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sankya philosophy


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sankya philosophy

  1. 1. SANKHYA SUBMITTED TO- Prof.Harjeet Kaur Bhatia SUBMITTED BY- Azaharuddeen, Jawahar Fatma M.Ed 2nd Semister Year 2014-2015 Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi
  2. 2. INDIAN SCHOOLS OF THOUGHT The Indian schools of philosophy may be classified broadly into two Asthika (orthodox) and Nastika ( heterodox). The first group believed in the Vedas and the second school rejected the Vedas. The first one’s are called the Asthika systems which have the schools of Mimansa, Vedanta, Sankhya, Yoga, Nyaya and Vaisesika. The latter schools are Charvaka, Buddha and Jaina.
  4. 4. HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT- The Vedas, Upanishads, Puranas and Epics are the sources to know the ancient Indian philosophy and education. Veda is derived from the root of Sanskrit word Vid Vid means to know God, soul, nature & mind
  5. 5. VEDAS BELIEVE IN -  There are three entities in this universe – God, Soul and Matter. Ultimate aim of life is to obtain salvation (moksha) in union with god The concept of one God and one world
  6. 6. SIX SYSTEMS OF PHILOSOPHY - I. Nyaya system deals with knowledge. It is the science of sciences. According to it knowledge can be acquired through 4 methods: 1. Pratyaksha (Intuition) 2. Anumana (Inference) 3. Upma (comparison) 4. Shabda (verbal testimony) II. Shankhya system of philosophy by Rishi Kapil deals with matter. III. Vaisheshika system of philosophy by Rishi Kanad deals with theory of atom.
  7. 7. SIX SYSTEMS OF PHILOSOPHY – IV. Yoga system of philosophy by Rishi Patanjali is related with self control through yoga. V. Purva-Mimansa system by Rishi Jamini deals with scheme of right living through appropriate action. VI. Uttar-Mimansa or Vedanta system of philosophy by Rishi Vatsayana elucidates the concept of supreme being.
  8. 8. etymology The word “Sāṅkhya” is derived from the Sanskrit noun sankhyā (number) based on the verbal root khyā (make known, name) with the proverb sam(together). “Sāṅkhya” thus denotes the system of enumeration or taking account. Sam – number, balanced, equal, harmonious Khya- knowledge, understanding, wisdom
  9. 9. It is propounded by Maharshi Kapila It is also known as Kapila Tantra or Kapila Darshana The book Sankhya Kaarika written by Ishvara Krishna, is presently the most popular primer for the study of Sankhya. Samkhya means the knowledge or number.
  10. 10. Samkhya is one of the earliest philosophical school of thought in India. The Samkhyapravacana Sutra and the Tattvasamasa were actually composed by him. According to a modern scholar Surendranath Dasgupta, the doctrine of the earliest school of samkhya is found in an ancient Indian medical treatise, Charaka Samhita. Another early extant text of this school is Samkhya Karika of Isvarakrsna. (3rd century)
  11. 11. EPISTOMOLOGY- According to the Samkhya school, all knowledge is possible through three Pramanas ( means of valid knowledge). 1. Pratyaksa- direct sense perception 2. Anumana- logical inference 3. Sabda orAptavacana- verbal testimony
  12. 12. METAPHYSICS-  Samkhya system classified all objects into one of the two categories- 1. Purusha 2. Prakriti Samkhya maintains an intermingled duality between the two All physical events are considered to be manifestations of the evolution of Prakriti, or primal nature (from which all physical bodies are derived).
  13. 13. Samkhya provides an alternate viewpoint, intimately related to substance dualism , by drawing a metaphysical line between consciousness and matter — where matter includes both body and mind.  The end of this bondage is moksha.
  14. 14. PURUSHA- Puruhsa is the transcendental self and pure consciousness. It is absolute, independent, free, imperceptible and unknowable, above any experience and beyond the words and explanation. It remains pure, “nonattributive consciousness”. Puruṣa is neither produced nor does it produce. It is held that unlike Advaita Vedanta and like Purva- Mimamsa, Samkhya believes in plurality of the Puruṣas.
