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NRM 2014 - Rethinking Sanitation - From a Metabolic Rift Towards a Metabolic Shift


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Presentation to a combined Asian, African & South American Expert Study Group visiting Denmark

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NRM 2014 - Rethinking Sanitation - From a Metabolic Rift Towards a Metabolic Shift

  1. 1. Row 1 Row 2 Row 3 Row 4 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 Column 1 Column 2 Column 3 NRM 2014 - Rethinking Sanitation Ecological Sanitation From a Metabolic Rift Towards a Metabolic Shift Arne Backlund Backlund ApS
  2. 2. Row 1 Row 2 Row 3 Row 4 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 Column 1 Column 2 Column 3 Present Human Organized Metabolism is an Open-Flow System Premised on Nature as Indefinite Exhausting its Sources of Nourishment without paying its bills Could Human Beings in Politics Reorganize Humanity in Nature & Nature in Humanity?
  3. 3. Main Objectives of Ecological/Sustainable Sanitation •To Reduce Health Risks related to Sanitation,Contaminated Water and Waste •To Prevent Pollution of Surface and Ground Water •To Prevent Degradation of Soil Fertility •To Optimise Closing the Loop of Human Excreted Nutrients, Organic Material and The Water Cycle Considering Energy & CO2 Balances •Economically and Ecologically Sustainable and Culturally Acceptable Systems
  4. 4. •Karl Marx stated in Capital in 1867 on England's Ecological Imperialism toward Ireland: "For a century and a half England has indirectly exported the soil of Ireland, without even allowing its cultivators the means for replacing the constituents of the exhausted soil.“ •Describing the Ecological Contradiction between Nature and Capitalist society as "an Irreparable Rift in the Interdependent Process of Social Metabolism." A Rift in the Metabolic Relation between Humanity and Nature
  5. 5. •A Sustainable Solution to the Global Environmental Rift requires, a Society of “Associated Producers" who can “Govern the Human Metabolism with Nature in a Rational Way, bringing it under their Collective Control instead of being dominated by it as a Blind Power”. •Solutions requires Rational Regulation of the Metabolic Relation of Human Beings to Nature in line with the Needs of Future Generations. "Even an entire society, a nation, or all simultaneously existing societies taken together," Marx stated, "are not owners of the earth. They are simply its possessors, its beneficiaries, and have to bequeath it in an improved state to succeeding generations as boni patres familias [good heads of the household].
  6. 6. My Way - Innovative Production and Waste Reducing Handling Systems in Garnment Industri
  7. 7. Experienced Problems From Rural Area Work In Eastern Germany 1990 - 1993 •High Subsidies Building CWWTP •Very High Subsidies Establishing Sewers - Up To 95 % •Costs - Up to Euro 50000 to Connect one House •”HOAI” 10 % of Total Cost •Mastering the Art of Tendering •PPP ”Betreibermodelle” & ”Kooperationsmodelle” •Not Supporting Innovation & Visions about Ecological & Economical Sustainable Sanitation
  8. 8. Arne Backlund
  9. 9. Ancient Rome versus Ancient China & Japan
  10. 10. Flow or Stream of Material •Human urine contributes to about 80 % of the load of N and 50 % of the P load of conventional domestic wastewater •Human Urine treated conventional requires large amounts of energy producing problematic sludge
  11. 11. US (2012) -Almost 1/3 of bought food is THROWN 50 % salad is THROWN Denmark (2012) almost 20 % of bought food is THROWN Stop Wasting Food movement Denmark (Stop Spild Af Mad
  12. 12. New Paradigm of Closing The Loop With Alternative Sanitation •Alternative Questions and Answers •Different Streams and Flows •Source Control •Nutrients, Organic Material, Water etc. •Diversion and Concentrated Collection •Reuse of Resources to Plant Growth •Re-Defining •Re-Designing
  13. 13. Alternative Approach and Design •Human Urine (Yellow Water or Golden High Quality Anthropogenic Nutrient Solution) and Human Faeces •Diverted and Concentrated Collection •Waterless or Reduced Water Flush •Alternative Sanitary Components •Alternative Sanitary Systems
  14. 14. Alternatives in Recycling Nutrients and Water •Nutrients Directly From Toilet •Direct Local Use or After Transport •Household Wastewater Directly into Willow Evapotranspiration System •Transported Septic Sludge •Wastewater and Sludge from CWWTP
  15. 15. Selected Components •Waterless Urinals •No-Mix/Diverting Toilet Stools •Vacuum Toilet Systems •Separator •Collection and Composting Units •Willow Evapotranspiration Systems •Short-Rotation Energy Willow Plantations •Bamboo Systems, Plantations & Constructions?
