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Is any type of bleeding that occurs in the gastrointestinal tract from
the pharynx to the rectum.
Treatments involves proton pump inhibitors, octeotride, and antibiotics
There is also an emphasis on resuscitation by infusion of intravenous
fluids and blood transfusion.
Gastrointestinal Bleeding is usually discovered by Upper endoscopy,
Colonoscopy, or Capsule Endoscopy.
1. History of Endoscopy.
3. Understanding Capsule Endoscopy.
5. Some types Of Capsule Cameras.
8. Inside a capsule Cameras.
9. How Does It Work?
10. Endoscopy Procedure.
11. Images Obtained From Capsule.
13. Advantages And Disadvantages.
15. Work Cited.
History Of Endoscopy
The first real endoscope that was developed was made by
Phillip Bozzini in 1805 to examine the urethra, the bladder and
Adolf Kussmaul in 1868 used a straight rigid metal tube over a
flexible obturator to perform the first gastroscopy.
Building on the work of others, Rudolph Schindler constructed
the first practical gastroscope in 1932.
In 1957 Basil Hirschowitz developed his prototype fiberscope.
The capsule endoscopy procedure was invented by an Israel-based electro-
optical engineer Gavriel Iddan, in order to detect gastro-intestinal bleed and
other obscure problems that may even be life threatening.
• Aim of technology is to manufacture products at molecular
• Achievedby nanotechnology.
• Onesuch product is capsule camera.
• A vitamin pill-sized, swallowable camera.
• Capture images of inside body..
• Study oncaptured images bythe experts.
• Approvedby European Medicines Agency .
Understanding Capsule Endoscopy
What is Capsule Endoscopy?
Capsule Endoscopy lets the doctor examine the lining of the middle part of
one’s gastrointestinal tract, which includes the three portions of the small
intestine (duodenum, jejunum, ileum). Doctor will give a pill sized video
camera for a patient to swallow. This camera has its own light source and
takes pictures of small intestine as it passes through. These pictures are
sent to a small recording device patient have to wear on his body.
Why is Capsule Endoscopy Done?
Capsule endoscopy helps doctor to evaluate the small intestine. The part
of the bowel cannot be reached by traditional upper endoscopy or by
colonoscopy. The most common reason for doing capsule endoscopy is to
search for a cause of bleeding from the small intestine. It may also be
useful for detecting polyps, inflammatory bowel disease (Crohn’s
disease), ulcers, and tumors of the small intestine.
• The capsule (developed at university of Washington)
consists of 7optical fibers.
• One for illumination and the rest six for collecting light.
• Once swallowed, electric current flows through the pill
that causes the encased fibers to bounce back and forth
such that its electronic eye would be able to scan the GI
• The tip will illuminate red, green and blue laser light
helping in visuality,
• All this processing together combined will give us two-
dimensional picture helping in diagnosis.
• The images can be retrieved from the recording device
worn around patient's waist as a belt.
Some Types Of Capsule Cameras
• Capsule endoscopy with Pill Cam ESO can be performed in
less than 30 minutes, and the results can be quickly interpreted.
Pill cam ESO is used for screening
of esophageal pathologies such as Barrett’s esophagus. These
patients are usually otherwise healthy, Don’t expect one to die
shortly after ingestion of the pill.
• Pill Cam ESO video capsules measure 11mm x 26mm and
weighs less than four grams. They contain an imaging device
and light source at both ends of the video capsule and take up
to 18 images per second as it passes down the esophagus.
• Pill Cam ESO was initially cleared by the U.S. Food and Drug
Administration in November 2004 and provides a time-
efficient and patient-friendly method for visualization of the
• Spider pill offers new way to scan for diseases including colon
2 transmitting electrodes are connectedto it.
Electrodes are electricallyisolated.
Dome is harmless.
Parylene coated onto polyethylene or polypropylene is used.
Receives data from ASIC transmitter.
Send to Data Recorder.
How Does It Work?
Circuit Block diagram of Transmitter
How Does It Work?
Circuit Block diagram of Receiver
Capsule is swallowed by the patient like a conventional pill.
It takes images as it is propelled forward by peristalsis.
A wireless recorder, worn on a belt, receives the images
transmitted by the pill.
A computer workstation processes the data and produces a
continuous still images.
Painless, no side effects .
Accurate, precise(view of 150º).
High quality images.
Efficient than X-ray, CT-scan,
High sensitivity & specificity.
Avoids risk in sedation and
Patients with gastrointestinal
structures ornarrowing are not
good candidates for this
procedure due to risk of
Patients with pacemaker,
pregnant women face difficulties.
Thepill will getstucked if thereis
partial obstruction in small
Impossible to control camera
Veryexpensive. are not 30
The Given Endoscopy capsule is a pioneering concept for Medical
Technology of the 21st century.
The endoscopy system is the first of its kind to be able to provide non-
invasive imaging of the entire small intestine.
It has revolutionized the field of diagnostic imaging to a great extent and
has proved to be of great help to physicians all over the world.
• Wikipedia: Capsure Endoscopy
• Lewis,Blair M.D,Swain,Paul, MD: write a paper. Capsule
endoscopy in the evaluation of patients with suspected small
• Koichi, Soga: In vivo imaging of intestinal helminths by capsule
• Wikipedia:Gastro Intestinal
• Engineering in Medicine and Biology Magazine,IEEE
(Volume: 24, Issue: 4 ) .
• Sidhu, Reena, at al.Gastrointestinal capsule endoscopy:
from tertiary centres to primary "care". BMJ, March 4 2006.