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Spanish 3 grammar book

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Spanish 3 grammar book

  1. 1. Bruno Peters Spanish 3 Grammar Book
  2. 2. Table of Contents 1. Title Page 2. Table of contents 3.Conditional 4. Conditional irregulars -Perfect Tenses 5. Present 6. Present perfect irregulars 7. Past 8. Subjunctive perfect 9. Tanto y Tan 10. Impersonal ‘se’ 11. Saber vs. Conocer -Los Mandatos 12. Informal 13. Formal 14. Nosotros commands 15.Subjunctive 16. Subjunctive irregulars 17. Trigger phrases 18. Demonstrative Adjectives
  3. 3. Conditional • Used to express probability, wonder, conjecture, or possibility *when would is used-imperfect is used Infinitive + = • Same irregulars as the future tense • Can be used to make requests – Me gustaría….. ía íamos ías íais ía ían
  4. 4. Irregulars • Caber Cabr • Poner Pondr • Decir Dir • Haber Habr • Salir Saldr • Hacer Har • Poder Podr • Tener Tendr • Querer Querr • Valer Valdr • Saber Sabr • Venir Vendr
  5. 5. Presente Perfect • The present perfect is a compound tense formed with the verb haber and the past participle of the other verb. – AR- ado – ER- ido – IR- ido • True in past and still is true in present. • Action was completed recently • To tell what you have done or have not done. He Has Ha Hemos Han
  6. 6. Irregulars Abrir - abierto Cubrir - cubierto Decir - dicho Escribir - escrito Hacer - hecho Morir - murto Pooner - puesto Resolver- - resuelto Romper - roto Ver - visto Volver - vuelto Ir - ido
  7. 7. Past Perfect • había habías había habíamos + Verb = Past perfect habíais habían • When something is already done or completed. • Drop (er, ir) + ido • Drop (ar) + ado
  8. 8. Subjunctive Perfect • The present perfect subjunctive is used in the same types of clauses as the present subjunctive, and normally is used to indicate the action as completed with verbs in the present or future tense. • You use the present subjunctive conjugation of the verb haber + your past participle Haya Hayas Haya Hayamos + Participle Hayan
  9. 9. Tanto y Tan • Tan… como (as…as) • Tanto… como (as much/as many… as) • Tan is used with adjectives and adverbs • Tanto is used with nouns and verbs • Conduzco tan despacio como puedo. • El tiene tanto miedo como yo.
  10. 10. Impersonal Se • Se vende fruta en el mercado • Se habla Ingles • Se hizo mucho • Use 'se' to avoid specifying a person who is doing the action of the verb. • When using 'se' the verb is always in the 3rd person. • Can be used in ALL tenses.
  11. 11. Saber v Conocer • Conocer is used for knowledge of people, places, or literary works. ¿Conoces el libro All Quiet on the Western Front? • Saber is used when you need to state factual information. Ella sabe que 2 + 2 = 4
  12. 12. Informal Commands  + Conjugate to the usted form  - Drop ending add opposite ending and 's'  --Dop/Iop  --Irreg  + Habla, Come, Escribe  - No Hables, No Comas, No Escribas  -- Hablalo, No lo hables  --Di has ve sé sal ten ven pon * add infinitive to end: dílo, ponla
  13. 13. Formal Commands + Yo form, opposite ending - Yo form opposite ending --Dop/Iop --Irreg *if plural, just add 'n' + Hablen, compre, escriba - No Hable, No compren, No escriba – Hablelo, No la compren – Dé, esté, vaya, sea,sepa, tenga, venga, ponga
  14. 14. Nosotros Commands • Simply add the opposite ending of the nosotros conjugation... • Hablamos-> Hablemos • Mono Verbs- When making the verb reflexive for nos you drop the s Hablemosnos->Hablemonos
  15. 15. Subjunctive • Represents attitudes, uncertain, hypothetical, will, influence, emotion, or doubt. • Put in ‘yo’ form, change to opposite ending • Que- connector to subjunctive • When no change in subject from clause to clause, use infinitive!
  16. 16. Irregulars • Car, Gar, Zar- formed same way as always • Conducir, decir, oir- conduzca, diga, oiga • Dar-> dé, des, den, demos • Hay-> haya, hayas, hayan, hayamos
  17. 17. Trigger Phrases Impersonal expressions • Es bueno que, es malo que, es necesario que, etc. Express an order, a need, a piece of advice, or a desire. Expressions of emotion • Alegrarse de que, esperar que, sentir que, temer que, etc. Shows fear, happiness, anger, regret, surprise, joy, pity Conjunctions of time • Use the subjunctive after them after the subordinate clause is habitual or in the past. Asi que, caundo, despues de que, en cuanto, hasta que, luego que, tan pronto como.
  18. 18. Demonstrative Adjectives este (this) esta ese (that) esa aquel (that over there) aquella estos (these) estas esos (those) esas aquellos (those over there) aquellas *when used as a pronoun, add an accent, esté

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