  16. 16. Flow or Stream of Material •Urine •Faeces •Toilet Paper •Flush Water •Grey Water
  17. 17. Flow or Stream of Material •We Excrete most of the Nutrients we Consume •Human Urine contributes with only 1 % of the Volume of Household Wastewater but contains 80 % of N, 55 % of P and 60 % of K and less than 0.6 % of Cadmium and 0.06 % of Lead
  18. 18. Phosphorus •One Person Excrete 1 KG P/year. •0.7 KG in Urine and 0.3 KG in Faeces. •Human Phosphorus Returned to Soil Would Cover 80 % of P Demand •In Agriculture Short of Phosphorus Human Excreta could be a Golden Opportunity. •In 100 years Phosphorus Could Be Gone.
  19. 19. To Make Gold out of Human Urine
  20. 20. 1) The first urine product is urine stabilized by nitrification and destillated resulting in amonium nitrate + P + S with a final water content of 4 %. 2) The second urine product is struvite (MgNH4PO4*6H2O), which precipitates when magnesium oxide is added to human urine. Struvite is mainly a phosphorus fertilizer 3) The third urine product is ammonium sulphate, where ammonia is stripped using Present research condensing human urine-derived nutrients
  21. 21. Value from Urine - project details • Title: Bio-electrochemically-assisted recovery of valuable resources from urine • Project Acronym: ValuefromUrine • Total Cost: 3.85 million € • EC Contribution: 2.91 million € • Duration: 48 months • Start Date: 01-09-2012 • End date: 31-08-2016 • Consortium: 7 partners from 5 countries
  22. 22. Ejector, Drip Irrigation and By Hand
  23. 23. Urine Containers & Composter
  24. 24. Sisimiut Greenland
  25. 25. Toilet in Sisimiut Greenland
  26. 26. Diverting Toilet with Waterless Collection of Faeces •Continous Composting Collection of Faeces
  27. 27. Diverting Waterless Toilet •Estimated Values Regarding Urine •100 % Urine Collection for Most Men •80 – 100 % for Most Women •0 – 50 % for Very Few Women •60 – 100 % Concentration •Very Small Amounts of Nutrients Lost During Proper Storage.
  28. 28. Community Living and Other Single Houses •Sampling and Analysis of among others Bacterias, Viruses, Protozoons, Worms in Composted Faeces from Few Months to 5 years. •Registration of Temperatures in Compost Material.
  29. 29. Eco-Village
  30. 30. Munksøgård Roskilde Denmark - Largest cohousing community in DK with 235 inhabitants. - - Estimated 470 kg nitrogen and 65 kg phosphorus is sufficien - Energy consumption to produce a similar amount of nitrogen
  31. 31. Møn Farming Museum •5 Diverting Double Flushing Toilets •1 Water Free Urinal •2 X 3m3 Urine Collection Tanks •Urine Solution used in Agriculture •Experiences from Public Use by First Time Users •Analysis of Collected and Stored Urine
  32. 32. Sanitary System at Møns Museumsgård DK
  33. 33. Waterless Urinals
  34. 34. Waterless Urinal •100 % Collection used by Men •100 % Concentration •Low Storage Volume •Concentrated Fertilizer •No Accepted Solution for Women
  35. 35. Double Flushing Diverting/ No- Mix Toilet Stool •ESTIMATED VALUES FOR URINE •Average Collection - 80 % •Concentration 25 % - 100 % •Very Small Amounts of Nutrients Lost During Proper Storage.
