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Capsule Endoscopy
ASHISHKUMARSWAIN
EICE-A
1
Gastrointestinal Bleeding
Is any type of bleeding that occurs in the gastrointestinal tract from
the pharynx to the rectu...
Contents
1. History of Endoscopy.
2. Introduction.
3. Understanding Capsule Endoscopy.
4. Description.
5. Some types Of Ca...
History Of Endoscopy
The first real endoscope that was developed was made by
Phillip Bozzini in 1805 to examine the ureth...
5
Bozzini Lichtleiter
Hirschowitz Fiberscope
Kussmaul Gastroscope
Wolf-Schindler Flexible Gastroscope
Introduction
The capsule endoscopy procedure was invented by an Israel-based electro-
optical engineer Gavriel Iddan, in o...
Understanding Capsule Endoscopy
What is Capsule Endoscopy?
Capsule Endoscopy lets the doctor examine the lining of the mid...
Description
• The capsule (developed at university of Washington)
consists of 7optical fibers.
• One for illumination and ...
9
Some Types Of Capsule Cameras
• Capsule endoscopy with Pill Cam ESO can be performed in
less than 30 minutes, and the resu...
11
Specifications
 Diameter:11mm.
 Length :26mm.
 Bullet Shape
 Battery Type : Silver Oxide Cell
 Operation Temperature ...
Features
 Takes2 images persecond.
 50,000 images are obtained during an 8 hourexam.
 Magnification:8x.
 Coating is no...
Inside a Capsule Camera
OPTICAL DOME
LENS HOLDER
LENS
ILLUMINATING LED’S CMOS IMAGE SENSOR
BATTERY
ASIC
TRANSMITTER
ANTENN...
1.Optical Dome
Front part of the capsule.
Bulletshaped.
Light Receiving Window.
Non conductormaterial.
Harmless.
Eas...
2.Lens Holder
Accommodates the lens.
Lens is tightlyfixed.
Avoids dislocationof lens
16
3.Lens
Integralcomponent.
BehindLight ReceivingWindow.
Light through windowfalls on the lens
17
4.Illuminating LED’s
Present around the lens and CMOSsensor.
SixLED’Sarepresent.
These lightingdevices arearranged indo...
5.CMOS Image Sensor
140º fieldof view.
Detectobjects as smallas 0.1mm.
Precise.
Detect a Polyp, traditionalendoscope c...
6.Battery
Button shaped & 2 innumber.
Silveroxide primarybatteries.
Even dischargevoltage.
Disposable.
Harmless.
20
7.ASIC Transmitter
21
ApplicationSpecificIntegratedCircuit.
Behindthe batteries.
2 transmitting electrodes are connecte...
8.Antennae
Dome is harmless.
Parylene coated onto polyethylene or polypropylene is used.
Receives data from ASIC transm...
How Does It Work?
23
Circuit Block diagram of Transmitter
24
How Does It Work?
Circuit Block diagram of Receiver
Endoscopy Procedure
25
 Capsule is swallowed by the patient like a conventional pill.
 It takes images as it is propelle...
26
27
Movement Of Capsule Through The Digestive System
DATA
RECORDER
COMPUTER
Data Acquisition & Storage Of Data On Computer
...
28
Images Obtained From Capsule
CROHN’S DISEASE
HEALTHY SMALL BOWEL
CAPSULE IN
SMALL BOWEL
29
Uses
• Crohn's Disease.
• MalabsorptionDisorders.
• Tumors ofthe smallintestine& VascularDisorders.
• MedicationRelated...
Advantages
Painless, no side effects .
Miniature size.
Accurate, precise(view of 150º).
High quality images.
Efficien...
Conclusion
31
The Given Endoscopy capsule is a pioneering concept for Medical
Technology of the 21st century.
The endoscop...
32
Work Cited
• Wikipedia: Capsure Endoscopy
<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Capsule_endoscopy>.
• Lewis,Blair M.D,Swain,Pau...
