• facts and statistics collected together for
reference or analysis.
• facts provided or learned about something or
• Metadata is data that describes other data.
... Metadata summarizes basic information
about data, which can make finding and
working with particular instances of data
• For example, author, date created and date
modified and file size are examples of very
basic document metadata
What is a database
• a structured set of data held in a computer,
especially one that is accessible in various
What is SQL?
• SQL (pronounced "ess-que-el") stands for Structured Query
Language. SQL is used to communicate with a database.
• According to ANSI (American National Standards Institute), it is the
standard language for relational database management systems.
SQL statements are used to perform tasks such as update data on a
database, or retrieve data from a database.
• Some common relational database management systems that use
SQL are: Oracle, Sybase, Microsoft SQL Server, Access, Ingres, etc.
Although most database systems use SQL, most of them also have
their own additional proprietary extensions that are usually only
used on their system.
• However, the standard SQL commands such as "Select", "Insert",
"Update", "Delete", "Create", and "Drop" can be used to
accomplish almost everything that one needs to do with a
• Document management, often referred to as
Document Management Systems (DMS), is
the use of a computer system and software to
store, manage and track
electronic documents and electronic images
of paper based information captured through
the use of a document scanner.
• Data warehousing is the process of
constructing and using a data warehouse.
• A data warehouse is constructed by
integrating data from multiple heterogeneous
sources that support analytical reporting,
structured and/or ad hoc queries, and
• Data organization, in broad terms, refers to
the method of classifying and
organizingdata sets to make them more
useful. Some IT experts apply this primarily to
physical records, although some types of data
organization can also be applied to digital
• Management information system, or MIS,
broadly refers to a computer-
based system that provides managers with
the tools to organize, evaluate and efficiently
manage departments within an organization.
• A decision support system (DSS) is an
information system that supports business or
organizational decision-making activities.
• a set of related computer programs and the
data required to assist with analysis and
decision-making within an organization.
• Transaction processing is a way of computing that
divides work into individual, indivisible
operations, called transactions.
• ATM transaction-processing system ensures that
all operations in a single cash transaction are
completed without error. ... If all operations of
a transactionare completed successfully,
the transaction is completed by our ATM
transaction-processing system, and cash is paid
to the customer.
Data Collection Methods
• Data collection is a process
of collecting information from all the relevant
sources to find answers to the research
problem, test the hypothesis and evaluate the
outcomes. Data collection methods can be
divided into two categories: secondary
methods of data collection and
primary methods of data collection.
Data Input Methods
• Data is entered directly into the computer one
transaction at a time (also known as
transaction processing) under program
control. The main types of on-line data entry
device are: VDUs, teletypes, light pens,
voice input and shop-floor data collection
Characteristics of computerized MIS
• Ability to process data into information with
accuracy and high speed. It involves complex
computation, analysis, comparisons and
Types of Data
• It is useful to distinguish between two
broad types of variables: qualitative and
quantitative (or numeric). Each is broken
down into two sub-types: qualitative data can
be ordinal or nominal, and numeric data can
be discrete (often, integer) or continuous.
How to protect data on a computer
• 8 easy steps to secure your computer
• Keep up with system and software security updates. ...
• Have your wits about you. ...
• Enable a firewall. ...
• Adjust your browser settings. ...
• Install antivirus and anti spyware software. ...
• Password protect your software and lock your device.
• Encrypt your data. ...
• Use a VPN.
• A digital firm is a company in which almost all
significant business relationships with
customers, suppliers, and
employees are digitally enabled or mediated.
This means that all the procedures relating to
core business processes are completed
through the use of digital networks that cover
the organisation as a whole.
• e-commerce is just the process of buying and
selling produce by electronic means such as by
mobile applications and the
Internet. Ecommercerefers to both online
retail as well as electronic transactions.
World Wide Web
• The World Wide Web (WWW) is a network of
online content that is formatted in HTML and
accessed via HTTP. The term refers to all the
interlinked HTML pages that can be accessed
over the Internet. The World Wide Web was
originally designed in 1991 by Tim Berners-Lee
while he was a contractor at CERN.
• The Internet is a global network of networks
while the Web, also referred formally as World
Wide Web (www) is collection of information
which is accessed via theInternet. Another
way to look at this difference is;
the Internet is infrastructure while the Web is
service on top of that infrastructure.
• One of the most commonly used services on
the Internet is the World Wide Web(WWW).
The application protocol that makes the web
work is Hypertext Transfer Protocol or HTTP. ...
HTTP is the protocol that web browsers
and web servers use to communicate with
each other over the Internet.