  15. 15. PRAKRITI- Prakriti is the first cause of the manifest material universe — of everything except the Puruṣa.  Prakriti accounts for whatever is physical, both mind and matter-cum-energy or force. Since it is the first principle (tattva) of the universe, it is called the Pradhāna, but, as it is the unconscious and unintelligent principle, it is also called the Guna.
  16. 16. It is composed of three essential characteristics (trigunas). These are: 1. Sattva- poise, fineness, lightness, illumination, and joy; 2. Rajas- dynamism, activity, excitation, and pain; 3. Tamas - – inertia, coarseness, heaviness, obstruction, and sloth.
  17. 17. List of 25 Tattvas I. The eight Prakrtis (primary and productive element) 1.The Prakriti as avayakta (the non- differentiated or undeveloped priciple) 2.The buddhi (intellect) of eight kinds. 3.The ahamkara (the subject) of 3 kinds (vaikarika, taijasa, bhutadi) 4-8. The five tanmatras (essences) of sound, touch, colour, savour and odour. II. The sixteen vikaras (modification). 9-13. The five buddhindriyas (perceptive organ) 14-18. The five karmendriyas (active organs)
  18. 18. 19. Manas (central organ or mind) 20-24. The mahabhutas (material elements) III. 25. The purusa (spirit or self). IV. The traigunya (traid of forces). V. The sancara (evolution) VI. The pratisancara (dissolution) VII. The adhyatma referring to the thirteen instruments, i.e. To buddhi, ahamkara, manas and the ten indriyas. VIII. The adhibhuta.
  19. 19. IX. The aadhidaivata. X. The five adhibuddhis (apprehensions), five acts of buddhi or the indriyas. XI. The five karmayonis (sources of activity) XII. The five vayus, winds or vital spirits. XIII. The five karmatmans, kinds of ahamkara. XIV. Avidya (nescience), fivefold, with sixty-two subdivisions. XV. Asakti (weakness), twenty- eightfold (nine atustis and eight asiddhis) XVI. Tusti (contentment), ninefold .
  20. 20. XVII. Siddhi (perfection), eightfold XVIII. Mulikarthas (cardinal facts), eight XIX. Anugrahasarga (benevolent creation) XX. Bhutasarga (creation of material elements), fourteen XXI. Bandha (bondage), threefold. XXII. Moksa (freedom), threefold. XXIII. Pramana (authorities), threefold XXIV. Duhkha (pain), threefold
  21. 21.  Prakriti—the primordial cause of the material world. From Prakriti evolve all the other elements except Purusha. Purusha—pure consciousness  These 25 principles or elements—Purusha, Prakriti, and the 23 elements of nature that evolve from Prakriti—encompass the knower, the known, and the process of knowing.
  22. 22. LIBERATION OR MOKSHA- According to Samkhya the Purusha is eternal, pure consciousness. Due to ignorance it itself with the physical body and its constituents- Manas, Ahamkara and Mahat, which are products of Prakriti. Other forms of Sankhya teaches that Moksha is attained by ones own development of the higher faculties of discrimination achieved by meditation and other yogic practices as prescribed through the Hindu Vedas.
  23. 23.  There is bondage as long as a buddhi does not discrimination between purusa and prakriti.(all psycho- physical processes)  Buddhi must realized the absoulte distinction between pure consciousness (purusa) and the phenomenal world (prakriti)
  24. 24. Samkhya, soul are individual subtle material bodies associated with purusas that are reborn. Once the buddhi discriminates its purusa from prakriti, the body continues for a while due to past karma. Discriminatory knowledge which makes liberation possible is obtained through right knowledge, reflection and discipline.
  25. 25. Knowledge is one of the eight primary predisposition (bhava) of the will (buddhi)- 1. Virtue (dharma) 2. Non-virtue (adharma) 3. Knowledge (jnana) 4. Igorance (ajnana) 5. Dispassion (virage ) 6. Passion (raga) 7. Power (aisvarya) 8. Impotence (anaisvarya)
  26. 26. THEORY OF KNOWLEDGE- Samkhya accepts 3 pramanas- 1. Perception 2. Inference 3. Verbal testimony  Perception is thought to take place through images or ideas of objects.