  36. 36. One Year of Collection in Kaggen After One Year Composting in Kaggen After One Year Composting in Kaggen
  37. 37. After Eight Months in a Garden Composter
  38. 38. Storage - Composting •Total Reduction in Volume - 88 % •Big Losses of Nutrients •High Humidity – 81.8 – 77.0 % •Low Temperature 3 – 21.4 Degrees C. •Large Reduction in Indicator Bacterias •Nice Looking and Smelling Final Product
  39. 39. Ekoporten Norrköping Sweden •Modernized 1995-96. •Diverting Double Flushing Toilets •Aquatron Separators •Composting Units
  40. 40. Separator Estimated Values for Particle Outlet •4.0 – 8.8 % DM and 2.7 – 5.8 % VS •Ideal 10 % DM •Ideal 80 % of DM and VS •Ideal 70 % of N, P and K •Worst Case 0.22 % DM and 0.16 % VS
  41. 41. VOD 230V Diverting Toilet •ESTIMATED VALUES •Household Power Consumption 4 kWh •Concentration of DM 1.9 – 5.1 % •Concentration of VS 1.7 – 4.8 %
  42. 42. Willow Evapotranspiration System MARJATTA Tappernøje From the first known ”unknown” system in 1991/1992 to best known practice in 2014 Recommended by Authorities in Denmark for Highest Demands Zero Discharge Sanitation
  43. 43. Evapotranspiration
  44. 44. Oasis & Cloth Hanger Effect
  45. 45. Willow bed ready for planting april 2004 Sept. 2004 Willow are appr. 3 m tall February 2005 June 2005 Willows August 2005 second growing season 4 m*38 m Bassin, 1.5 m Deep Møn, Denmark
  46. 46. Premises – Dimensioning Model •8 m WIDE – with a DEPTH of 1.5m and 45° GRADIENT on sides and ends •Useable PORE VOLUME expected to be 40 % •EVAPOTRANSPIRATION expected to be 2.5 TIMES calculated Potential Evaporation • 30-years average MONTHLY PRECIPITATION and POTENTIAL EVAPORATION •SURFACE AREA dim. to avoid water storing on the surface in a year with normal precipitation and with a max. of 10 cm of surface water with a precipitation which statisticly occurs in one out of 10 years •Same LOAD of wastewater every month
  47. 47. Dimensioning due to Grid Cells •Surface Willow Bed Area from 124 to 292 m2/100m3 WW (Average 173 m2/100 m3) Average Precipitation 524 - 903 mm/y EVAPOTRANSPIRATION 1343 - 1470 mm/y Potential Evapotranspirat. WW 452 - 936 mm/y Calculated load reduced due to lacking storage cap. WW 357- 894 mm/y
  48. 48. Plant 1: 184 m2 Plant 2: 912 m2 Plant 3: 528 m2 Plant 4: 720 m2 Plant 5: 320 m2 Plant 6: 720 m2 Plant 7: 784 m2 Plant 8: 1.632 m2 Plant 9: udgår Plant 10: 240 m2 Plant 11: 240 m2 Plant 12: 336 m2 Plant 13: 212 m2 Total 6.828 m2
  49. 49. •New A-Dishwasher , 7 - 12 l of Water < 1 min. from Running Tap. •New Washing Machine, down to 39 l for a 60°C normal wash •Old Washing Machine, up to 120 l •Slow Dripping Tap Waste up to 7 m3/y. •Quick Dripping up to 30 m3/y •Constant Running up to 100 m3/y •Install Perlators. Easy, Cheap and Efficient. •Install a Water Alarm Controlling Pipes, Taps and WC.
  50. 50. Water Closet •Old WC uses up to 15 l/flush. •Water Saving WC 2/4 l or 3/6 l. •Diverting Double Flushing WC 0.1 – 0.4/2 – 4 l. •Vacuum WC 0.1/0.6 – 1.2 l. •Toilet ”Running” but Not Visible 99 m3/y •”Running” Visible 195 m3/y •”Running” Clearly Visible on Surface 495 m3/y •”Tap-Running” 3000 m3/y
  51. 51. Short-Rotation Willow Coppice Biomass Plantations Irrigated and Fertilised with Wastewater, Human Urine and Sludge •4-year multidisciplinary field project in Sweden, France, Northern Ireland and Greece Penman Evaporation Roma, Sweden 585 mm Culmore Northern Ireland 467 mm Orchies, France 669 mm Larissa, Greece 912 mm
  52. 52. Diverting WC at school in Visby Sweden
  53. 53. Reduced costs using WW & Sludge application to EWSRP •Reduces Demand for Chemical Fertilizers •By far Most Important Public or Private Cost Reduction - Allocating Nutrient Removal to EWSRP •Cost kg N Conventional N-Removal Often 10 Times Higher than kg N price of Chemical Fertilizer •Primary Cost Reduction Potential related to Establishment
  54. 54. •Central Wastewater Treatment Plant built 1968. •22.000 personer connected. •10.000 m3 Wastewater/d •EU-directiv: Demanding Municipality to reduce N- outlet from Central Wastewater Plant •County Demand: Only 42 – 45 t/N/year is allowed to reach Baltic Sea through Enköping stream and the lake Mälaren. •Municipality Calculation: 50% reduction of N-outlet from 120 t/N/y to 60 t/N/y in combination with processes in stream and lake will fulfill demands.
