Quran, Surah 96 (Al-Alaq), Ayat 1-5
•Recite with the name of your Lord Who
•He made man from the clot of blood,
•Recite, for your Lord is the Most Generous,
•Who taught writing by the pen.
•Taught man which he knew not.
How Knowledge is Possible
To know a thing till at end based on
which man can make a decision about,
that is called knowledge.
The philosopher Plato famously defined
knowledge as "justified true belief”.
This is very much important branch of philosophy.
The word 'epistemology' is an ancient Greek
epistēmē, meaning "knowledge, understanding",
and logos, meaning "study of“.
Its also called the science of knowledge.
Kneller said that that epistemology is the
combination of logic and metaphysic.
Epistemology deals with these question
How do people learn?
What knowledge is of utmost value?
What are the different types of knowledge?
How can we get knowledge
How to sort out right and wrong among whole.
How we select our desired knowledge
How can we use it
Born: 22 April 1724
Died :12 February 1804
Who is widely considered to be
a central figure of modern
philosophy. He said that
philosophy is the name of love
This theory/thought “Knowledge is
possible” is given by German
Philosopher Immanuel Kant during
Kant’s view about knowledge
According to Kant there are two ways to get
•Rationalism- knowledge by means of logic and
•Empiricism-knowledge through experience.
Difference between Rationalism/Empiricism
Reason is the source of all
Mind contains innate ideas
Maths is a model for
Knowledge can be gained a
Knowledge can be certain
The senses are easily fooled
The senses are the source
of all knowledge
Mind is a ‘tabula rasa’
Biology is a model for
Knowledge is only gained a
Knowledge can only ever
Instruments of Epistemology
There are five instruments to get knowledge.
That knowledge is confirmed by the
evidence of senses. It is derived from the
use of the five senses i.e. knowledge can
only be acquired from the experience of
seeing, hearing, smelling, feeling and
According to Plato
“That knowledge acquired
through the senses always
remains uncertain and
This us knowledge that we obtain by the
exercise of reason alone, unaccompanied
by observation of actual states of affairs.
Pure logic and mathematics are the base
of rational knowledge .
Authoritative knowledge is used in all
academic activities as references are, most
times, made to authorities, writers and
authors in some specific fields.
Knowledge gain through teacher
In Islam Quran and Sunnah is the
Intuitive knowledge is a knowledge that a
person find within himself in a movement of
insight. This is internal knowledge.
Intuition may occur as a sudden arrival of
solution to one’s problem or puzzle, having
worked for some hours or days without
arriving at such solution. It may also come in
the form of quick guess of solution to a
problem presented by another person.
It described as a knowledge that God has disclosed to
God inspired certain man to write down the truth that
He revealed to them so that these truth might be known
thereafter by all mankind. Revealed knowledge is
external knowledge. In the Christian fold, for instance,
dreams, visions and even the Bible have come to be
accepted as forms of revealed knowledge. In the
Islamic tradition, the Quran is held to be an
authoritative and revealed source of knowledge.
Epistemology in Islamic philosophy
In Islam, philosophers agree that knowledge is
Allah is the main source of knowledge.
Other sources of knowledge are universe and man.
Revealed knowledge is the important mean of
Revealed knowledge is true , real and permanent.
Five senses ,rational and intuition are also means
of knowledge but they follow revelation.
Sources of Knowledge(Muslim believes)
There are three sources of knowledge :
• Human brain
Allah (SWT) is the real and ultimate
source of knowledge .
He has gave this knowledge to man before
anything otherwise man had no source
from where he can get the knowledge .
“ Allah thought those things to man which
he knew not “ first revealed of Quran.
Allah (SWT) made this universe as the
source of knowledge . We get a lot of
information from this universe. Whatever
man learnt from experiments and
observation that is just because of universe.
Thoughts are arousing in human brain all the
times and ideas are generated every moment
which becomes the foundation of art and
crafts. If our brain doesn’t possess this
capability then our world of knowledge would
remain in cold.
Sayings of Quran
And how many a sign in the heavens
and the earth which they pass by, yet
they turn aside from it.(Yousaf, 105)
Do they not behold the kingdoms of the
heavens and of the earth, and what
things God has created, and (see that), it
may be, their time is already drawing
nigh? in what relation then will they
believe? (al-araf , 185)