Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Lighting Techniques

slide by Jag Garcia

  • Login to see the comments

Lighting Techniques

  1. 1. Lighting Techniques
  2. 2. Lighting Aesthetics <ul><li>Responsibility of the lighting director or director of photography (DOP) </li></ul><ul><li>Part of the visual narrative’s design </li></ul><ul><li>“painting with light” </li></ul>
  3. 3. Uses of Light <ul><li>Illumination </li></ul><ul><li>Mood </li></ul><ul><li>Guide our attention </li></ul><ul><li>Texture and Shape </li></ul><ul><li>2 types of shadows </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attached </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cast </li></ul></ul>Attached shadow Cast shadow
  4. 4. 4 Major Features of Filmic Lighting (From the book Film Art by Bordwell & Thompson) <ul><li>Quality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hard – clearly defined shadows/ light and dark areas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Soft – diffused illumination, soft shadows, indirect or indistinct lighting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Harsh – extreme differences between light and dark areas, high-contrast image </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Direction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Frontal Light </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Side Light </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Back Light </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Under Light </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Top Light </li></ul></ul>4 Major Features of Filmic Lighting (From the book Film Art by Bordwell & Thompson)
  6. 6. <ul><li>Source </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Artificial – includes bulbs, glow sticks, diodes and other man-made light sources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Natural – includes sunlight, moonlight, fire and other naturally occurring lights </li></ul></ul>4 Major Features of Filmic Lighting (From the book Film Art by Bordwell & Thompson) Natural Artificial
  7. 7. <ul><li>Color </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Apparent Color – color as observed by human eyes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Color Temperature – color based on equivalent temperature against a black background; represented in ºK (degrees of Kelvin) </li></ul></ul>4 Major Features of Filmic Lighting (From the book Film Art by Bordwell & Thompson) <ul><li>Common Color Temperatures </li></ul><ul><li>Tungsten  3600 ºK </li></ul><ul><li>Daylight  5600 ºK </li></ul><ul><li>Fluorescent  5400 ºK </li></ul>©MediaKit 2004
  8. 8. White Balance <ul><li>Calibrating the video camera to register/ represent the correct colors given the lighting of a particular shot </li></ul><ul><li>Why balance with White? White Light is composed of relatively equal amounts of all the colors in the visible spectrum </li></ul><ul><li>What you need… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clean white sheet of paper OR white towel OR white shirt back </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Find the White Balance Selector and set it to the manual setting… the icon looks like this: </li></ul></ul>White Balance Presets Tungsten Daylight Manual
  9. 9. 3-point Lighting <ul><li>Most basic professional lighting set-up </li></ul><ul><li>Incorporates the essential light sources and directions </li></ul><ul><li>Allows for expansion and experimentation </li></ul><ul><li>Provides the foundation for setups that may include from 4 up to 100 lights </li></ul><ul><li>In real life there is usually only one or two light sources… 3-point lighting creates illusion of “reality” for the camera </li></ul>
  10. 10. Components of the 3-point Lighting Setup <ul><li>KEY light </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Main source of light </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brightest light source striking a subject from the camera’s viewpoint, hard quality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides good modeling or texture of subject when placed 30 or 40 degrees away from the camera-subject axis </li></ul></ul>©MediaKit 2004
  11. 11. Components of the 3-point Lighting Setup <ul><li>KEY light techniques </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The higher the position the lesser shadows are created in the background </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flat presentation: light same height as camera </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mysterious, light is placed lower than the camera </li></ul></ul>©MediaKit 2004 Images from American History X
  12. 12. <ul><ul><li>The minimal use of fill lights create “ Low key lighting ” used in Film Noir and other “dark” genres </li></ul></ul>©MediaKit 2004
  13. 13. <ul><li>CHIAROSCURO: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Play of light and shadow; literally means “dark face” </li></ul></ul>Contrasted against shadow for extra dramatic effect Well lit face area…
  14. 14. Components of the 3-point Lighting Setup <ul><li>FILL light </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Secondary source/ balances off the key light </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides general illumination to the set </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Helps “fill-in” some of the shadows created by the fill and reduce contrast between light and shadow areas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually placed at camera height or just slightly above to fill-in shadows </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually on the opposite side of the camera from the key light </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Determines significant emotion and mood </li></ul></ul>©MediaKit 2004 Images from American History X
  15. 15. Components of the 3-point Lighting Setup <ul><li>BACK light </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Known as “separation light” separates subject from background, creates depth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One or two separation that complete the 3-point lighting triangle or four point rectangle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually placed above and behind the subject to create a halo effect that outlines the subject separating it from the background </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strong backlight creates a bright halo effect </li></ul></ul>©MediaKit 2004 Images from American History X
  16. 16. Parts of the Light <ul><li>800 watt Ianiro “Redhead” Light </li></ul>Barn doors Accessory holder & lock Tilt lock Reflector control neck Neck clamp Riser locks Power cord Switch Head casing Spreader ©MediaKit 2004
  17. 17. Parts of the Light <ul><li>800 watt Ianiro “Redhead” Light </li></ul>Protective screen Bulb Reflector Barn door clip ©MediaKit 2004
  18. 18. KINOFLO - Has low power consumption, light control with barn doors and louvers, flicker free ballast and can match to daylight, tungsten, or existing florescent. HMI- Hydrargyrum Medium arc-length Iodide daylight-balanced so they emit light at a color temperature of 5600K meaning that they emit 'bluer' more natural looking light. They also have the advantage that they are more efficient so they don't get as hot as conventional tungsten lights. SUN GUN – daylight balanced, can be attached to video camera esp. during ENG’s or electronic news gathering Other common lighting systems
  19. 19. Lighting Accessories Reflector paper (car shade) Color gels (red, green, midnight blue) Diffuser (a.k.a. “tracing paper”) Full CT-Blue Tungsten to Daylight Conversion gel (light blue) Full CT-Orange Daylight to Tungsten Conversion gel (light orange) Scrim (2 densities available) Neutral Density Filter (gray) Cuts down light intensity by 1/8 ©MediaKit 2004
  20. 20. <ul><li>Setup and lock the light stand before mounting the light head </li></ul><ul><li>Open barn doors before switching light on </li></ul><ul><li>Call out “LIGHTS” before switching light on </li></ul><ul><li>LOOK AWAY from bulb when switching on </li></ul><ul><li>Make sure neck and stand are always locked before releasing lights </li></ul><ul><li>Always have PRESENCE OF MIND when working around lights </li></ul><ul><li>DO NOT MOVE or JAR the lights when on, you might burn out the bulb/ cause it to explode </li></ul><ul><li>Use SAND BAGS or WEIGHTS to steady the stand </li></ul><ul><li>Always switch off lights before moving </li></ul><ul><li>Keep or Place unused lights in the box or safe area </li></ul><ul><li>Barn doors and accessories become VERY HOT when used, be very careful, use gloves if you want </li></ul>Reminders and Care Tips
  21. 21. Using the Lighting Plot Name of the setup, scene or effect being set up Layout of lights and other equipment to set up the shot Notes regarding the setup OPTIONALDetail of special setups or effect OPTIONAL What the shot should or will look like on camera ©MediaKit 2008 You may digitally illustrate this Using AutoCAD or Photoshop or manually with colored pencil drawings