexander received reinforcements from Europe, reorganized his forces, and started for Babylon. He conquered the lands between rivers Tigris and Euphrates and found the Persian army at the plains of Gaugamela, near modern Irbil in Iraq, which according to the exaggerated accounts of antiquity was said to number a million men. The Macedonians spotted the lights from the Persian campfires and encouraged Alexander to lead his attack under cover of darkness. But he refused to take advantage of the situation because he wanted to defeat Darius in an equally matched battle so that the Persian king would never again dare to raise an army against him.
  48. 48. The two armies met on the battlefield the next morning, October 1, 331 BC. On the Persian side were numerous Asiatic nations - Bactrians, Indians, Medians, Sogdians, even Albanians from the Caucasus, the ancestors of the modern Albanians who many centuries later migrated to Europe and are now northern neighbors to the modern Greeks and western neighbors to the modern Macedonians. The survivors of the 50,000 Greeks which Darius had on his side at the beginning of the war were also among the Persian ranks.
  49. 49. At the beginning of the battle the Persian forces split and separated the two Macedonians wings. The wing of general Parmenio appeared to be backing down, but Alexander's cavalry rode straight after Darius and forced again his flight like he did at Issus. Darius fled to Ecbatana in Media, and Alexander occupied Babylon, the imperial capital Susa, and the Persian capital Persepolis, and was henceforth proclaimed king of Asia. Four months later, the Macedonians burned the royal palace in Persepolis, completing the end of the ancient Persian Empire.
  50. 50. March on India In the spring of 327 BC, Alexander and his army marched into India invading Punjab. The greatest of Alexander's battles in India was at the river Hydaspes, against king Porus, one of the most powerful Indian rulers. In the summer of 326 BC, Alexander's army crossed the heavily defended river during a violent thunderstorm to meet Porus' forces. The Indians were defeated in a fierce battle, even though they fought with elephants, which the Macedonians had never seen before. Porus was captured and like the other local rulers he had defeated, Alexander allowed him to continue to govern his territory.
  51. 51. In this battle Alexander's horse Bucephalus was wounded and died. Alexander had ridden Bucephalus into every one of his battles in Europe and Asia, so when it died he was griefstricken. He founded a city which he named Buckephalia, in his horse's name. The army continued advancing as far as the river Hydaspes but at this point the Macedonians refused to go farther as reports were coming of far more larger and dangerous armies ahead equipped with many elephants and chariots. General Coenus spoke on army's behalf to the king.
  52. 52. One of the villages in which the army stopped belonged to the Malli, who were said to be one of the most warlike of the Indian tribes. Alexander was severally wounded in this attack when an arrow pierced his breastplate and his ribcage. The Macedonians rescued him in a narrow escape from the village. Still the Malli surrendered as Alexander became to recover from the grave wound. The travel down the river resumed and the Macedonian army reached the mouth of the Indus in the summer of 325 BC. Then it turned westward to Persia. But the return was a disaster. The army was marching through the notorious Gerdosian desert during the middle of the summer. By the time Alexander reached Susa thousands had died of heat and exhaustion.
  53. 53. But the return was a disaster. The army was marching through the notorious Gerdosian desert during the middle of the summer. By the time Alexander reached Susa thousands had died of heat and exhaustion.