  27. 27.  During perception the intellect or will, upon stimulation by an object through the sense organs, undergoes modification. Thus the intellect assumes the form of the object it stimulates.  Therefore, objects are not directly perceived, but only representations of them.
  28. 28.  Samkhya assumes the reality of the external object.  Samkhya largely accept the Nyaya account of inference.  However, its used a variety of inference known as samanyatodrsta (analogical reasoning) in its account of reality.
  29. 29. SAMKHYA’S MODEL OF REALITY – Samkhya is a dualistic philosophy, meaning that there is a clear distinction between matter and consciousness—changing and unchanging.  There is also a clear distinction between right and wrong, birth and death, and bondage and liberation. Until Samkhya, all this was muddy.
  30. 30. Because Samkhya is clear, concrete, and specific, it is the foundation for practical systems of health and wellbeing, mainly Yoga and Ayurveda. Before Samkhya, there was a tendency toward non- dual thinking, which says that everything is just one pure consciousness and that all we experience in the material world, including our own mind, body, pain, and pleasure, is an illusion.
  31. 31. The Goal of Samkhya Philosophy— Freedom from Pain and Suffering A) The problem of removing pain and suffering  If the pain in our body or mind is so deep that we can’t get rid of it, then we want to get rid of our body or mind. However, we don’t know how to remove our body and mind and be just pure consciousness, because body, mind, and consciousness are all intermingled.  Therefore, do not impose the thought on yourself that you are just pure consciousness and that pain and pleasure are an illusion. Life means integration of all these things—some desirable and some undesirable.
  32. 32. Samkhya acknowledges our actual experience of pain— anger, fear, physical pain, pain of loss, and other pain— and gives us a framework for removing it. This is the goal of Samkhya. Yoga and Ayurveda are based on this.  B). The state free from pain and suffering When you are free from pain and suffering, Samkhya calls this kaivalya, from the word kevala, meaning you have nothing other than your Self.
  33. 33. There is no desire to achieve anything or to avoid losing anything. You are fully established and content in your Self—pure being. Your body and mind are no longer a burden. Relationships are no longer a source of pain. You are not bothered by loss and gain, honour and insult, youth and old age.
  34. 34. MAIN FEATURES OF SAMKHYA PHILOSOPHY - There are three types of pain and suffering. Real freedom is attaining freedom from these.  Physical  Five things help to prevent and overcome physical pain and suffering: proper diet, proper exercise, balanced conduct / behavior, going to bed on time, and waking up on time.  If some illness has already occurred, seek help from doctors and medicines, along with lifestyle changes.  Ayurveda is an important tool here.
  35. 35.  Psychological / emotional  This type of suffering needs help from both outside and inside—body and mind.  From inside, changing your attitude toward yourself— trusting and believing in yourself—creates psychological support. This, combined with external measures to alleviate physical suffering, helps to overcome sorrow and grief.  The first four limbs of Yoga address mental / emotional suffering.
  36. 36.  Spiritual  To overcome spiritual pain and suffering, dive deep into yourself and know your pure being. Work toward removing all non-essentials—all that which is not the Self.  The way to do this is covered by the last four limbs of Yoga— the meditative aspects—which are the purest form of Yoga and are all internal. These are pratyahara, dharana, dhyana, and samadhi.
  37. 37. • According to Sankhya, pain and suffering are due to non-discrimination between purusha and prakriti. • Also, when the function of productivity is assigned to prakriti, God became superfluous. Thus Sankhya philosophy does not subscribe to the existence of a supreme being. • The supreme good is the realization of the perfection of purush and all ethical activity leads to this end. • Thus, Sankhya recommends a virtuous life.
  38. 38. Samkhya as the Philosophy of Education Aims of Education – Samkhya states the ultimate aim as attaining the perfection of Purusha through discrimination, leading to its salvation. Thus, the aim of education should be to create discerning individual capable of attaining the perfection that exists within them, as Swami Vivekananda also put it.