33
34
QUESTIONS
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  1. 1. Capsule Endoscopy ASHISHKUMARSWAIN EICE-A 1
  2. 2. Gastrointestinal Bleeding Is any type of bleeding that occurs in the gastrointestinal tract from the pharynx to the rectum. Treatments involves proton pump inhibitors, octeotride, and antibiotics (Certain Cases). There is also an emphasis on resuscitation by infusion of intravenous fluids and blood transfusion. Gastrointestinal Bleeding is usually discovered by Upper endoscopy, Colonoscopy, or Capsule Endoscopy. 2
  3. 3. Contents 1. History of Endoscopy. 2. Introduction. 3. Understanding Capsule Endoscopy. 4. Description. 5. Some types Of Capsule Cameras. 6. Specifications. 7. Features. 8. Inside a capsule Cameras. 9. How Does It Work? 10. Endoscopy Procedure. 11. Images Obtained From Capsule. 12. Uses. 13. Advantages And Disadvantages. 14. Conclusion. 15. Work Cited. 3
  4. 4. History Of Endoscopy The first real endoscope that was developed was made by Phillip Bozzini in 1805 to examine the urethra, the bladder and vagina. Adolf Kussmaul in 1868 used a straight rigid metal tube over a flexible obturator to perform the first gastroscopy. Building on the work of others, Rudolph Schindler constructed the first practical gastroscope in 1932. In 1957 Basil Hirschowitz developed his prototype fiberscope. 4
  5. 5. 5 Bozzini Lichtleiter Hirschowitz Fiberscope Kussmaul Gastroscope Wolf-Schindler Flexible Gastroscope
  6. 6. Introduction The capsule endoscopy procedure was invented by an Israel-based electro- optical engineer Gavriel Iddan, in order to detect gastro-intestinal bleed and other obscure problems that may even be life threatening. • Aim of technology is to manufacture products at molecular level. • Achievedby nanotechnology. • Onesuch product is capsule camera. • A vitamin pill-sized, swallowable camera. • Capture images of inside body.. • Study oncaptured images bythe experts. • Approvedby European Medicines Agency . 6
  7. 7. Understanding Capsule Endoscopy What is Capsule Endoscopy? Capsule Endoscopy lets the doctor examine the lining of the middle part of one’s gastrointestinal tract, which includes the three portions of the small intestine (duodenum, jejunum, ileum). Doctor will give a pill sized video camera for a patient to swallow. This camera has its own light source and takes pictures of small intestine as it passes through. These pictures are sent to a small recording device patient have to wear on his body. 7 Why is Capsule Endoscopy Done? Capsule endoscopy helps doctor to evaluate the small intestine. The part of the bowel cannot be reached by traditional upper endoscopy or by colonoscopy. The most common reason for doing capsule endoscopy is to search for a cause of bleeding from the small intestine. It may also be useful for detecting polyps, inflammatory bowel disease (Crohn’s disease), ulcers, and tumors of the small intestine.
  8. 8. Description • The capsule (developed at university of Washington) consists of 7optical fibers. • One for illumination and the rest six for collecting light. • Once swallowed, electric current flows through the pill that causes the encased fibers to bounce back and forth such that its electronic eye would be able to scan the GI tract. • The tip will illuminate red, green and blue laser light helping in visuality, • All this processing together combined will give us two- dimensional picture helping in diagnosis. • The images can be retrieved from the recording device worn around patient's waist as a belt. 8
  9. 9. 9
  10. 10. Some Types Of Capsule Cameras • Capsule endoscopy with Pill Cam ESO can be performed in less than 30 minutes, and the results can be quickly interpreted. Pill cam ESO is used for screening of esophageal pathologies such as Barrett’s esophagus. These patients are usually otherwise healthy, Don’t expect one to die shortly after ingestion of the pill. • Pill Cam ESO video capsules measure 11mm x 26mm and weighs less than four grams. They contain an imaging device and light source at both ends of the video capsule and take up to 18 images per second as it passes down the esophagus. • Pill Cam ESO was initially cleared by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in November 2004 and provides a time- efficient and patient-friendly method for visualization of the esophagus. • Spider pill offers new way to scan for diseases including colon cancer 10
  11. 11. 11
