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How knowledge is possible

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how knowledge is possible

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How knowledge is possible

  1. 1. Quran, Surah 96 (Al-Alaq), Ayat 1-5 •Recite with the name of your Lord Who created, •He made man from the clot of blood, •Recite, for your Lord is the Most Generous, •Who taught writing by the pen. •Taught man which he knew not.
  2. 2. How Knowledge is Possible Presented by Almas Shoaib
  3. 3. Knowledge To know a thing till at end based on which man can make a decision about, that is called knowledge. The philosopher Plato famously defined knowledge as "justified true belief”.
  4. 4. Epistemology This is very much important branch of philosophy. The word 'epistemology' is an ancient Greek epistēmē, meaning "knowledge, understanding", and  logos, meaning "study of“. Its also called the science of knowledge. Kneller said that that epistemology is the combination of logic and metaphysic.
  5. 5. Epistemological questions Epistemology deals with these question  How do people learn?  What knowledge is of utmost value?  What are the different types of knowledge? How can we get knowledge How to sort out right and wrong among whole. How we select our desired knowledge How can we use it
  6. 6. Born: 22 April 1724 Died :12 February 1804 Who is widely considered to be a central figure of modern philosophy. He said that philosophy is the name of love of knowledge. This theory/thought “Knowledge is possible” is given by German Philosopher Immanuel Kant during 18th century Ad
  7. 7. Kant’s view about knowledge According to Kant there are two ways to get knowledge •Rationalism- knowledge by means of logic and reason. •Empiricism-knowledge through experience.
  8. 8. Difference between Rationalism/Empiricism Rationalism Reason is the source of all knowledge Mind contains innate ideas Maths is a model for knowledge Knowledge can be gained a priori Knowledge can be certain The senses are easily fooled Empiricism The senses are the source of all knowledge Mind is a ‘tabula rasa’ Biology is a model for knowledge Knowledge is only gained a posterior Knowledge can only ever be probable
  9. 9. Instruments of Epistemology There are five instruments to get knowledge. 1.Empirical knowledge 2.Rational knowledge 3.Authoritative knowledge 4.Intuitive knowledge 5.Revealed knowledge
  10. 10. Empirical Knowledge That knowledge is confirmed by the evidence of senses. It is derived from the use of the five senses i.e. knowledge can only be acquired from the experience of seeing, hearing, smelling, feeling and tasting.
  11. 11. Continued According to Plato “That knowledge acquired through the senses always remains uncertain and incomplete”.
  12. 12. Rational Knowledge This us knowledge that we obtain by the exercise of reason alone, unaccompanied by observation of actual states of affairs. Pure logic and mathematics are the base of rational knowledge .
  13. 13. Authoritative Knowledge Authoritative knowledge is used in all academic activities as references are, most times, made to authorities, writers and authors in some specific fields. Knowledge gain through teacher In Islam Quran and Sunnah is the Authoritative .
  14. 14. Intuitive Knowledge Intuitive knowledge is a knowledge that a person find within himself in a movement of insight. This is internal knowledge. Intuition may occur as a sudden arrival of solution to one’s problem or puzzle, having worked for some hours or days without arriving at such solution. It may also come in the form of quick guess of solution to a problem presented by another person.
  15. 15. Revealed Knowledge It described as a knowledge that God has disclosed to man. God inspired certain man to write down the truth that He revealed to them so that these truth might be known thereafter by all mankind. Revealed knowledge is external knowledge. In the Christian fold, for instance, dreams, visions and even the Bible have come to be accepted as forms of revealed knowledge. In the Islamic tradition, the Quran is held to be an authoritative and revealed source of knowledge.
  16. 16. Epistemology in Islamic philosophy In Islam, philosophers agree that knowledge is possible. Allah is the main source of knowledge. Other sources of knowledge are universe and man. Revealed knowledge is the important mean of knowledge. Revealed knowledge is true , real and permanent. Five senses ,rational and intuition are also means of knowledge but they follow revelation.
  17. 17. Sources of Knowledge(Muslim believes) There are three sources of knowledge : •Allah (SWT) •Material Universe • Human brain
  18. 18. Allah (SWT) Allah (SWT) is the real and ultimate source of knowledge . He has gave this knowledge to man before anything otherwise man had no source from where he can get the knowledge . “ Allah thought those things to man which he knew not “ first revealed of Quran.
  19. 19. Material Universe Allah (SWT) made this universe as the source of knowledge . We get a lot of information from this universe. Whatever man learnt from experiments and observation that is just because of universe.
  20. 20. Human brain Thoughts are arousing in human brain all the times and ideas are generated every moment which becomes the foundation of art and crafts. If our brain doesn’t possess this capability then our world of knowledge would remain in cold.
  21. 21. Sayings of Quran And how many a sign in the heavens and the earth which they pass by, yet they turn aside from it.(Yousaf, 105) Do they not behold the kingdoms of the heavens and of the earth, and what things God has created, and (see that), it may be, their time is already drawing nigh? in what relation then will they believe? (al-araf , 185)

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