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Antibiotic
Asifur Rahman
Contact: 01747137920
Definitions
Antibiotics are the Substance (such as
penicillin) that destroys or inhibits the growth
of other pathogenic mi...
Classification of Antibiotic
• Mode of action
• BACTERICIDAL (kills the bug)
• BACTERIOSTATIC (stops the bug multiplying)
...
Site of action of Antibiotics
Inhibitors of cell wall synthesis
• Interfere with the synthesis of the bacterial cell wall
• Little or NO effect on bacte...
Penicillin
• Most widely effective and least
toxic
• Produced from fungi
• Contain β lactam ring
• Mechanism of action: In...
Protein Synthesis Inhibitors
• 50S ribosome inhibitors
-Macrolides e.g. Erythromycin
-Lincosamides e.g. clindamycin, linco...
Tetracycline
• Most common protein sythesis inhibitor
• Having a nucleus of four cyclic rings
• Mechanism of action :
Inhi...
Inhibitors of nucleic acid function or
synthesis
• Which interefere with the
metabolism of bacteria.
• Floroquinolone
• Ri...
Quinolones
Mechanism of action:
Inhibitors of DNA Gyrase (= Topoisomerase II) [a bacterial enzyme that winds and unwinds D...
Folic acid synthesis inhibitor
Sulfonamides
Mechanism of action:
Inhibition of folic acid
synthesis
Example:
Sulfacetamide...
Antibiotics side effects:
The most common side effects of antibiotics :
Diarrhoea
Bloating and indigestion
Abdominal pain
...
What Is The Rules Of Pharmacist
• The pharmacist should review the
previous diseases history of the patient
• Hypersensiti...
Antibiotics resistance
• If the concentration of drug requires
to inhibit or kill the microorganism is
greater than normal...
Misuse of antibiotics :
• Antibiotic misuse, sometimes called
antibiotic abuse or antibiotic overuse.
• The misuse or over...
Inappropriate prescription
• In an analysis of prescribing practices in
teaching hospitals worldwide, more than
40 % of al...
Mr: Don’t forget to take one of our
antibiotics free sample before you
leave the hospital
Antibiotic (asif) nsupharmacy
Antibiotic (asif) nsupharmacy
Antibiotic (asif) nsupharmacy
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antibiotic resistance & classification

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Antibiotic (asif) nsupharmacy

  1. 1. Antibiotic Asifur Rahman Contact: 01747137920
  2. 2. Definitions Antibiotics are the Substance (such as penicillin) that destroys or inhibits the growth of other pathogenic microorganisms and is used in the treatment of external or internal infections. Originally the term antibiotic referred only to organic compounds, produced by bacteria or molds, that are toxic to other microorganisms but most are now manufactured synthetically.
  3. 3. Classification of Antibiotic • Mode of action • BACTERICIDAL (kills the bug) • BACTERIOSTATIC (stops the bug multiplying) • Spectrum of activity • BROAD (e.g. effective a variety of gram –ve & gram +ve bacteria) • NARROW (e.g. effective only against gram –ve or gram +ve bacteria • Mechanism of action / site of action; • Inhibitors of cell wall synthesis; (β-Lactam, Vancomycin) • Inhibitors of cell metabolism; (Sulfonamides, Trimethoprim) • Inhibitors of protein synthesis; (Tetracyclines, Aminoglycosides, Macrolides, Clindamycin, Chloramphenicol) • Inhibitors of nucleic acid function or synthesis; (Floroquinolones, Rifampin) • Inhibitors of cell membrane function; (Isoniazid, Amphotericin B)
  4. 4. Site of action of Antibiotics
  5. 5. Inhibitors of cell wall synthesis • Interfere with the synthesis of the bacterial cell wall • Little or NO effect on bacteria that are NOT growing and dividing Non β-lactamβ-lactam group VancomycinPenicillins BacitracinCephalosporins Polymixin BCarbapenems TelavancinMonobactams Daptomycinβ-lactam inhibitors + antibiotic combinations
  6. 6. Penicillin • Most widely effective and least toxic • Produced from fungi • Contain β lactam ring • Mechanism of action: Inhibit transpeptidase so cross linking between peptides not occur → Peptidoglycan of cell wall will NOT be formed.
  7. 7. Protein Synthesis Inhibitors • 50S ribosome inhibitors -Macrolides e.g. Erythromycin -Lincosamides e.g. clindamycin, lincomyin • 30S ribosome inhibitors -Aminoglycosides -Tetracyclines
  8. 8. Tetracycline • Most common protein sythesis inhibitor • Having a nucleus of four cyclic rings • Mechanism of action : Inhibit protein synthesis: by binding to 30s ribosomes Prevent attachment of aminoacyl-t-RNA to the mRNA ribosome complex.
  9. 9. Inhibitors of nucleic acid function or synthesis • Which interefere with the metabolism of bacteria. • Floroquinolone • Rifampin • Metronidazole
  10. 10. Quinolones Mechanism of action: Inhibitors of DNA Gyrase (= Topoisomerase II) [a bacterial enzyme that winds and unwinds DNA (required for supercoiling the bacterial genome)]  inhibition of DNA synthesis and transcription
  11. 11. Folic acid synthesis inhibitor Sulfonamides Mechanism of action: Inhibition of folic acid synthesis Example: Sulfacetamide Trimethoprim • Has similar activity to sulphonamides • Give synergistic effect in combination with sulphonamides (= Cotrimoxazole)
  12. 12. Antibiotics side effects: The most common side effects of antibiotics : Diarrhoea Bloating and indigestion Abdominal pain Loss of appetite Being sick Feeling sick Itchy skin rash Coughing life-threatening allergic reaction
  13. 13. What Is The Rules Of Pharmacist • The pharmacist should review the previous diseases history of the patient • Hypersensitivity reaction of Drug • Drug-drug interaction • Exact dose and frequency of the drug • When the drug should be taken before or after meal • Suggest not to stop the antibiotics without complete the course even feel better
  14. 14. Antibiotics resistance • If the concentration of drug requires to inhibit or kill the microorganism is greater than normal use then the microorganism is considered to be resistant to the drug. OR • The ability of a microorganism to produce a protein that disables an antibiotic or prevents transport of the antibiotic into the cell.
  15. 15. Misuse of antibiotics : • Antibiotic misuse, sometimes called antibiotic abuse or antibiotic overuse. • The misuse or overuse of antibiotics, may produce serious effects on health. • It is a contributing factor to the creation of multidrug-resistant bacteria, informally called "super bugs" relatively harmless bacteria can develop resistance to multiple antibiotics and cause life-threatening infections.
  16. 16. Inappropriate prescription • In an analysis of prescribing practices in teaching hospitals worldwide, more than 40 % of all antimicrobials prescribed were considered inappropriate Antibiotic resistance comes mainly because of inappropriate or improper use of antibiotics by physicians. Some 150 million prescriptions are written annually in the USA And Of those, 50 million are absolutely unnecessary or inappropriate”.
  17. 17. Mr: Don’t forget to take one of our antibiotics free sample before you leave the hospital
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antibiotic resistance & classification

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