  12. 12. Specifications  Diameter:11mm.  Length :26mm.  Bullet Shape  Battery Type : Silver Oxide Cell  Operation Temperature : 20 ~ 40 0C  Storage Temperature : 0 ~ 50 0C  Weight : 3.25g  Light : 6 white LED  Chemical Safety : Safe in pH=2 ~ pH=8 12
  13. 13. Features  Takes2 images persecond.  50,000 images are obtained during an 8 hourexam.  Magnification:8x.  Coating is non-adherent.  Disposable 13
  14. 14. Inside a Capsule Camera OPTICAL DOME LENS HOLDER LENS ILLUMINATING LED’S CMOS IMAGE SENSOR BATTERY ASIC TRANSMITTER ANTENNA 14
  15. 15. 1.Optical Dome Front part of the capsule. Bulletshaped. Light Receiving Window. Non conductormaterial. Harmless. Easy orientation. Prevent infiltrationof digestive fluidsinsidethe capsule. Easypropelling. 15
  16. 16. 2.Lens Holder Accommodates the lens. Lens is tightlyfixed. Avoids dislocationof lens 16
  17. 17. 3.Lens Integralcomponent. BehindLight ReceivingWindow. Light through windowfalls on the lens 17
  18. 18. 4.Illuminating LED’s Present around the lens and CMOSsensor. SixLED’Sarepresent. These lightingdevices arearranged indonut shape.  18
  19. 19. 5.CMOS Image Sensor 140º fieldof view. Detectobjects as smallas 0.1mm. Precise. Detect a Polyp, traditionalendoscope can’t do. 19
  20. 20. 6.Battery Button shaped & 2 innumber. Silveroxide primarybatteries. Even dischargevoltage. Disposable. Harmless. 20
  21. 21. 7.ASIC Transmitter 21 ApplicationSpecificIntegratedCircuit. Behindthe batteries. 2 transmitting electrodes are connectedto it. Electrodes are electricallyisolated.
  22. 22. 8.Antennae Dome is harmless. Parylene coated onto polyethylene or polypropylene is used. Receives data from ASIC transmitter. Send to Data Recorder. 22
  23. 23. How Does It Work? 23 Circuit Block diagram of Transmitter
  24. 24. 24 How Does It Work? Circuit Block diagram of Receiver
  25. 25. Endoscopy Procedure 25  Capsule is swallowed by the patient like a conventional pill.  It takes images as it is propelled forward by peristalsis.  A wireless recorder, worn on a belt, receives the images transmitted by the pill.  A computer workstation processes the data and produces a continuous still images.
  26. 26. 26
  27. 27. 27 Movement Of Capsule Through The Digestive System DATA RECORDER COMPUTER Data Acquisition & Storage Of Data On Computer Produces two images per second, approximately 2,600 high quality images.
  28. 28. 28 Images Obtained From Capsule CROHN’S DISEASE HEALTHY SMALL BOWEL CAPSULE IN SMALL BOWEL
  29. 29. 29 Uses • Crohn's Disease. • MalabsorptionDisorders. • Tumors ofthe smallintestine& VascularDisorders. • MedicationRelated ToSmallBowel Injury • Ulcerative Colitis
  30. 30. Advantages Painless, no side effects . Miniature size. Accurate, precise(view of 150º). High quality images. Efficient than X-ray, CT-scan, normal endoscopy. High sensitivity & specificity. Avoids risk in sedation and radiation. Simple procedure Harmless material. Disadvantages Patients with gastrointestinal structures ornarrowing are not good candidates for this procedure due to risk of obstruction. Patients with pacemaker, pregnant women face difficulties. Thepill will getstucked if thereis partial obstruction in small intestine. Impossible to control camera behavior. Veryexpensive. are not 30
  31. 31. Conclusion 31 The Given Endoscopy capsule is a pioneering concept for Medical Technology of the 21st century. The endoscopy system is the first of its kind to be able to provide non- invasive imaging of the entire small intestine. It has revolutionized the field of diagnostic imaging to a great extent and has proved to be of great help to physicians all over the world.
  32. 32. 32 Work Cited • Wikipedia: Capsure Endoscopy <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Capsule_endoscopy>. • Lewis,Blair M.D,Swain,Paul, MD: write a paper. Capsule endoscopy in the evaluation of patients with suspected small intestinal bleeding:,2002 • Koichi, Soga: In vivo imaging of intestinal helminths by capsule endoscopy,2013 • Wikipedia:Gastro Intestinal Bleeding:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gastrointestinal_bleeding • Engineering in Medicine and Biology Magazine,IEEE (Volume: 24, Issue: 4 ) . • http://www.capsuleendoscopy.org • Sidhu, Reena, at al.Gastrointestinal capsule endoscopy: from tertiary centres to primary "care". BMJ, March 4 2006. 332:528-531. doi:10.1136/bmj.332.7540.528
  33. 33. 33
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