  55. 55. •Estimated investments to establish conventional N-Removal Euro 3.32 mill. •Running costs landfill disposing of sludge. •Enköping CHP supported full scale trials growing energy willow in agriculture. •Expenditures deponating ashes. •Inspiration from EU Willow/Wastewater /Sludge - Project and from People Involved to Combine N-removal and Growing Energy Willow. •”Right” Decision Makers and Farmers
  56. 56. •Municipality Task Set Up (Question/Demand) •50 % Reduction in N-Outlet to Enköping Stream Using Alternatives To Conventional N-removal on CWWTP. •Consultant Answer/Solution •30 t N/y Removed by Fertilizing 80 ha Energy Willow Plantation at Local Farm •20 t N/y Removed by use of Stored & Hyginized Sludge from Septic & Black Water Tanks + Small WWTP on Local Energy Willow Plantations •10 t/N/y Internal Reductions on CWWTP.
  57. 57. Enköping Municipality, Central WW Treatment Plant, Central Heating Plant and Five Farmers •System improving Closing Local Nutrient Loop from WWTP and Single Households to EWSRP •New Thinking (New Paradigm) about Interaction Between Wastewater Handling, Agriculture and Energy Production to Local CHP •Good Co-Operation with Local Farmers Recycling Nutrients from Wastewater Streams to Cultivated Soil •Environmental Advantages •Economical Advantages Distributed Between Municipality, Energy Company and Local Farmers
  58. 58. •15000 - 20000 m3 Dekantat & Reject Water < 1 % of WW - about 25 % of N - Up to 800 mg N/l •3 Storage/Hyginizing Lagoons Without Outlet at Farm with EWSRP 200 -300 m from CWWTP •2 x 5000 m3 + 1 x 20000 m3 •Mixed with 150000 – 200000 m3 M+B Treated WW During Irrigation. •330 km Drip Irrigation pipes on 75 ha willow area (divided in 6 parts/10 – 15 ha each) •Irrigation in 5-Hours Shift/area on Days Without Precipitation During Growth Season (May-Sept.) •300 mm/ha/y – 200-250 kg N and 7-10 kg P
  59. 59. •Recipient, local stream, deloaded with 30 t N/y and 1 t P/y •1.500 t Sludge after Biogas and Centrifuge Processing with DM 30% Stored at CWWTP. •Mixing in spring with 1500 t Bottow Ashes from CHP •Used as Fertilizer on EWSRP •Municipality paid all establishment expenditures
  60. 60. •4 local farms each with 2 Sludge Lagoons Without Outlet 3500 m3/each established 2001 •16000-17000 t Sludge (DM 2%)/y from 6007 Septic or Black Water Tanks + 3 small WWTP Pumped Into Lagoons •Sludge Hyginized for Minimum 8 Month •Sludge Mixed with a propellar before Pumped and Distributed. •Hyginized Sludge Distributed by Large Diametre Hose rolled out raw by raw and drawn back during 5 hours.
  61. 61. •Municipality CWWTP saves Euro 55276/y •Sludge Deposit Euro 28/t Sludge Avoided •Establishing Lagoons, Irrigation System, Field Rent and Farmer Work paid by Municipality •Energy Willow Plantations Nutrient Demand covered 50-100% from WW and Sludge •Energy Willow used in Enköping CHP •Bottom Ashes mixed with Sludge from Biogas Production used as Fertilizer on Willow Plantations •CHP covers with 22 MW 50 % of Enköping El- demand and with 55 MW 100 % af Heating Demand (95 % connected) with Biomass containing 20 %
  62. 62. •1.200 Transports (10.000 km) with Sludge containing Trucks through Enköping avoided •Shorter biomass transports to CHP •Reduction of Cadmium levels in Plantation soil •Co2 storage in Plantation Soil •A Farm with 150 ha Fields (including 110 ha with Energy Willow) and 100 ha Wood got in 2006 50 – 60 % af Total Income from Handling Septic Sludge •Farmers paid by Municipality Euro 1.11/m3 Septic Sludge to store it a year. •Euro 7.19/m3 to Fertilize with Own Equipment