  39. 39. Curriculum – The curriculum will involve the study of all disciplines, with stress on the natural sciences, senses to understand prakriti is to discriminate between Purusha and Prakriti and the arts, so as to develop an appreciation and understanding of the work of authorities. Physical science and yoga will also form part of the curriculum since samkhya believes only a healthy and focussed individual can attain salvation.
  40. 40. Methods – Experiential learning with maximum involvement of the senses. Activity based learning include projects, practical work, etc enabling the development of observation and logical reasoning. Discipline – Samkhya recommends a high degree of discipline. One can deduce that it should be self- imposed
  41. 41. Role of Teacher – The teacher is to be a facilitator of the development of the innate potentiality of the child. Place of Student – Since, Samkhya believe in the multiplicity of Purusha, it follows that education must be individualised and child centred.
  42. 42. BIBLIOGRAPHY REFRENCES  Muller M. The Six System of Indian Philosophy, p 150-192  Sethi C and Rani P , Education, Arihant Publication India Ltd Web Links   Notes.pdf   
  43. 43. MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS 1. Sankhya philosophy was propounded by- A) Goutama B) Kapila C) Patanjali D) Bruhaspathi 2. The Sankhya system is a type of- A) Physical materialism B) Spiritual materialism C) Scientific materialism D) Biological materialism
  44. 44. 3. In Sankhya how many types of Gunas (qualities, innate tendencies) – A) 1 B)2 C)3 D)4 4. Which one is not the epistomology of Sankhya philosophy- A) Pratyakṣa (direct sense perception) B) Puruṣa (pure consciousness) C) Anumāna (inference) D)Śabda (verbal testimony)
  45. 45. 5. “Sankhya differs from other schools mainly in its attribution of “reality” to dual entities”, these dual entities are- A) Padartha Shuddhi and Paka Shuddhi B) Prasad and Patra Shuddhi C)Purusha and Prakriti D) None of these 6. Sankhya is based on which Indian school of philosophy- A) Orthodox B) Heterodox C) Cārvāka philosophy D) None of the above
  46. 46. 7. How many principles in Sankhya philosophy- A)12 B)18 C)23 D)25 8.Which of the ancient indian medical treatise explains about samkhya philosophy? A)Artha Shasthra B)Charaka Samhita C)Harsha Charita D)None of these
  47. 47. 9.According to Samkhaya philosophy, free from pain and suffering is known as - A)Raga B)Nyaya C)Kaivalya D)None of these 10.What are the aims of education of Samkhya philosophy? A)Knowledge B)Power C)Attaining perfection of Purusa D)None of these
  48. 48. 11.What are the role of teacher according to Samkhya philosophy? A)Facilitator B)Strict ruler C)only imparting knowledge D)None of these 12.Which type of education is important under Samkhya philosophy? A)Teacher centred B)Child centred C)Curriculum centred D)None of these
  49. 49. 13.What are the methods of learning through Samkhya philosophy? A)Activity based learning B)Behaviourist learning C)Lecture method D)None of these 14.Which subject gives the importants under Samkhya philosophy? A)Social science B)Natural science C)Physics D)None of these
  50. 50. 15.How many pramanas accepted by the Samkhya phiposophy? A)1 B)2 C)3 D)4 16.Sattva is the one of the Guna of Prakriti,so what is the meaning of Sattva? A)Activity B)Lightness C)Heaviness D)None of these
  51. 51. 17.Which one is not included in the non-vedic philosophies? A)Budhism B)Samkhya C)Jainism D)Charvaka 18.Which one must realised the absolute distinction between Purusha and Prakriti? A)Manas B)Buddhi C)Rajasa D)Avyakta
  52. 52. 19.What are the models of reality of Samkhya philosophy? A)Pragmatic B)Dualistic C)non-dualistic D)None of these 20.How many vikaras or evolutions of Samkhya philosophy? A)15 B)16 C)17 D)18
  53. 53. end